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The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaiiv T A vnam 



RERIALS DEP"^ 



LOUISIANA STATE UN IV 

LIBRARY 

RATON ROUGE LA ^ /uUo.;^ 



Volume '/7, No. 1 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
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PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
PERMIT NO. 43 



October 1998 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



THIS 



S S U E 



Up Front With the League 3 

by Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 13 

by Don Wallace • , 

Farm Notes 17 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Baton Rouge Line 21 

by Sean Prados with Spradley & Spradley 

Environmental Perspective 23 

by James F. Coerver, P.E. with G.E.C., Inc. 

High Yield Award Winners 25 

Classifieds 28 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit organiza- 
tion. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year. 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 
The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those of 
the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of the 
advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



The Sugar Buliletiin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon/Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson/Senior Agronomist 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist 

John Constant/Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens /Secretary 

Paul G. Borron Ill/Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
1156 15th St., N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Warren Harang 111, Donaldsonville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles j. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Riclmrd, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David Allain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Felix "Gus" Blanchard, New Iberia, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

John F. Gay, Plaqucmine, La. 

Ronald ( ionsoulin. New Iberia, La. 

Dean dravois, Vacherie, La. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Ciramercy, La. 

Jackie ludice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, Franklin, La. 

Buckley Kessler, White Castle, La. 

Lawrence "Boo" Levert III, St. Martinville, La. 

A. j. "lirother" Leiiourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

D. C. Mattingly, I'aincourtville, La. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 

Michael C Melancon, Breaux Bridge, La. 

Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 



Anthony Farris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Pa tout, Jeanerette, La. 
William S. Patout III, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rcxsedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sohle, Donald.sonviUe, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, Now Iberia, La. 
Jackie Theriot, Breaux Bridge, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Carlton Town.send, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
(ierald I'. Wood, St. James, La. 



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% 




ui' FRONT WITH 



HE L E AG U E 



BY Charlie Melancon 



Jackie Theriot Addresses the American Sugar Alliance 



Editor's Note: In Last Month's issue I pub- 
lished the presentation made by King Mill- 
ing with the Whitney National Bank about 
Louisiana sugarcane and the banker's role in 
financing agriculture, particularly sugar 
operations. Jackie Theriot who is the man- 
ager ofLaSuCa in St. Martinville was also 
on the agenda at the American Sugar Alli- 
ance Symposium. The following is a presen- 
tation made by Jackie who takes a look at 
Louisiana history and a general forecast of its 
future. 

Expansion in the 

Louisiana Sugarcane Industry 

The incentive in Louisiana to bring 
the sugarcane industry to matu- 
rity is ongoing and will probably 
not diminish for another 5 to 7 years de- 
pending on numerous factors. It's a 
matter of survival. We must stay ahead 
of inflation and we must become more 
efficient. C'est la vie! 

There aren't any agricultural com- 
modities as resilient as sugarcane in 
South Louisiana. Not only capable in 
adapting to weather conditions, but also 
able to absorb disastrous hurricanes and 
still have a potential for another year. 

How does a grower in Louisiana 
adjust his income as inflation continues 
and the price of raw sugar diminishes? 



That can only happen through increase 
in volume to reduce the overhead. This 
situation will hit a concrete wall down 
the road. There are limitations. What 
happens if production exceeds demand 
in the U.S.? Will we have a more equi- 
table position after GATT really kicks in 
during the next few years? 

With increased production in Louisi- 
ana and a limited amount of refining 
capacity, raw sugar processors are posi- 
tioning themselves to move raw sugar to 
the East and /or West coast for refining. 
This increased exportation from Louisi- 
ana may redefine the supply and de- 
mand of the U.S. markets. 

Transportation of sugarcane has 
been a growing concern for the industry. 
The Louisiana legislature has allowed 
100,000 lb. limits for the 90 day harvest 
period. Some in the industry have 
started using rail to deliver sugarcane 
from the western part of the state. How- 
ever, with a limited amount of tracks 
going from east and west, it will cause 
difficulty in delivering sugarcane on a 
timely basis. With the advent of billeted 
cane there is a more rapid rate of deterio- 
ration if the sugarcane is delivered after 
12 hours of being harvested. 

The Louisiana legislature has re- 
cently allocated funds to build rail spurs 
for loading of the sugarcane. However, 



this will probably not be a reality until 
1999. Meanwhile, one rail company may 
shut its doors before the opportunity to 
ship sugarcane becomes a reality for oth- 
ers. 

The average distance from the west- 
ern sugarcane area to the nearest pro- 
cessing site is approximately 70 miles. If 
all of this crop is shipped by truck on the 
interstate at the peak of production, one 
truck will be passing at any given point 
every 25 seconds. This may cause traffic 
congestion and it will certainly cause the 
industry public relations problems. 

The growing pains have to be dealt 
with in a logical manner so that the in- 
dustry can continue to move forward. 
And, it is not certain that we are moving 
in that logical manner. We have too 
many systems of transportation and fac- 
tory site dumping. There should have 
been a concerted effort in Louisiana to 
move in one direction to standardize a 
system. That, at present, is too late to 
reverse. 

Another problem in Louisiana is go- 
ing to be land ownership and the tenant 
system of farming. There is a large 
amount of acreage that is continually 
being subdivided among landowners in 
the more populated areas of the sugar- 
cane belt. This causes the farmer a prob- 
lem as he continues to purchase larger 
and more efficient equipment. He will 
not waste time in a small acreage plot of 
land. Some of these smaller parcels of 
land are going into pastures and other 
minor crops. Land closer to subdivi- 
sions, hospitals, and schools cannot be 
properly managed because of a need for 
pesticides and use of other management 
practices. 

Furthermore, as farmers are reduced 
in number, other growers absorb some 
of that acreage but tend to eliminate the 
heavy clay soils from his operation. He 
either substitutes his clay soils for sandy 



soil that is being released by growers 
going out of business or else he takes 
whatever land is efficient to cultivate 
and leaves the rest to other crops; cray- 
fish ponds or rice production. One must 
understand that in Louisiana, sugarcane 
is harvested continuously regardless of 
the weather conditions. 

We are fortunate indeed in Louisiana 
to have good research through the 
USDA, LSU, and the American Sugar 
Cane League. There are other entities 
involved in the commercial production 
of sugarcane derived from tissue cul- 
ture. Pooling all these resources gives 
the grower hope. With the advent of 
LCP 85-384 and other promising variet- 
ies giving a potential average of 7500 lbs. 
of sugar per acre, our growers can buy 
some time. 

Without an upward adjustment in 
prices since 1981, it has been impossible 
for some to stay in the business and dif- 
ficult for the best farm managers and 
growers to stay ahead of inflation. It can- 
not continue as such. Somewhere down 
the road there will have to be a reckon- 
ing by our consumers that they are in 
fact getting a very good deal from the 
American sugargrower. We in the indus- 
try do not want another roller coaster 
ride that which occurred in the 1974 to 
1978 era where price of sugar went to 70 
cents, settled at 35 cents, and in two 
years was down to 17 cents. 

Relating to our price in the U.S. re- 
garding sugar, the chairman of the Asso- 
ciation of the Hungarian Sugar Industry 
has stated; " We think that sugar prices 
must include not only the costs of high 
mechanization, high efficiency, high 
salaries of employees, acceptable taxes 
for good national health, for education, 
etc., but also costs of environmental pro- 
tection. From this point of view the low 
world market price offered by undevel- 
oped countries is not really compatible." 



This statement indicates to me that the 
price of sugar in Europe is on a more 
normal scale and that we should be in 
their ranges. 

Increased government interference 
in private property rights, misinterpre- 
tation by bureaucrats of mandates by 
Congress, complicated rules and regula- 
tions by EPA and the Corps of Engi- 
neers, increased marketing assessment 
fees, reduction of pesticides through 
FQPA, and a lack of concern at the bar- 
gaining tables on trade negotiations for 
the family farms are having a direct im- 
pact on our industry in Louisiana. If the 
consumers of this country want to be fed 
and clothed only by large corporate 
farms generally owned by companies 
not affiliated with agriculture, then we 
should let the present situation con- 
tinue. However, it will devastate our 
family farm infrastructure. 

Rural agriculture in America and 
farm policies are changing at an unprec- 
edented pace. Many of you sitting in this 
room have your own story to tell. Once 
the incentive and profits to farm are neu- 
tralized, a return to normality could take 
decades, or, it may never correct itself. 

As we move to economies based on 
market forces, I tend to note that there is 
too much stress on those market forces. 
Government bureaucrats have under- 
played the need for a continued look at 
agricultural support policies. The norm 
in government , of course, is to go from 
one extreme to the other. We may see as 
we move to a "free market economy" 
that errors will be made and there shall 
not be fair trade participation by our 
trading partners. That reasoning will 
turn us around to search for a middle 
ground in farm programs as is being 
espoused by some in Congress as we 
meet. 

In corn, wheat, and other grain 
crops, we think of trade in terms of in- 



creasing export sales as the means of 
reducing stock levels to maintain ad- 
equate prices. But in sugar, we in the 
United States consume more sugar than 
we produce and the sugar title allows 
U.S. sugar farmers to provide our coun- 
try with a stable source of domestically- 
produced sugar without having to com- 
pete with other countries' subsidized 
prices. That is unless we want to try to 
compete in the subsidy game. 

There is a tremendous value placed 
by our Department of State on the TRQ 
imports and it will be an issue to con- 
tend with as American farmers become 
more efficient and reduce overhead. 
However, without a price increase the 
only way that can be done today is to 
increase volume. Will our production 
keep up with consumption or will it 
move ahead? If it moves ahead, what 
will be the reactions regarding the TRQ 
program? Time will tell; however, with 
our history of poor follow up on trade 
agreements, I am certain as growers we 
may be hung out to dry. 

In Louisiana, we are totally commit- 
ted as sugarcane growers. But what if we 
imagine ourselves as corn growers com- 
peting in the marketplace against corn 
priced at 85 cents per bushel when the 
producer you are competing against for 
the sale of that bushel of corn receives 
$2.50 per bushel from his government 
for each bushel of corn he grows. Yes, 
that is the same exact parallel in the 
sugar business if we compare ourselves 
to the EU nations involved in sugar pro- 
duction. 

By the beginning of the Civil War 
there were 1291 factories in Louisiana 
producing 528,000,000 pounds of sugar. 
Then came the war and the industry was 
devastated for the next several years. By 
the end of 1865, only 175 factories re- 
mained and produced 12,000,000 
pounds of sugar. 



Total investments in the sugar indus- 
try before the Civil War were more than 
$200,000,000, and by 1865 that invest- 
ment had dropped off to $70,000,000. In 
terms of dollars, more property had 
been destroyed in Louisiana than in any 
other state during the Civil War. 

By 1900, the Louisiana industry was 
up to 347 factories that were more mod- 
ern, large, and efficient mills. These fac- 
tories produced 604,000,000 pounds of 
sugar. By 1910, the number of factories 
had dwindled to 214 and was producing 
650,000,000 pounds of sugar or 325,000 
tons of sugar. 

From that peak, the industry went 
through a major downsizing to 47,000 
tons in 1925 due to the mosaic disease. 
Also, outside forces, exerting influences 
on the local industry were factors for 
modernization. Louisiana was forced to 
change its ways or face extinction be- 
cause of world competition. Govern- 
ment tariffs to a small degree helped 
Louisiana move into the twentieth cen- 
tury. 

By 1950 only 54 mills existed in Loui- 
siana and by 1974 that number had 
dwindled down to only 37. But those 37 
mills produced 594,000 tons of sugar; a 
significant increase over the 456,000 tons 
of 1950. 

A tremendous change in technology 
took place over the next 20 years in the 
Louisiana industry. Mechanization was 
maximized for more efficiency. Trans- 
portation from field to factory was also 
advanced with more powerful vehicles 
to move larger tonnage per load. During 
the 1960s Louisiana continued to in- 
crease capacity while at the same time 
continuing to achieve economical opera- 
tions. Many of the less efficient factories 
closed and those in operation continued 
to grow in size and efficiency. Herbi- 
cides replaced hand hoeing and by the 
1970s computers were introduced into 



mill operations. And, the core sampler 
replaced the subjective hand sampling 
for verification of cane quality. 

In 1994, 20 mills remained in opera- 
tion in Louisiana and during 1998, 18 
mills will be processing sugarcane pro- 
duced by 690 growers. In 1963 there 
were 45 mills in operation with 1880 
growers. The acreage has mcreased from 
295,000 to 400,000 in that same period of 
time. Tons produced per grower went 
from 4000 tons in 1963 to more than 
17,000 tons in 1998 while average acre- 
age per farm went from 150 in 1963 to 
600 in 1998. 

In 1997, Louisiana harvested 
12,019,497 tons of sugarcane on 379,247 
acres. This amounted to 31.7 tons per 
acre and produced 6706 lbs. of sugar per 
acre. There were 1,271,537 RV tons of 
sugar produced during the 1997 crop. 

Today, the Louisiana industry is ex- 
panding out toward the Texas border 
and Arkansas. East Texas is getting in 
position to convert rice land to sugar- 
cane production at this time. The freeze 
line toward Arkansas is the only element 
stopping the northern movement in 
Louisiana. Acreage is moving out of 
livestock, rice, soybeans, corn, and cot- 
ton. The shift is toward sugarcane pro- 
duction. Sugarcane is a very hardy plant 
that can handle heavy rainfall and mois- 
ture along the Louisiana coastline. It is a 
survivor to a degree even though freeze 
and other adverse weather conditions 
affect the crop. It is never a total loss. We 
are presently experiencing a severe 
drought in the South. Major losses will 
occur in grains grown on dry land areas. 
Sugarcane will take a loss, but not al- 
most as severely as other crops due to its 
quick adaptation to the condition. 

The philosophy for growing sugar- 
cane in the new area bordering Texas is 
to work in cooperative groups for plant- 
ing, production, harvesting, and trans- 



porting of the crop back toward the cen- 
tral part of the state. There seem to be 
merits with this concept. However, the 
data is not fully available and the jury is 
still out on this area and the method of 
sugarcane production utilized by the 
growers. 

Louisiana needs to prepare itself for 
the time when the Freedom to Farm 
agreement comes to an end. How will 
this preparation take place? It can only 
happen with a hefty infusion of capital. 
How far is the consolidation movement 
going? It needs to go far enough to keep 
our growers in the business of growing 
sugarcane. Will we be ready for 2003? 
After having agonized five years to get 
two factories to merge, I doubt that we 
can move fast enough to get the neces- 
sary results. Louisiana farmers are prob- 
ably no different than farmers from the 
rest of the nation. They are independent, 
culturally and geographically sensitive 
to changes, strongly opinionated, family 
oriented, historically conservative and 
leery of politicians. Any erosion of these 
traits sends up a red flag and many 
questions. However, I feel these charac- 
teristics have kept this country in a good 
position, vis-a-vis an abundant and 
steady supply of food. 

In my opinion, eventually, Louisiana 
should end up with three to four entities 
processing in the southwestern part of 
the state with four factories, one in the 
northeast central area and six units in 
the south central area. These 11 or 12 
factories may eventually process 14 to 18 
million tons of sugarcane per year with 
up to 1,800,000 tons of raw sugar. This 
tonnage, however, does not get us as 
efficient as Florida in the processing 
arena. Florida processes approximately 
3.0 million tons of sugarcane per facility 
over a four to five month period. Louisi- 
ana is unable to process for more than 3 
months due to freezing conditions. 



To have an optimum processing ton- 
nage in the future, Louisiana should be 
in the range of 1.5 million tons of sugar- 
cane per processing facility. We are al- 
most halfway there. Can this goal be 
reached in the next two to three years? 
That's an impossibility with the present 
trend. 

With only three months of process- 
ing in Louisiana, there isn't a potential 
for serious trials during the processing 
period due to time constraints causing 
slower development in that area com- 
pared to other countries. Lost time 
among factories in Louisiana average 
approximately S-7% during the harvest. 
These factories run 24 hours per day and 
seven days per week. 

There is a deadline for the Louisiana 
industry to be aware of in 2002. At that 
point we must be in a position to deal 
with what we believe will be the on- 
slaught of foreign-subsidized sugar that 
will lack phyto-sanitary restrictions. We 
contend in Louisiana that we will not be 
able to depend on our trade negotiators 
to look out for our best interest. The fam- 
ily farm may fade out of the picture for- 
ever. Let me assure you, however, that 
erasure of government subsidies world- 
wide would place our growers in a good 
posture. But, too many nations have 
fought hunger in the past and are not 
willing to take a chance that it may occur 
again. We in the U.S. have no such his- 
tory or recollection of famines and are 
willing to play high stakes with some of 
our family farmers. The problem is we 
don't believe this Utopia of a level play- 
ing field can exist by the year 2002 or 
thereafter. 

The future of the Louisiana sugar 
industry could well be held in balance 
by our actions to develop other eco- 
nomical benefits for sugarcane and 
sugar. Molasses, a by-product of sugar- 
cane, normally a cattle feed in the U.S., is 



being used to neutralize chromium and 
make it harmless to the environment. 
There are hard plastic materials, phar- 
maceutical products, and recently epoxy 
resins that can glue panels made out of 
bagasse, a by-product fiber of sugar- 
cane. These items will hopefully be com- 
mercialized in the near future. 

When we look at cost of production 
to the grower based on actual and pro- 
jected data from LSU, we see that a 
grower who farms 800 acres averages 
less than two cents per pound on his net 
returns to management and risk. This 
acreage produces about 5667 lbs. of 
sugar per acre. On 800 acres of sugar- 
cane (with 239 acres of fallow land), ten- 
ant farmer operator, and at 21 cents /lb. 
the gross value is $832.00 per acre. Thirty 
nine per cent is required for the process- 
ing of the grower's crop with a remain- 
der of $523.00 per acre. One sixth is paid 
to the land owner for rental of the land 
as the majority of cane grown in Louisi- 
ana is rented land. That reduces the cane 
grower's income to $411.00 gross per 
acre prior to fixed and overhead costs. 
He must account for his fertilizer, herbi- 
cide, labor, and other variable costs. 
According to LSU this cost amounts to 
$345.00 per acre with the grower receiv- 
ing $66.00 per acre or 1.7 cents per 
pound. More details are available in the 
booklet "Projected Costs and Returns — 
Sugarcane, Louisiana, 1998" by Michael 
E. Salassi and G. Grant Giesler. 

Do we look at returning to the refin- 
ing of raw sugar as an end product in 
Louisiana to assist our growers? Some 
Louisiana factories used to produce 
plantation white. However, fierce com- 
petition in the past 40 years caused 
sugar factories to produce only raw 
sugar and refining was done by others. 
Lack of marketing skills may have had 
an impact on letting others refine raw 
sugar. Now we may have to rethink this 
event. Louisiana may very well have to 



position itself as Florida is doing today 
so that we can squeeze every penny to 
give the growers a necessary income to 
survive. It will be necessary for the fac- 
tory side of sugarcane to produce added 
income for growers. There is still some 
efficiency to be had on the field produc- 
tion side; however, greater efficiency 
through increased volume and in- 
creased extraction in the factory may 
give the growers the necessary edge to 
stay in business. 

Today, competition is fierce for the 
acquisition of sugarcane in Louisiana. 
But, in the future, as processors mature 
into an optimum or maximum capacity 
situation, farmers who continue to ex- 
pand may not find sufficient processing 
to handle their crop. Expansion can be- 
come a problem for some factories in the 
future. Fronted on sides either by subdi- 
visions or towns that have encircled the 
factory, there will be little room for plant 
expansion and plenty of residential 
complaints. Due to these reasons, con- 
solidation will become inevitable and 
factories that are in a rural setting will 
likely increase in volume. 

Louisiana has been in the sugarcane 
business for over 200 years and expects 
to continue as a major commodity. There 
will be some bumpy roads ahead; how- 
ever, the industry is preparing itself for 
whatever the future holds. Hopefully, it 
will progress and remain solvent. 

References: 

"Early Louisiana and the Birth of an 
Industry" 

by Glenn R. Conrad 

"The Industry That Would Not Die" 

by Ramon Billcaud 

Louisiana State University Charts and 
Tables 

by Mike Salassi and Grant Giesler 



8 




PARISHES PRODUCING SUGARCANE 



1. ACADIA 

2. ASCENSION 

3. ASSUMPTION 

4. AVOYELLES 

5. CALCASIEU 

6. E. BATON ROUGE 

7. EVANGELINE 

8. JEFFERSON DAVIS 

9. IBERL\ 

10. IBERVILLE 

11. LAFAYETTE 

12. LAFOURCHE 



13. POINTE COUPEE 

14. RAPIDES 

15. ST. CHARLES 

16. ST. JAMES 

17. ST. JOHN 

18. ST. LANDRY 

19. ST. MARTIN 

20. ST. MARY 

21. TERREBONNE 

22. VERMILION 

23. W. BATON ROUGE 



Louisiana Sugar Factory Production, 1986-97 



Gross Tons Cane Ground 


Tons 96 Sugar | 


Year 


Total 


Avg./Mill 


Total 


Avg./Mill 


1986 


7,419,897 


370,995 


657,087 


32,854 


1987 


6,595,625 


329,781 


721,783 


36,089 


1988 


7,678,229 


383,911 


786,155 


39,380 


1989 


8,242,060 


412,103 


833,273 


41,664 


1990 


4,596,123 


241,901 


429,380 


22,599 


1991 


7,940,269 


417,909 


741,096 


39,005 


1992 


8,908,374 


468,862 


858,971 


45,209 


1993 


9,162,023 


482,212 


870,255 


45,803 


1994 


9,576,810 


504,043 


994,267 


52,330 


1995 


10,585,417 


557,127 


1,051,438 


55,339 


1996 


10,488,107 


582,673 


1,030,287 


57,238 


1997 


12,019,441 


632,602 


1,275,000 


67,105 


1986/97% 
Increase 


38% 


41% 


48% 


51% 



Estimated Average Cost Per Pound of 
Raw Sugar for Alternative Mill Sizes, 1990-94 







Total 


Total 


Estimated Average Cost Per 


Mill 
Capacity 


Season 


Tons of 
Cane 


Raw 
Sugar 


Pound of Sugar 






(tons of 


Length 


Ground 


Produced 


Predicted 


Confident Interval 


cane day) 


(days) 


(tons) 


(1,000 lbs.) 


Value 
($/lb.) 


(95%) 
($/lb.) 


3,000 


85 


255,000 


51,000 


0.243 


0.223 - 0.263 


4,000 


85 


340,000 


68,000 


0.223 


0.203 - 0.242 


5,000 


85 


425,000 


85,000 


0.210 


0.190 - 0.230 


6,000 


85 


510,000 


102,000 


0.199 


0.179-0.219 


7,000 


85 


595,000 


119,000 


0.196 


0.176-0.216 


8,000 


85 


680,000 


136,000 


0.192 


0.172-0.212 


9,000 


85 


765,000 


153,000 


0.188 


0.168-0.208 


10,000 


85 


850,000 


170,000 


0.186 


0.165-0.206 


15,000 


85 


1,275,000 


255,000 


0.177 


0.157-0.198 


2(),()()0 


85 


1,700,000 


340,000 


0.173 


0.153-0.194 



10 



Projected Costs and Returns on 

800 Acres of Sugarcane, 

Tenant Operator, LA 1998 



Item 



Total $ Value 



Per Acre $ Per Lb. $ 



Total Sugar 665,213 

Molasses 31,233 

Total Gross Value 696,446 

Total Mill Charges 277,806 

Net Return to 

Land Producer 481,641 

Total Land Charges 83,728 

Total Income 329,503 

Total Specific Expenses 232,585 

Return Above Total 

Specified Expenses 96,917 

Overhead Expenses 43,728 

Net Returns to 

Management and Risk 53,189 



831.52 



.210 



870.52 


.220 


347.26 


.088 


523.30 


.132 


104.66 


.026 


411.88 


.104 


290.73 


.073 


121.15 


.031 


54.66 


.014 



66.49 



.017 



II 



For Proven Performance & Durability " 
FOLLOW THE LEADER! 



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Lower centerpoint of gravity, with balanced basket on ground or in air 

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Less sinking and cutting up of headlands and field in muddy conditions 

Less problems with shuck slides and clumps of mud 

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Special lift and dump support frame with heavy duty pivot points give greater 

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INDUSTRIES. INC. 



P.O. Box 406 
Thibodaux, LA 70302 
118 West Main Street 



12 



W AS HI N G T O N U P D A T E 



WITH LyON Wallace 



USDA Announces Tariff-Rate Quota for FY 1999 



Secretary of Agriculture Dan 
Glickman has announced the fis- 
cal year (FY) 1999 tariff-rate quota 
(TRQ) for refined, specialty, and raw 
cane sugar. The U.S. Department of Ag- 
riculture (USDA) will initially make 
available 1,164,937 metric tons raw 
value (1,284,123 short tons raw value) of 
the FY 1999 raw cane sugar TRQ for 
entry into the U.S. Customs Territory. If 
the stocks-to-use ratio reported in the 
January 1999 World Agricultural Supply 
and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report 
is less than or equal to 15.5 percent, an 
additional 150,000 metric tons (165,347 
short tons) will be available for entry. If 
the ratio is greater than 15.5 percent, the 
150,000 tons being held in reserve will 
not be made available. The same process 
will occur with the March and May 
WASDE reports. 

Certificates of Quota Eligibility 
(CQEs) will be issued to allow Brazil, the 
Dominican Republic, and the Philip- 
pines to ship up to 25 percent of each 
country's initial allocation at the low-tier 
tariff during each quarter of FY 1999. 
Argentina, Australia, Columbia, El Sal- 
vador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, 
Peru, and South Africa will be allowed 
to ship up to 50 percent of their initial 
allocations in the first six months of FY 
1999. Allocations not entered with the 
U.S. Customs Service during any quar- 



ter or six-month period may be entered 
in any subsequent period. For all other 
countries, CQEs corresponding to each 
country's allocation may be entered at 
the low-tier tariff at any time during the 
fiscal year. Should country allocations 
result from the January, March, and May 
stocks-to-use trigger, they may be en- 
tered subsequent to their allocation by 
the U.S. Trade Representative. 

During the TRQ period, USDA will 
continue to monitor the import require- 
ments necessary to meet U.S. domestic 
demand and may, at any time, increase 
the size of the TRQ to ensure sufficient 
sugar supplies in the U.S. market. Fur- 
ther TRQ increases, if necessary, will be 
made on the basis of the most reliable 
supply and use information available. 
Any additional increase will not affect 
the stocks-to-use percentage trigger or 
any remaining allocations or cancella- 
tions under the originally announced 
TRQ. 

USDA has established the size of the 
refined and specialty sugar TRQs. The 
refined sugar TRQ is set at 50,000 metric 
tons (55,116 short tons) for entry of sugar 
of which the sucrose content by weight, 
in the dry state, corresponds to a pola- 
rimeter reading of 99.5 degrees or more. 
The specialty sugar TRQ, which is a sub- 
set of the refined sugar TRQ, is estab- 
lished at 4,656 metric tons raw value 



13 



(5,132 short tons raw value). For entry 
into the U2ES. Customs Territory, spe- 
cialty sugar must have a polarity of at 
least 99.5 degrees and be accompanied 
by a specialty sugar certificate. 

WASDE Report Projects Slight 
Increase in Domestic Production 

The World Agriculture Supply and 
Demand Estimates (WASDE) for Sep- 
tember were released just before an- 
nouncement of the TRQ by USDA. Do- 
mestic production should reach 7.98 
million short tons due to increased beet 
acreage and higher yields in Florida. The 
estimate is 80,000 tons higher than last 
month's projection, and 55,000 tons 
above last year's total production. 

Production in Louisiana for the com- 
ing year was estimated at 1.22 million 
short tons, down 45,000 tons from last 
year's final total. Florida should pro- 
duce about 1.89 million tons, 35,000 tons 
less than last year. Hawaiian production 
should be unchanged at 340,000 tons, 
while Texas will produce an extra 15,000 
tons for a total of 95,000 tons. Overall, 
domestic cane production for the com- 
ing year is expected to reach 3.56 million 
tons. Beet production should be 4.42 
million tons, an increase of 120,000 tons 
from last year. 

USTR Announces Country-by 
Country Shares of TRQ 

U.S. Trade Representative Charlene 
Barshefsky has announced the initial 
country-by-country import allocations, 
pursuant to the TRQ recently set by the 
USDA. As discussed above, 1,164,937 
metric tons (1,284,123 short tons) has 
been made available for initial alloca- 
tion. Each supplier's share of the alloca- 
tion is based on historical trade. 

The largest allocation was given to 
the Dominican Republic, which may 
ship up to 190,657 metric tons during the 



first quarter of the new fiscal year. Brazil 
has been allocated up to 157,076 metric 
tons for shipment in the first fiscal quar- 
ter, while Australia may ship up to 
146,243 metric tons. Mexico has been 
allocated up to 25,000 metric tons, which 
represents the entire amount it may im- 
port during the fiscal year. 

Congress Weighs Disaster Assistance 
for Farmers 

Low commodity prices and drought 
conditions across the country have 
spurred discussion among legislators to 
consider providing financial relief to 
farmers. However, much of the talk has 
been on an informal basis among House 
and Senate leadership. Thus, what form 
disaster assistance may take remains 
unclear. 

Consideration of disaster assistance 
comes just as Congress faces an ap- 
proaching target adjournment date in 
early October. Unfortunately, work on 
other important matters has yet to be 
completed. High on the unfinished 
agenda are several appropriations bills, 
including agriculture. 

A report on the status of legislation 
concerning both disaster assistance and 
the annual agriculture appropriations 
package will be provided in next 
month's "Washington Update." 



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14 



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16 



FARM NOTES 



BY Dr. Ch/rley Richard 



Variety Development - Tropical Storm Frances 
Don't Plow Out Stubble Early 



While there are many subjects 
that are addressed in this ar- 
ticle each month, there is a 
topic that industry members indicate 
has been, is, and will always be, number 
one in priority. That subject is, of course, 
variety development. Words like "life- 
blood of the industry", "most important 
research topic", "what allows this indus- 
try to survive" and others have been 
used to describe the importance of vari- 
ety development. The Louisiana Variety 
Development Program is composed of 
scientists at Louisiana State University, 
the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, and the American Sugar Cane 
League. Each agency participates in the 
development of new varieties which ul- 
timately benefits the Louisiana industry. 
Each has a portion of the program for 
which it is primarily responsible and at 
the same time participates with the oth- 
ers in the overall program. A "Three- 
Way Agreement" in effect since the 
1920s covers the participation of the 
three agencies. Over the years, the coop- 
eration between the agencies has grown 
stronger and stronger, for which the in- 
dustry benefits. By our working to- 
gether, the industry can feel assured that 
there is no unnecessary duplication of 
effort in the variety development pro- 
gram and at the same time, all areas of 
variety research are being addressed. 



While there is always room for improve- 
ment in any program, industry mem- 
bers should rest assured that, on their 
behalf, the League is constantly striving 
to make sure that the program operates 
as efficiently as possible. As a result of 
this efficiency and to the credit of the nu- 
n^erous scientists involved, currently 
available varieties are the highest yield- 
ing varieties ever produced in this in- 
dustry. 

Every grower will suggest that we 
still need even better varieties than are 
currently available. This lack of satisfac- 
tion, while somewhat disturbing to 
some scientists, means that the variety 
program still has plenty of work to do. 
To accomplish the goal of producing 
even better varieties, researchers have to 
focus on the breeding program and 
make sure that there are no distractions. 
It is important that variety scientists and 
their administrators realize that produc- 
ing a new variety should occupy 100%. 
of their effort. Any extra work on other 
topics should not come at the expense of 
variety development. The times when 
the variety program has been most effi- 
cient is when there has been a sharpened 
focus on variety work. 

To help support conventional breed- 
ing efforts, the industry is looking to 
molecular science for assistance. Genetic 
engineering and gene mapping are tools 



17 



that may never be utilized. On the other 
hand, the industry will never realize any 
potential unless it makes some attempt 
as other industries (competitors) are be- 
ginning to utilize these new technolo- 
gies. It is hoped that genetic manipula- 
tion can be incorporated to make variety 
development somewhat more predict- 
able in this industry. Gene mapping is a 
longer term approach to helping the 
conventional program make its im- 
provements faster and more economi- 
cally. 

Producing new varieties is only part 
of what this industry needs in order to 
maintain maximum yields. Starting 
with the healthiest possible seedcane, 
maintaining disease free seedcane, con- 
trolling insects, diseases and weeds are 
all part of having the best varieties to 
grow on your farm. All research disci- 
plines that can currently be found in the 
industry are important to insure that 
once good varieties are produced, they 
can be utilized by the industry to their 
maximum potential. 

Tropical Storm Frances 

Frances, which appeared to be only a 
minor tropical storm, passed through 
the Gulf of Mexico and into Texas on 
Friday and Saturday, September 11 and 
12, 1998. While winds were minimal 
(less than 40 mph in the cane belt) rain- 
fall was record setting as the precipita- 
tion continued through Sunday. Being 
on the east side of the center where the 
heaviest rainfall normally occurs, the 
New Orleans area recorded over 20 
inches of rain in the three day period. 
Other areas around the cane belt re- 
ported less rain but were generally 
above 10 inches. Aggravating the situa- 
tion are the strong southerly winds and 
high tides that have continued keeping 
water from quickly draining. There are 
numerous fields that have been under- 



water for four days, as of this writing on 
September 15. It is generally recognized 
that LCP 85-384 does not like "wet feet" 
and has shown damage from standing 
water in the past. With the extensive 
acreage of this variety currently being 
planted this fall, growers will have to 
watch closely for affected stands. 

To make matters worse, as this article 
is being written, another tropical system 
is moving from east to west across the 
Gulf of Mexico and is predicted to cause 
rains in the cane belt from Thursday 
through the weekend (September 17- 
20). Additional southerly winds help 
stop water from TS. Frances from drain- 
ing and with additional rainfall there 
may be even more extensive flooding of 
fields. 

The industry is approximately 50% 
into its planting season. While some 
growers are finished, others have barely 
begun. Some growers will undoubtedly 
find themselves planting at the begin- 
ning of the harvest season. Growers 
should be reminded to not rush into the 
planting operation once fields dry out 
only to produce a poor job of planting. 
Growers should also concentrate on 
those fields that have now experienced 
the heavy rains. If erosion has left less 
than the recommended three inches of 
packed soil covering the cane, then 
fields may need to be worked in order to 
provide winter freeze protection. It is 
obvious that El Nino is over and al- 
though there is not a strong association 
with the end of this weather phenom- 
enon and hard freezes, some of the last 
El Nino events were followed by record 
setting low temperatures (1983 and 1989 
freezes). There is currently no prediction 
of a harsher than normal winter, but 
growers certainly should not allow 
planted cane to remain with only shal- 
low soil cover during the winter. 

Growers should also be reminded 



that those planted fields which experi- 
enced standing water for some time 
probably lost some or all of the herbicide 
which had been applied. They should 
contact one of the weed control scientists 
and determine if alternative measures 
should be undertaken. 

The extensive rains of T.S. Frances 
caused many mature fields to lodge, es- 
pecially fields of LCP 85-384. This would 
normally be of great concern in terms of 
yield prediction; however, with such a 
large percentage of the industry using 
combine harvesters, lodging is of some- 
what less concern. There will undoubt- 
edly be the opportunity for additional 
losses, but combine users have the 
chance to capture more of the yield that 
has been produced. 

Don't Plow Out Stubble Early 

In past years, many growers plowed 
out old stubble cane as soon as it was 



harvested in October. However, with 
current concerns about soil erosion into 
surfacewater and with the better 
stubbling ability of newer varieties, 
there is less reason to plow out stubble 
fields in the fall. Another reason given 
for early plow out was better control of 
Johnson grass and bermuda grass. When 
growers used plows, there may have 
been some merit to this practice. How- 
ever, there is little evidence that fall 
disking (the way most growers now 
plow out stubble) can do any more than 
disking in the early spring, especially 
given new weed control technologies. 
With the uncertainty of plant cane 
stands in the spring with LCP 85-384, 
especially following the heavy rains 
mentioned earlier, growers should be 
careful about destroying fields that they 
may later wish had been kept. Don't 
plow out stubble fields this fall if it is not 
necessary. 




Planning on Raising Cane? 
We Can Help You Plan for 
Tomorrow's Success 

No one quite understands the importance of 
long-term planning better than the Louisiana 
FARMER of the '90s. Today's careful planning is 
the key to tomorrow's success. That's why the 
Federal Land Bank Association offers a variety of 
loan options for your long-term credit needs. 

The Land Bank Association is a reliable source of agricultural 
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LENDER 

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19 



THE DIFFERENCE 

IS NOW 
CRYSTAL 0Sft^ 

CLEAN 




■^ T 



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Donaldsonviiic Thibodaux 

(225) 473-7927 (504) 447-3776 



20 



^m 



THE BATON ROUGE LINE 



Sean M. Prados 



Sugar is Under the Gun 



Several bills have been filed target- 
ing agriculture transportation for 
next session. The Regular Session, 
which is to begin in late March, can 
cover any issue other than taxes. We are 
expecting over five thousand bills to be 
filed for the session. 

The bills addressing agriculture 
transportation do a couple of things. 
First, the bills propose increasing the 
permit fee from $100 to $2,000 per per- 
mit per year. Secondly, harsher penalties 
will be imposed on the owner or opera- 
tor for each violation. One bill proposes 
that if the owner or driver of the truck 
operating under a special permit is 
found in violation of the 100,000 pound 
limit, then the special permit for that 
particular load will be null and void. 
The bill further provides that the owner 
or operator will be assessed a penalty 
equal to the difference between the ac- 
tual gross weight and the maximum al- 
lowable legal weight for that type of 



vehicle. 

Needless to say, we are under the 
gun. Proponents of this legislation will 
illustrate abuse by the number of viola- 
tions. It is important for all those in- 
volved with transportation to minimize 
the potential for overloading. The sugar 
industry will be heavily scrutinized dur- 
ing the next harvest season. 

Other bills are expected to be filed 
targeting agriculture. These issues can 
range from litter to the use of farm 
equipment on the road. One thing is 
certain - next year will be another busy 
year for sugar. 

Other News 

With the assistance of Representative 
Troy Hebert of Jeanerette, Ronald 
Hebert, Jr. was named to the Interstate 
49 South Project Task Force. Mr. Hebert 
has been farming sugar cane along 
Highway 90, the future corridor of 1-49, 
for over 20 years. 



21 



Now that MONSANTO has lowered the price of 

ROUNDUP® approximately $10/gallon, it makes it a lot 
easier to go after Bermudagrass with a vengeance!! 

Fall Fallow Spraying ^ 



• 



• 









1 






Spray only the acres you know you will plow out next year. 
After you harvest your last ratoon let your Bermudagrass green up again and spray it 
with 3-4 qts./acre (spray application must be made 5-7 days before the first frost) 
Less erosion than plowing/chopping means more environmentally friendly. 

Hooded Spraying 




" -v 



Another tool to help manage Bermudagrass problems in plant cane and cane cut for 

seed because once it gets established there is not much you can do. 

Take out Johnsongrass in the row middles due to banded application of pre- 

emergence chemicals. 

Spray 2-4 qts./acre (Be especially careful around LCP 85-384 with this application) 

(Drawings by Craig Naquinj 



ENVIRONMENTAL PER S P E C T I V E 



James F. Coerver. P.E. 
G.E.C. Inc. 



Bagasse Boiler Emissions 



Much has been written and said 
recently about the status of 
bagasse boilers at Louisiana 
sugar mills, particularly in regard to the 
new rules that the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) is developing 
pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amend- 
ments of 1990. There is a danger that 
these prospective rules, which are due 
before the turn of the century, could 
impose requirements on existing ba- 
gasse boilers that may be impossible 
and /or too costly to cope with. 

The cane sugar industry has ex- 
pended a great deal of effort and money 
in providing technical information to as- 
sist EPA in the rule-making process. It 
now appears that additional technical 
data in the form of very expensive "stack 
testing" is needed to prove that a very 
long list of hazardous chemicals is not 
present in significant amounts in ba- 
gasse boiler emissions. It is prudent and 
much less costly to provide stack testing 
evidence before onerous rules are writ- 
ten than for each mill to be required to 
prove by stack testing, after the rules go 
into effect, that hazardous emission lim- 
its are not exceeded. 

Concurrent with these longer range 
concerns are matters requiring immedi- 
ate attention. Many Louisiana sugar 
mills have already received "Title V" 
operating permits, and it is possible that 
most or all mills will have received such 
permits before the end of 1998. Title V 
Permits, which are another of many re- 
quirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act 



Amendments, have compliance assur- 
ance monitoring (CAM) requirements as 
described in the March 1998 issue of The 
Sugar Bulletin, whereas previously per- 
mitted and "Grandfather" boilers gener- 
ally had no such requirements. 

The CAM requirement in Louisiana 
Sugar Mill Title V Permits is being ac- 
complished by requiring simply that 
boiler emissions be monitored continu- 
ously for visible emissions to assure that 
the "opacity" of emissions does not ex- 
ceed 20 percent as determined by EPA's 
"Method 9" test. Use of the Method 9 
test is a practical way of meeting the self- 
monitoring CAM requirements without 
resorting to expensive continuous emis- 
sion monitoring and recording systems 
that are required in many other circum- 
stances. However, Method 9 does re- 
quire use of a "smoke reader" — a per- 
son who is trained and certified as ca- 
pable by the State air pollution control 
agency (LDEQ). Mills should act 
promptly to ascertain that certified 
smoke readers are available as soon as 
practical. 

The only real change with Title V 
permits is that compliance is not solely 
determined by a LDEQ inspector, but 
also by the mill itself. Mills must keep a 
continuous eye on boiler emissions, and 
if there are problem emissions, make 
immediate adjustments to boilers and 
fuel supply to correct the problem. 
Method 9 tests will need to be per- 
formed on a regular (usually daily) basis 
if there are visible emissions, and the test 



23 



results carefully recorded. If opacity 
tests fail, the test results must be re- 
ported as directed by permit stipula- 
tions. 

There may still be a boiler or two that 
has difficulty meeting the State's 20 per- 
cent opacity standard. Overcoming the 
difficulty is long overdue since the stan- 
dard has been in effect for many years. 
In the event of a failed opacity test, mills 
should not hesitate to report if directed 
to do so by a Title V permit. It is far bet- 
ter to incur an order to "stack test" in 
order to prove compliance with permit 
limitations than to suffer the conse- 
quences of violating a Federally enforce- 
able CAM (reporting) requirement of a 
Title V Permit. 

If a mill cannot cope with this very 
simplified CAM compliance system, it is 
an unfortunate certainty that compli- 
ance with EPA's proposed Section 112 
rules will be even more problematic. 



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24 



1998 (1997) Crop Louisiana Sugarcane 
Higli Yield Award Winners 

Top 20 Producers Statewide 









Sugarcane 


Sugar 


Rank 


Name 


Parish 


Acres 


(Lb./A) 


1 


Rodrigue Planting Co., Inc. 


St. James 


930.0 


8,731 


2 


Blanchard Farms, Inc. 


Assumption 


622.0 


8,273 


3 


Rebecca Farms, Inc. 


, Terrebonne 


343.2 


8,197 


4 


Keith Zeringue 


Lafourche 


161.6 


8,194 


5 


Herman Arcement & Son, Inc. 


Assumption 


435.8 


8,134 


6 


Dominick J. Campesi, Inc. 


Iberville 


700.9 


8,045 


7 


D & W Porta, Inc. 


St. James 


821.9 


8,026 


8 


Kevin Breaux 


St. Mary 


384.6 


7,966 


9 


Blackberry Farms, Inc. 


St. James 


1,433.6 


7,931 


10 


Martin & Poche, Inc. 


St. James 


730.5 


7,907 


11 


Ted Broussard Farms, Inc. 


St. Mary 


611.3 


7,892 


12 


Goldmine Plantation 


St. John 


637.1 


7,795 


13 


T.J. Sanchez & Son, Inc. 


Iberville 


620.8 


7,762 


14 


Baker Plantation 


St. Mary 


1,127.3 


7,726 


15 


Waguespack Farms, Inc. 


St. James 


1,537.1 


7,714 


16 


Woods Farms, Inc. 


Assumption 


1,709.6 


7,707 


17 


Alton Landry, Inc. 


Iberville 


2,071.5 


7,699 


18 


Lanie Farms 


Lafayette 


1,617.2 


7,673 


19 


Landry Farms 


Assumption 


1,003.4 


7,637 


20 


Bergeron /Walton Partnership 


Assumption 


627.1 


7,615 



25 



1998 (1997) Crop Louisiana Sugarcane 
High Yield Award Winners 



Parish WInnav 



Parish 


Name 


Sugarcane 
Acres Grown 


Sugar 
(Lb./A) 


Ascension 


Sugar Haven Farms, Inc. 


892.5 


7,307 


Assumption 


Blanchard Farms, Inc. 


622.0 


8,273 


Iberia 


Ricky, William & John Broussard 


26.3 


7,437 


Iberville 


Dominick J. Campesi, Inc. 


700.9 


8,045 


Lafayette 


Lanie Farms 


1,617.2 


7,673 


Lafourche 


Keith Zeringue 


161.6 


8,194 


St. James 


Rodrigue Planting Co., Inc. 


930.0 


8,731 


St. John 


Goldmine Plantation 


637.1 


7,795 


St. Martin 


Melancon Sugar Cane Farms 


1,229.4 


6,956 


St. Mary 


Kevin Breaux 


384.6 


7,966 


Terrebonne 


Rebecca Farms, Inc. 


343.2 


8,197 



Sugarcane producing parishes that did not submit qualified nommees include 
Acadia, Avoyelles, Calcasieu, East Baton Rouge, Evangeline, Jefferson 
Davis, Pointe Coupee, Rapides, St. Charles, St. Landry, Vermilion and West 
Baton Rouge. 



Wanted: p & I-H Tractors 
for parts, any age or condition 

New, used and rebuilt hi crop and row crop tractor parts 

Tires • Rebuilt clutches • Crank shafts • Injector pumps and more 

Also any hard-io-find parts. We buy farm equipment and salvage tractors 




Toll Free 
1-800-259-3453 
(318)276-3453 
(318)276-6230 



Cane 

Tractor 

Parts 




26 



1998 (1997) Crop Louisiana Sugarcane 
High Yield Award Winners 

District Acreage Category Wbmers 





V 






Lbs. 
Sugar 


Category 


Name 


Parish 


Acres 


/Acre 


River-Bayou 


Lafourche District 








0-99.9 


Lawrence Burt, II 


Assumption 


17.7 


7,781 


100-299.9 


Keith Zeringue 


Lafourche 


161.6 


8,194 


300-699.9 


Blanchard Farms, Inc. 


Assumption 


622.0 


8,273 


700-1499.9 


Rodrigue Planting Co., Inc. 


St. James 


930.0 


8,731 


1500+ 


Waguespack Farms, Inc. 


St. James 


1,537.1 


7,714 


Teche District 








0-99.9 


John Paul Fremin 


Iberia 


48.7 


8,218 


100-299.9 


Ricky William & John Broussard 


Iberia 


126.3 


7,437 


300-699.9 


Kevin Breaux 


St. Mary 


384.6 


7,966 


700-1499.9 


Baker Plantation 


St. Mary 


1,127.3 


7,726 


1500+ 


Lanie Farms 


Lafayette 


1,617.2 


7,673 



Northern District 




No Qualified Winners Nominated 


"TRI-S 


TATS 


Delta Chemicals | 


Thibodaux, La. 
(504) 447-4081 


Jeanerette, La. 
(318)276-5051 


New Roads, La. 
(504)638-8343 


Lemann's Farm Supply 
Donaldsonville, La. 
(504) 473-7927 
Satellite Plant 



Ourfluids 
make sugar. 



Ouachita 




Fertilizer 



New Iberia, La. (3 1 8) 367-8233 



27 



CLASSIFIEDS 



FOR SALE 



• 1983 S30 4x4 cab and air, new style 
air - $35,000. Call J.W. Hurdle, Jr. at 
(225) 749-2892. 

• 1991 Case/lnt'l 7130, with front 
wheel drive, PTO, heavy duty steel 
bumper with box, 3640 hrs., - 
$42,000; 1972 Thompson Cane 
Cutter with large JD engine and 
front wheel assist - $6,500; 3-row 
Bottom Plow with 3 pt. hitch and 
gauge wheels - $500; 6' Case End 
Row Flat Chopper (parts only)- 
$100; 1990 Case/lnt'l 5120 
Maxum, 3490 hrs. - $22,500. Call 
Randy Gonsoulin at (318) 365-0014. 

• 2 Transloader Wagons, tandum 
axles, excellent condition - $6,500 
each. Call Sidney Andras at (504) 
446-1129. 

• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2-row 
Harvester, Cameco 4WD Field 
Loader, a/c cab with ditcher. Call 
Roland Bourgeois, Vacherie at (225) 
265-4452 (leave a message). 

• 2 1996 Hearne Automatic Planters. 

Call KentSoileauat(318)838- 
2459. 



• 1980 Thompson Single-row Cane 
Harvester, Sunstrand Hydrostat, 
Allis Chalmers 1900 Mark II Engine. 
Good Condition $5,000. Plenty 
used Thompson Cutter parts. Call 
(225)383-1628. 



1066 Int'l Hi-Clearance with cab; 
1466 Int'l with Cab; Broussard 
Cane Loader with chain pilar and 
backhoe; 3 Tandum Whole Stalk 
Wagons with quick hitch and extra 
wheels and hubs; Various Tanks 
and Tools. Call Russell Judice at 
(318)394-4727. 

1991 Broussard 2-Row harvester, 

cab and a/c, all new updates - 
$80,000. Call (225) 344-9845. 

1983 Single-row Broussard 
Harvester, double ends & scroll, 
CAT 3208 engine. New 18-4-38 
tires, with pulling wheel, shredder 
topper & extra pans - $20,000; 
John Deere 4840 with new trans. 
& engine overhauled in '97 - 
$14,000; 1066 Hi-Clearance Int'l - 
$4,000; 856 Hi-Clearance Int'l - 
$2,500; JD 2440 - $4,000; Bayou 
Service (set) -$3,500, Bayou 
Service & Brooks (set) - $4,000, 
Jack Brooks -$2,000; 3-Row 
Bottom Type Plow Int'l, heavy 
duty and gauge wheels - $3,500; 
4-Row JD style with gauge wheels 
and cyclers - $3,500; JD 2440, 
1982 - $3,500; JD 4240, Hl- 
Clearance, 1981; 1 front mount 
spray rig with 200-gal. tank - $100; 
JD disk plow, heavy duty, 17-ft. - 
$2,500; Rolling Cultivator, 
Lilliston, 4-row - $250; Rolling 
Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row - $75; 
Cultipacker, 3-row at 5.8 - $250; 
JD Clipper, model 709, 7-ft. - 
$1 ,000; JD 3-row chopper, 
adjustable cylinders - $2,000; Int'l 
3-row chopper - $1 ,000; 3 one- 
row shavers - best otter; 2 Bayou 
Service type planter's aids. Call 
Damian Pierre at (318)229-6932. 



28 



La Cane 

LOUISIANA CANE MANUFACTURING, INC. 

P.O. Box 71 • Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 447-3771 • Fax: (504) 447-8404 

TIGER — 2 Row Chopper Harvester 




Available for the 1998 Harvest 

Season 

Call La Cane (Jim Collinson or 

Ken Caillouet) to Schedule a 

Video Presentation or For 

More Information 



FEATURES: 

• 2-Row Cutting at Pour Rates of 200 to 300 Tons Per Hour 

• Topping, Stripping and Extracting Leaves Before Chopping and Loading 

• 4 Wheel Drive (Rubber Tires) 

• Base Cutting Out in Front of Running Gear to Help Prevent Mud Induction 
While Cutting in Wet Conditions 

• Excellent Weight Distribution, Balance and Low Ground Baring Pressure 

• Green Cane Cutting in All Conditions 



increase profits BY: 

• Reduced Operating Costs 

• Increased Cutting 8c Loading Rates 

• Reduced Labor &: Fuel Costs 

• Reduced Trash Sc Mud in Cane 

• Reduced Maintenance 

(Less Equipment Sc NO TRACKS) 

• Higher C.R.S. 8c Higher Tonnage 



'A 






J 


0m 


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TW^SS^fsr;. 



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The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 



SERii-n....v^ .../. - 

LQIJI SI ANA STATE UNIM 

LIBRAF:Y 

BATON F-:niJGE LA 70803 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

I '^AID 

S bodaux, La. 

i '. MIT NO. 43 



Volume 77, No. 2 



November 1998 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



S I s s u 



up Front With the League 3 

by Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 7 

by Don Wallace 

Farm Notes 11 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Baton Rouge Line 15 

by Sean Prados with Spradley & Spradley 

1998 High Yield Award Winners 16 

Classifieds 20 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit organiza- 
tion. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year. 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 
The viezvs and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those of 
the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of the 
advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



The Sugar Bulletin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon/ Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson /Senior Agronomist 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist * 

John Constant/ Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens /Secretary 

Paul G. Borron Ill/Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
1156 15th St., N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles j. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr, Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David Allain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Felix "Gus" Blanchard, New Iberia, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

John F. Gay, Plaquemine, La. 

Ronald Gonsoulin, New Ibeha, La. 

Dean Gravois, Vacherie, La. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Granncrcy, La. 

Jackie Judice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, Franklin, La. 

Buckley Kessler, White Castle, La. 

Lawrence "Boo" Invert III, St. Martinville, La. 

A. J. "Brother" LeBourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

D. C. Mattingly, Paincourtville, La. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 

Michael G. Melancon, Breaux Bridge, La. 

Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 



Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Patout, Jeanerette, La. 
William S. Patout IH, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Jackie Theriot, Breaux Bridge, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Carlton Townsend, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, U. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 



La Cane 

LOUISIANA CANE MANUFACTURING, INC. 

P.O. Box 71 • Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 447-3771 • Fax: (504) 447-8404 

TIGER — 2 Row Chopper Harvester 





^^ 


g^kgl 




^% 


y^^^^B^"'^^^^Hf 


PPiP^T^ 


mJ^eHs 


MmNImI 




-7""' Hill If 





Available for the 1998 Harvest 

Season 

Call La Cane (Jim Collinson or 

Ken Caillouet) to Schedule a 

Video Presentation or For 

More Information 



FEATURES: 

• 2-Row Cutting at Pour Rates of 200 to 300 Tons Per Hour 

• Topping, Stripping and Extracting Leaves Before Chopping and Loading 

• 4 Wheel Drive (Rubber Tires) 

• Base Cutting Out iii Front of Running Gear to Help Prevent Mud Induction 
While Cutting in Wet Conditions 

• Excellent Weight Distribution, Balance and Low Ground Baring Pressure 

• Green Cane Cutting in All Conditions 



increase profits BY: 

• Reduced Operating Costs 

• Increased Cutting Sc Loading Rates 

• Reduced Labor Sc Fuel Costs 

• Reduced Trash 8c Mud in Cane 

• Reduced Maintenance 

(Less Equipment 8c NO TRACKS) 

• Higher C.R.S. 8c Higher Tonnage 




THE DIFFERENCE 

IS NOW 
CRYSTAL 0SftC 

CLEAN 





Cane Harvcsdiig x:\ Equipment 



LEMANN'S 

Farm Supply, Inc. 



Donaidsonvillc 
(225) 473-7927 (504) 447-3776 



UP F R O N T W I 



LEAGUE 



BY ChARI !E MeLANCON 



hi I, 



Agricultural Disaster Legislation 



Don Wallace's article covers 
the legislative aspects of the lan- 
guage drafted and included in 
the Ag Appropriations/ Agricultural Di- 
saster Relief Bill. However, I thought I 
might try to get a little deeper into the 
subject. 

During the past two years, the 
League has been working to correct an 
administrative problem which has 
caused a down turn in the price of sugar 
since the passage of the Fair Act of 1996. 
Specifically, USDA has continuously in- 
sisted that the Congress intended for the 
Department to interpret a one cent for- 
feiture penalty as a mandate for USDA 
to maintain the price support level at 
one cent less than in previous years. 
There was never a time or place where I, 
Charles Thibaut, or the Washington 
Representatives ever considered sup- 
porting legislation which we knew 
would decrease the already eroded price 
of sugar. 

Through the years, the Congress has 
been expressing a desire to reduce gov- 
ernment involvement in agricultural 



programs. The American Sugar Cane 
League several decades ago went to a 
"no cost" program. The first of any com- 
modity to do so. Additionally, the re- 
form language contained in the 1996 
Fair Act provided for 1.5 million tons of 
imported sugar annually as a minimum, 
whereas the GATT minimum was set at 
1.25 million tons. We hear our oppo- 
nents in Congress grumbling about the 
lack of participation in the Commodity 
Credit Corporation loan program. As I 
understand, a paltry amount of sugar 
has been placed on loan with the CCC 
for the last two years. The same people 
that want less involvement in agricul- 
ture and sugar are now criticizing our 
industry because we are making most of 
our loans through private sector banks, 
other than looking to the government 
for help. As I write this article, I can 
name numerous mills that are spending 
millions of dollars and growers who are 
expanding operations to increase their 
production in hopes of continuing to be 
profitable into the next century. 

It bothers me tremendously to hear 



people, within the Department of Agri- 
culture, which is the govemment agency 
that is vested with the responsibility of 
keeping American Agriculture viable 
and profitable, expressing more concern 
for the refiners and the commercial us- 
ers. Our growers have to be good man- 
agers, good businessmen, and good 
farmers, but are still exposed to the ele- 
ments of weather that can make or break 
the best growers in the world. I have 
witnessed one of our opponents whose 
corporate management has made obvi- 
ous bad business decisions and wishes 
to blame the sugar program and entities 
within the sugar industry for their prob- 
lems. The sad part, the part that worries 
me the most, is that the Department ap- 
pears to be more concerned about our 
big, corporate opponents more so than 
the American sugar farmer who has 
made good business decisions but has to 
contend with factors outside of their 
control, such as weather. 

We owe a lot of thanks to our friends 
in Congress, particularly to Representa- 
tive Bob Livingston for his assistance in 
putting the clarifying language in this 
year's Ag Appropriations and Disaster 
Relief Bill. We cannot guarantee that this 
language will give us any help with the 
Department of Agriculture's Adminis- 
tration of the sugar program. They have 
continually said that it was the Con- 
gress' intent for them to administer a 
program on sugar recognizing the 
penny penalty as a reduction in the loan 
rate. We have had written legal opin- 
ions, members of Congress discuss the 
issue with the Secretary and others, and 
now the Congress has expressed itself 
clearly as to whether any penalty on for- 
feitures was in fact a reduction in the 
loan rate. The expression from Congress 
in the Agricultural Disaster Relief/ Ap- 
propriations Bill states clearly that it was 
not. It is now up to the Department to 



revisit their position. It is my sincere 
hope that USDA will proceed with ad- 
ministering the program as Congress 
intended. That is, without a reduction in 
the loan rate. I am, at the end of this sec- 
tion of this article, providing the lan- 
guage that was recently put into the Ag 
Appropriations bill by Congressman 
Livingston. I would ask of those of you 
who would to take a few minutes to ei- 
ther write, call, fax or e-mail the 
Congressman's office at the address, etc. 
provided below, and just say "thanks" 
for the help and understanding. 

The Honorable Bob Livingston 

U.S. House of Representatives 

2406 Rayburn House Office Building 

Washington, D.C. 20515 

202-225-3015 

202-225-0739 FAX 

bob.livingston@mail.house.gov 

Report Language ~ 
Ag Appropriations 

The conferees are concerned that the 
USDA is administering the forfeiture 
penalty provisions of 7 U.S.C. 7272 (g) in 
a manner inconsistent with the intent of 
Congress. These provisions were in- 
tended only to act as a disincentive to 
program loan forfeitures. Unfortunately, 
as evidenced in the fiscal year 1999 Bud- 
get Summary, the Department has inter- 
preted the provisions to have "effec- 
tively reduced sugar loan rates." The 
conferees direct the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture to administer the program consis- 
tent with Congressional intent, and to 
ensure that the forfeiture penalty shall 
apply for any purpose other than an ac- 
tual loan forfeiture resulting in the re- 
duction of the statutory price support 
loan levels for sugarcane (18 cents per 
pound of raw cane sugar) or sugar beets 
(22.9 cents per pound of refined beet 
sugar). In addition, the conferees direct 



that the penalty shall not be considered 
in the calculation of any sugar forfeiture 
price level by the Secretary or by any 
other official responsible for the admin- 
istration of the sugar program under 7 
U.S.C. 7272, the no-cost provision in sec- 
tion 902(a) of P.L. 99-198, and any related 
authorities. 

U.S. Sugar Dedicates Refinery 

On October 29, U.S. Sugar Corpora- 
tion of Clewiston, Florida officially dedi- 
cated the first refinery to be built in the 
United States in many years. This, in my 
mind, is an expression by U.S. Sugars to 
complete the cycle, if you would, of tak- 
ing sugarcane through the full process to 
refined and specialty sugar, and to mar- 
ket it in cooperation with United Sugars 
which is based in Minnesota. United 
Sugars is a marketing co-op, which un- 
til present marketed refined beet sugar. 
The association of U.S. Sugar with 
United Sugar possibly makes United 
Sugar now the largest marketer of re- 
fined sugars in this country. There are 
also some rumors about some involve- 
ment by raw sugar processors and 
growers in connection to another refin- 
ery. Possibly by the time this article 
reaches you in early November, the 
transaction will either be public or a "no 
go-" 



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W A S H I N G T O N UPDATE 



WITH Don Wallace 



Congress and White Hause Close Deal 
On Omnibus Spending Package 



As the Sugar Bulletin goes to 
press, legislators mull over the 
details of a $500 billion omni- 
bus spending bill, which consists of 
eight of the thirteen annual appropria- 
tions bills usually passed and signed as 
individual measures. The omnibus bill 
also includes a $20 billion emergency 
spending package for, among other 
things, farm disaster relief, peacekeep- 
ing efforts in Bosnia, and overseas em- 
bassy security. Though some on both 
sides of the aisle, particularly on the 
right, are dismayed over various provi- 
sions, the measure is widely expected to 
pass no later than the week of October 
19. 

Among the annual spending bills 
included in the omnibus package is the 
FY 1999 agriculture appropriations bill, 
which would fund the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture (USDA) and its pro- 
grams. An additional $6 billion in emer- 
gency disaster assistance is provided for 
farmers mired in weather and price-re- 
lated problems. A stand-alone agricul- 
ture appropriations bill that included 
farm disaster relief was passed by legis- 
lators in early October. However, that 
bill was vetoed by President Clinton due 
to a disagreement over the amount of 



disaster assistance to be provided. The 
original version offered $4.2 billion, 
while the White House preferred a 
Democrat alternative worth more than 
$7 billion. 

Though specific details are not yet 
available, the annual funding of the 
USDA should largely reflect provisions 
agreed to in the original agriculture ap- 
propriations bill. That measure would 
have provided $55.88 billion for agricul- 
ture, conservation, rural development, 
food safety, and nutrition programs. 
This spending level represents a signifi- 
cant increase over last year's level of just 
under $50 billion. 

The bulk of disaster assistance 
should come in the form of additional 
payments to farmers. The emergency 
portion also includes an additional $1 
billion in tax breaks aimed at helping 
small farmers. One provision would al- 
low by 2003 a 100% deduction of health 
insurance for independent businesses 
and the self-employed. Another would 
allow ''income averaging" over five- 
year periods for farmers, while another 
would allow farmers incurring an oper- 
ating loss in one year to receive a refund 
based on tax payments made in a previ- 
ous year. 



The overall bill comes after a seem- 
ingly interminable legislative impasse 
that slowed progress on most of the thir- 
teen annual appropriations bills. By 
mid-September, it appeared obvious 
that work would not be completed on 
the spending bills before October 1, 
when the new fiscal year would begin. 
So, legislators passed a continuing reso- 
lution (CR), to expire on October 9, that 
would continue funding the operations 
of the federal government long enough 
for Congress to pass the unfinished ap- 
propriations bills. However, by October 
9, little progress had been made, so a 
second CR was passed, this one set to 
expire on October 12. A third CR ex- 
tended the deadline until October 14, 
and a fourth until October 16. As of this 
writing, a fifth appears necessary, in or- 
der for legislators to consider and pass 
the massive omnibus language. 

A follow-up report concerning the 
FY 1999 agriculture appropriations 
package will be provided in next 
month's "Washington Update." 

Congress Clarifies Purpose of 
Forfeiture Penalty Provision 

The agriculture portion of the omni- 
bus spending package also includes re- 
port language directing the USDA to 
administer the forfeiture penalty provi- 
sions of the sugar program in a manner 
"consistent with congressional intent." 
The forfeiture penalty provisions were 
enacted as part of the 1996 farm bill, 
known as the Federal Agriculture Im- 
provement and Reform Act, or FAIR. 

Concern over the USDA's interpreta- 
tion of the forfeiture penalty provisions 
heightened after the release of its inter- 
nally-prepared FY 1999 Budget Sum- 
mary, in which it states that the "imposi- 
tion of loan forfeiture fees effectively 
reduced sugar loan rates." House Ap- 
propriations Committee Chairman Bob 



Livingston (R-LA), seeking to clarify the 
purpose of the provisions, worked to 
insert the report language in the agricul- 
ture appropriations bill. In it. Congress 
points out that the forfeiture penalty 
provisions were "intended only to act as 
a disincentive to program loan forfei- 
tures." The report language directs 
USDA to ensure that the forfeiture pen- 
alty provision shall not result in the re- 
duction of statutory price support loan 
levels for either sugarcane or sugar 
beets, except in the event of an actual 
loan forfeiture. It further directs USDA 
not to consider the provisions when cal- 
culating sugar forfeiture price levels. 

Report language is often added at 
the end of a bill to expound upon the 
underlying purpose of a particular pro- 
vision contained within the bill or 
within a program affected by the bill. 
Although it does not carry the force of 
law, report language is considered a re- 
flection of the congressional intent be- 
hind passage of a particular law, and is 
used by federal agencies to determine 
how that law should be implemented. 

October WASDE Reports Minimal 
Chnnge in Projections 

The USDA has released its World 
Agriculture Supply and Demand Esti- 
mates (WASDE) for October, and 
projects only a 5,000 ton decrease in do- 
mestic production, due to lowered ex- 
pectations in the Rio Grande Valley area. 
All other projections are unchanged 
from the September WASDE. Total do- 
mestic production for 1998/99 is now 
projected at 7.975 million short tons, raw 
value. 

Total imports, includii^g amounts al- 
located under the tariff-rate quota, as 
well as cjuota-exempt shipments, should 
reach 2.228 million tons. Domestic use is 
expected to be 10.225 million tons. The 
October stocks-to-use ratio is 14.4%. 




Ask your Land 
Bank Association 

about. . .financing 
to buy land or 
improve your farm. 



Most Louisiana farmers today are 
looking at ways to increase their 
productivity... buy or improve 
land... build new facilities. 

Whatever specific needs you have, 
your Land Bank Association can 

provide long-term credit to help. 

If you've got plans that need 
financing, see the people at the Land 
Bank Association to discuss our 
various loan options. 

Federal Land Bank Association 
of South Louisiana 



Opelousas 
(318) 942-1461 

Port Allen 
(225) 344-2691 



(Si 



Tni-s"rAX 

Delta Chemicals 



Thibodaux, La. 
(504) 447-4081 

New Roads, La. 
(504) 638-8343 



Jeanerette, La. 
(318)276-5051 

Lemann's Farm Supply 
Donaldsonville, La. 
(504) 473-7927 
Satellite Plant 



Ourfluids 
make sugar. 



Ouachita 




Fertilizer 



New Iberia, La. (318) 367-8233 



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What does this wagon have that others don 't? 

Lower centerpoint of gravity, with balanced basket on ground or in air 

Consistent low ground pressure on all (4) tires regardless of terrain 

Wagon design and length allows easier maneuverability and minimal side to side 

rocking when traveling thru the field, crossing over rows, and coming out the cut 

Less sinking and cutting up of headlands and field in muddy conditions 

Less problems with shuck slides and clumps of mud 

Special trunion axle design eliminates unnecessary pressure, stress and fatigue in 

chassis, A-frame and baskets 

Special lift and dump support frame with heavy duty pivot points give greater 

durability 

Dump cane and top off trailers without leaning against highway trailers 

Separate hydraulic lifting and dumping circuits allows dumping cane at any height, 

while reducing unnecessary pressure, stress and fatigue on both basket and chasis 

Rigid basket lip eliminates the problems that accompany other flip gate systems 

Quality's cylinder design requires less hydraulic pressure to dump loaded basket 

Lift cylinders push parallel to slide, causing less wear than single cylinder systems 

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Hydraulic line placement is free from exterior obstructions 

inpmmatwn 




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Sales 



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(504) 447-4021 
(800) 447-8403 
(504) 447-4028-Fax 




'itcUiUf^ 



INDUSTRIES, INC. 



P.O. Box 406 
Thibodaux, LA 70302 
118 West Main Street 



F A R M NOTES 



BY Dr. Charley Rjchard 



Harvest Season Starts While Planting Finally Completed 
Cold Tolerance and Harvesting Schedule -- 
Drainage and LCP 85-384 



The 1998 harvest season started on 
September 30 at Iberia Sugar Co- 
operative. All 18 factories had be- 
gun crushing cane by October 14. Sev- 
eral factories were scheduled for an ear- 
lier start but the extensive rains from 
several tropical systems delayed plant- 
ing which forced nearly all factories to 
delay the start of their grinding season. 
As of this date on October 19, the indus- 
try has just about completed its planting 
with estimates of less than 5% of the 
acreage remaining. The first couple of 
weeks of the harvest season found many 
growers cutting cane both for the mill 
and for planting. This caused problems 
for factories and many did not receive 
adequate amounts to grind around the 
clock for the first few days. 

In addition to delaying the planting 
season, the heavy rains over a three 
week period in September caused cane 
to lodge and delayed the application of 
Polado for many growers. The lodged 
cane canopy also made for less than per- 
fect applications of Polado once better 
weather arrived. The heavy September 
rains which followed extensive dry 
weather during the summer months 
provided cane with the incentive to 
grow rather than ripen. Within the 
lodged cane there was also some uproot- 
ing which is putting soil in delivered 
cane. All of these factors have contrib- 
uted to lower than expected sugar levels 
which is being recorded at all sugar fac- 



tories around the cane belt. This year 
will see the lowest sugar yields at the 
start of a season in the last two decades. 

Cane tonnage reports are variable at 
this early date in the season. Some grow- 
ers are reporting good tonnage even in 
old stubble. Some areas were more se- 
verely affected by the summer drought 
and tonnage is considerably less than 
normal. However, many growers now 
realize that their tonnage may be above 
late summer expectations due to late 
growth once the rains arrived and more 
importantly due to the good population 
that exist in most fields. Within reason, 
cane stands are generally more impor- 
tant to cane tonnage than stalk height 
and 1998 may be a good example of that 
logic. 

Pre-harvest factory estimates of cane 
tonnage to be ground in 1998 exceed 
12,400,000 gross tons. This is about 
400,000 tons higher than what was 
ground in 1997. Sugar levels in recent 
years (200 to 212 pounds of sugar per 
ton, raw value) have been considerably 
higher than early results in 1998. Cur- 
rent levels are far below 190 pounds; but 
more favorable ripening weather and 
later applications of Polado could still 
provide sugar yields closer to that of 
recent years. Using more realistic predic- 
tions of 185 to 200 pounds of sugar per 
ton for the 1998 crop, a state crop be- 
tween 1,115,000 and 1,240,000 tons of 
sugar could be produced. While less 



1 1 



than last year's record crop of 1,275,000 
tons of sugar, either of these levels 
would still be higher than the late sum- 
mer estimates of production. 

Growers are reminded to record and 
report their seed cane acreage to their 
FSA office as soon as practical. It is im- 
portant that good records be maintained 
on seed cane acreage if we are to accu- 
rately report yields of cane on acres har- 
vested for sugar. 

Cold Tolerance and Harvesting 
Schedule 

As growers follow their harvesting 
schedule, they are reminded that the 
plant cane schedule should take cold 
tolerance into account. The harvesting 
information provided by the Coopera- 
tive Extension Service contains all of the 
data necessary for growers to prepare an 
effective harvest schedule. This informa- 
tion is available from your county 
agent's office. Four varieties that grow- 
ers can make a mistake with late in the 
season are CP 72-370, CP 79-318, LCP 82- 
89 and LCP 86-454. None of these have 
very good cold tolerance and should not 
be left until late in the season when there 
is strong likelihood of losses from freez- 
ing weather. CP 72-370 does not increase 
its sugar after mid-season meaning that 
growers should have it all harvested by 
that time. While there is not much acre- 
age in most of these varieties, growers 
cannot afford to have any unnecessary 
losses and leaving any of these varieties 
till late in the season is risky. The cold 
tolerance of LHo 83-153, LCP 85-384 and 
HoCP 85-845 is good. However, 
HoCP85-845 is like CP72-370 and ma- 
tures early with little increase past mid- 
November. Therefore, growers should 
also avoid having either of these remaii^ 
in the field past mid-season. 

The cold tolerance of CP 70-321 is 
very good and should be the last variety 



to be harvested in the event an early 
freeze should hit the belt. With the an- 
ticipated length of the harvest season 
and the likelihood of grinding late into 
December or early January, following an 
effective harvest schedule based upon 
the best data could mean the difference 
between profit and loss. 

Drainage and LCP 85-384 

By now, most growers have learned 
that LCP 85-384 appears to be suscep- 
tible to standing water; more so than 
other varieties and especially during the 
winter season. Therefore, it becomes 
even more important than ever to make 
sure that field drains are opened after 
harvesting fields of cane. Keep the drain 
cleaner in the field and make sure that 
fields are not allowed to hold water 
when the rains do fall. This will provide 
growers with the best opportunity to 
take advantage of the good stubbling 
potential of this variety. 

With regard to recently planted cane 
that experienced heavy rains, there are 
many fields which have not yet shown a 
stand at this time. Some of these fields, 
especially in sandy soils, have formed a 
very tight crust which seems to be inter- 
fering with cane shoots reaching the 
surface. 

Some growers have attempted to 
sink middles in these badly eroded 
fields which in some cases has caused 
this crust to break. Other growers have 
attempted to pass a rotary hoe or a 
lilliston cultivator over these fields in an 
attempt to break up this crust. However, 
running an implement over cane which 
has already germinated can be ex- 
tremely risky. Broken sprouts will cer- 
tainly mean losses. These plant cane 
fields will certainly be under special 
scrutiny in the spring as growers do all 
they can to improve the germination 
rate ii^ LCP 85-384. 



12 



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14 



T H E B AT ON R O U G E 



Sean M. Prados 



Governor Foster Names New DOTD Secretary 



Governor Foster named Kam 
Movassaghi as the new head of 
the Department of Transporta- 
tion and Development. Movassaghi, 
currently an engineering professor at the 
University of Southwestern Louisiana in 
Lafayette, will take office some time in 
December. Movassaghi's predecessor, 
Frank Denton, vacated his position 
abruptly stating "personal reasons" for 
his departure. Movassaghi participated 
in a report that supports the upgrading 
of U.S. 90 from Lafayette to New Or- 
leans. This project is commonly referred 
to as the Interstate 49 extension. Many 
people believe that this project should be 
an immediate priority because it would 
greatly improve the state's infrastruc- 
ture. 

Black Bear 

The American Sugar Cane League 
recently sponsored a meeting to discuss 
the Black Bear Habitat Protection Project 
being proposed by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service (USFWS). The proposed 
plan creates a 28,000-acre critical wildlife 
habitat for the Louisiana Black Bear in 



St. Mary Parish. Approximately 7,000 
acres of sugar could be affected. 

In attendance were representatives 
from the following organizations: 
American Sugar Cane League, Farm 
Bureau, Congressman Billy Tauzin's of- 
fice, St. Mary Parish, and the USFWS. 
The gist of the meeting was that no one 
wanted to see anything happen to the 
detriment of the sugar cane farmers in 
that area. Martin Cancienne in Con- 
gressman Billy Tauzin's office made it 
clear that it is their intention to protect 
the interest of those farmers who are 
impacted. Congressman Tauzin's office 
would also like to see the scope of the 
proposal limited to non-farm lands. 

Also raising concerns were State 
Representatives Jack Smith, Sydnie 
Durand and State Senator John Siracusa. 
Representative Jack Smith (Franklin) 
acknowledged the adverse economic 
impact this could have in that area. In a 
recent conversation with Representative 
Smith, he stated "all alternatives must be 
studied thoroughly in order to protect 
our farmers, their families and our com- 
munity". 



Wanted: p & I-H Tractors 
for parts, any age or condition 

New, used and rebuilt hi crop and row crop tractor parts 

Tires • Rebuilt clutches • Crank shafts • Injector pumps and more 

Also any hard-to-find parts. We buy farm equipment and salvage tractors 



Cane 

Tractor 

Parts 




Toll Free 
1-800-259-3453 
(318)276-3453 
(318)276-6230 




Hwy. 90, Jeanerette, La. 



15 



1998 High Yield Winners 



\0M 



(1997 Crop) 



'4 









'm». 



Harold and Erkle Rodrigue, Jr. 
of Rodrigue Planting Co., Inc. 

Top 20 Producer - 1st Place 
Top Parish Producer - St. James 
District Acreage Category Winner 



fe 



Wilbert Smith, Richard Thomas, 
Lawrence and Mienrad 
Blanchard of Blanchard Farms, 
Inc. 

Top 20 Producer - 2nd Place 
Top Parish Producer - Assumption 
District Acreage Category Winner 

Rick Louque 

Assumption Count}/ Agent (right) 



r^f.^4 Jimmy Garrett 

St. James County Agent (right) 



^^ 



#*w 



%**»#* 




d 1 



I 





Gene Clement, Jr., Norris 

d 

ca 

Farms, Inc. 



^ ^^"^ Mathcrne, Jerard Kraemer, an( 
, ,-^**v^^jM^j^ ^j^jl^Qj^y Giardina of Rebecc 



Top 20 Producer - 3rd Place 
^ Top Parish Producer - Terrebonne 

Barton Joffrion 

Terrebonne County Agent (right) 



16 










■^ ;|s^f ' 



1 



1^' 



■i'u^r 



4 ■ ; *. ":■■ 



Keith Zeringue 



.., Top 20 Producer - 4th Place 
I *' * Top Parish Producer - Lafourche 
District Acreage Category Winner 

"*'7;;'.'" Mike Hebert 

Lafourche County Agent (right) 






Melvin Keys, junior Francis and 
Jody Arcement of Herman 
Arcement & Son, Inc. 

Top 20 Producer - 5th Place 

Rick Louque 

Assumption County Agent (right) 



\\:< 



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^ 



Celeste Campesi, wife of 
Dominick J. Campesi, Inc. 




i t Top 20 Producer - 6th Place 

'^l -.,'. Top Parish Producer - Iberville 

Dr. Wade Faw 

Extension Service Sugarcane 
i Specialist (right) 



17 







m^^ 



W 



:\ 



Daniel and Warren Porta of D & W 
^, Porta, Inc. 

\ Top 20 Producer - 7th Place 

Jimmy Garrett 

St. James County Agent (right) 



Kevin and Stephen Breaux of 
Kevin Breaux Farms 

Top 20 Producer - 8th Place 
Top Parish Producer - St. Mary 
District Acreage Category Winner 

Dr. Don Fontenot 

St. Mary County County Agent 
(right) 



m 



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P**' .f^} ciHRS 



^^1 

IJ^ Charles, Jr., Charles, Sr. (holding 
^ Stephen), Dickie (holding Lee) 
i and Greg Gravois of Blackberry 
^ K Farms, Inc. 

^ •> Top 20 Producer - 9th Place 

i» "' 

\ Jimmy Garrett 

'L'th- If* St. Jawcs County Agent (right) 



18 




Chad LeBlanc, Wayne Poche and 
Keith Martin of Martin & Poche, 
Inc. 

Top 20 Producer - 10th Place 

Jimmy Garrett 

St. James Count]/ Agent (right) 



Ted Broussard 

Top 20 Producer - 11th Place 

Dr. Don Fontenot 

St. Mary County Agent (right) 



w 



w 



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.A'. 




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4%' 




^ . y;i Leslie and Stan Rodrigue and 

f ' ?H ^^^^' f I [ Michael Tassin of Goldmine 



lilt 




Top 20 Producer - 12th Place 
Top Parish Producer - St. John 



^*'^^^^// Larry Brock 

ft^jy St. John County Agent (right) 



19 



CLASSIFIEDS 



FOR. SALE 



• 1983 S30 4x4 cab and air, new style 
air - $35,000. Call J.W. Hurdle, Jr. at 
(225) 749-2892. 

• 1991 Case/lnt'l 7130, with front wheel 
drive, PTO, heavy duty steel bumper 
with box, 3640 hrs., - $37,500; 1972 
Thompson Cane Cutter with large 
JD engine and front wheel assist - 
$5,000; 3-row Bottom Plow with 3 pt. 
hitch and gauge wheels - $500; 6' 
Case End Row Flat Chopper (parts 
only)- $100; 1990 Case/ Int'l 5120 
Maxum, 3490 hrs. - $22,500. Call 
Randy Gonsoulin at (318) 365-0014. 

• 3 Cane Trailers; Cameco 2-row 

Harvester; Cameco 4WD Field 
Loader, a/c cab with ditcher. Call 
Roland Bourgeois, Vacherie at (225) 
265-4452 (leave a message). 

• 1066 Int'l Hi-Clearance with Cab; 

1466 Int'l with Cab; Broussard Cane 
Loader with chain pilar and backhoe; 
3 Tandum Whole Stalk Wagons with 
quick hitch and extra wheels and 
hubs; Various Tanks and Tools. Call 
Russell Judice at (318) 394-4727. 

• 1991 Broussard 2-Row harvester 

Cab and a/c, all new updates - 
$80,000. Call (225) 344-9845. 

• Broussard Single-row Cutter, JD 

engine, row flipper, Sunstran Hyd. 
Ready to Cut, J & L Front End, 
$25,000 or will trade on farm or 
construction equipment. Call Erne 
Plessala, Jr. at (318) 229-8409. 

• Prentice Transloader with cab, Allis 
Chalmer Motor - $7,000. Call (225) 
265-4078. 



• 1983 Single-row Broussard 
Harvester, double ends & scroll, CAT 
3208 engine. New 18-4-38 tires, with 
pulling wheel, shredder topper - 
$20,000; John Deere 4840 with new 
trans. & engine overhauled in '97 - 
$14,000; 1066 Hi-Clearance Int'l - 
$4,000; 856 Hi-Clearance Int'l - 
$2,500; Bayou Service (set) - 
$3,500, Bayou Service & Brooks 
(set) - $4,000, Jack Brooks -$2,000; 
3-Row Bottom Type Plow Int'l, 
heavy duty and gauge wheels - 
$3,500; 4-Row JD style with gauge 
wheels and cyclers - $3,500; JD 
4240, Hi-Clearance, 1981; 1 front 
mount spray rig with 200-gal. tank - 
$100; JD disk plow, heavy duty, 17- 
ft. - $2,500; Rolling Cultivator, 
Lilliston, 4-row - $250; Rolling 
Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row - $75; JD 
Clipper, model 709, 7-ft. - $1,000; 
JD 3-row chopper, adjustable 
cylinders - $2,000; Int'l 3-row 
chopper - $1 ,000; 3 one-row 
shavers - best otter; 2 Bayou 
Service type planter's aids. Call 
Damian Pierre at (318)229-6932. 

• 1973 Thompson Cane Cutter; 1981 
7020 Allis Chamberlain Tractor; 6' 
Bush Hog; 5-row Sprayer, 300 
gallon; Drum Planter; 1 Homemade 
Cane Cart, direct haul, Bayou 
Service Grader Tires, direct haul; 
Bayou Service direct haul; 1 
Homemade Cane Cart, 36 " wheels 
on direct haul; Set Double Chop- 
pers. Call Henry Jarreau, Jr. at (504) 
627-5721 or Bill Jarreau at (504) 
627-5734. 

WANTED: Transloader. Call (409) 296- 
4996. 



20 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369, White Castle, LA 70788 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard, Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

R O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy. 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

100- A Wadsworth, Maurice, LA 70555 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
R O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway, Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified Public Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

P O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

P O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
P O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

P O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
P O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibemia National Bank 

PO. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
P. O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

P O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy. 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



MetLife 

5353 Essen Lane, Suite 333, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy. 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy., Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

P O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

The New Iberia Bank 

PO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, PO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Rohm & Haas 

108 Stonewall Ave., Carencro, LA 70520 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

P O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

P O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

P O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

P O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Tri-State Delta Chemicals 

Fertilizer Region 

P O. Box 28, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Youngsville, LA 70592 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
ThiboH-^'^v LA 70301 

^-OUISXAMA ST&T^ .n.,,.,, 
LIBRARY "■' '""'•'•"■ 

BATON ROUGE^- I A 



/Uci03 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
PERMIT NO. 43 



Volume 77, No. 3 



December 1998 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



IS ISSUE 



Up Front With the League 3 

by Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 7 

by Don Wallace 

Farm Notes 11 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Baton Rouge Line 15 

by Sean Prados with Spradley & Spradley 

Environmental Perspective 17 

by James F. Coerver, P.E. with G.E.C., Inc. 

1998 High Yield Award Winners 19 

Classifieds 24 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit organiza- 
tion. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year. 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 
The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those of 
the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of the 
advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



The Sugar Bulletin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon /Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson/Senior Agronomist 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist 

John Constant/Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens/Secretary 

Paul G. Borron El/Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
1156 15th St., N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members ,of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles J. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David Allain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Felix "Gus" Blanchard, New Iberia, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

lohn F. Gay, Plaquemine, La. 

Ronald Gonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 

Dean Gravois, Vacherie, La. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Grannercy, La. 

Jackie Judice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, Franklin, La. 

Buckley Kessler, White Castle, La. 

Lawrence "Boo" Levert III, St. Martinville, La. 

A. J. "Brother" LeBourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

D. C. Mattingly, Paincourtville, La. 

Jeronne "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 

Michael G. Melancon, Breaux Bridge, La. 

Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 



Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Patout, Jeanerette, La. 
William S. Patout IE, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Jackie Theriot, Breaux Bridge, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Carlton Townscnd, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 




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R O N T 



BY Charlie Melancon 



The Changing Landscape 



This past month I had the opportu- 
nity to visit in the Florida sugar 
industry. Specifically, I attended 
the dedication of U.S. Sugar's new refin- 
ery in Clewiston. This refinery is state of 
the art, the first to be built in the U.S. in 
over twenty-five years, and is set up at 
the back end of the raw sugar house at 
the Clewiston plant. It is constructed in 
such a manner to allow for future expan- 
sion to meet throughput requirements. 
In its present configuration, it will be 
able to process at least 540,000 tons of 
sugar annually. As you may already be 
aware, U.S. Sugar Corp. has joined the 
United Sugar Co-op. of Minnesota, a 
sugar marketing co-op. U.S. Sugar's in- 
volvement until then was a marketer of 
only beet sugar. U.S. Sugar's new refin- 
ery and packaging facility, at the time of 
the dedication, was processing raws into 
white sugar and packaging name brand 
sugar, including sugar for another raw 
cane sugar refiner. That, in itself, was 
quite an interesting story. 

As our industry approaches the next 
century, I often wonder to myself about 
the "changing landscape," in not only 
the raw cane sugar sector, but also, in the 
beet and the refining sector. As I men- 
tioned in my article last month, there are 
strong rumors that a group of raw sugar 
growers and processors were purchas- 
ing a refinery. I suspect that, after niy 
Florida visit, the deal may be closer than 
just rumor would have one believe. If 
that is the case, then there would be only 



three "stand alone" refinery groups op- 
erating in the U.S.; C & H (Calif.), Impe- 
rial Holly/Savannah, and Tate and Lyle. 
Additionally, another of our raw sugar 
allies is looking to install a refining facil- 
ity, leaving only two sugar cane state's 
industry that don't own or operate their 
own refining facilities; one being Louisi- 
ana. The landscape is changing, and it is 
changing quite quickly. 

I realized quite early in my tenure 
with the League that the raw #14 prices 
no longer sets the price for all sugar in 
this country. That is now a function of 
the refined sugar processing and mar- 
keting companies. This means that Loui- 
siana, in its present mode of operation 
and infrastructure, remains a price taker 
with very little chance of becoming a 
price maker. We continue to relegate 
ourselves to accepting a "negotiated" 
price from the refiners. There is no one 
person to blame. While we, as an indus- 
try, are concerning ourselves with ex- 
penditures to increase our efficiencies, 
the rest of the domestic industry is mov- 
ing toward vertical integration. With the 
cost of operating farms and factories in 
this day and time, it becomes an obvious 
strain on the wallet to begin thinking 
about moving ourselves into the next 
arena ... refining and marketing of the fi- 
nal products, white sugar. 

Other Landscape Changes 

While the refining industry reflects 
changes, mostly in the form of owner- 



ship, so too does the sugar growing 
arena. For those of you unaware, our 
sugar beet brethren in the Red River 
Valley and other areas are expanding 
acreage. Not necessarily exponentially, 
but quite rapidly never the less. At the 
same time, we stand witness to the ex- 
pansion of the Louisiana acreage and the 
proposed planting of new cane in East 
Texas and California. What does this 
mean for our domestic sugar industry? 
It could be positive! Or yet, it could be 
negative. And to be perfectly honest 
with each and every one of you reading 
this article, my crystal ball has yet to give 
me the answer. My first "gut'' reaction is 
that it is positive, in that domestically we 
could become surplus producers. But, is 
that positive? ... especially since our gov- 
ernment has agreed to a GATT mini- 
mum import amount on sugar at 1.25 
million tons and a NAFTA agreement of 
250,000 tons in the near future, for 
Mexico, with unlimited access not long 



thereafter. Of one thing I am certain, 
surplus production will not be a prob- 
lem to be dealt with prior to the next 
farm bill's renewal. It could well be a 
positive factor. For one thing, expanded 
cane sugar producing areas bring more 
Congressional support for our industry. 
Secondly, it should reduce the TRQ as 
we increase domestic sugar production. 
But, that too, we need to watch. 

Of one thing I am quite certain and 
have expressed it to those who have 
wished to listen ... If you, growers and 
processors, are still simply talking about 
what changes may be on the horizon, 
rather than preparing for that change, 
then you shouldn't have that "deer in 
the headlight" look about you when 
USDA posts production cost by state 
(and or nations), and Louisiana is not the 
low cost producer that it needs to be. 
Again, I only ask that you think about it! 
And remember, I am only the messen- 
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WASHINGTON UPDATE 



WITH Don Wallace 



Louisiana's Bob Livingston Succeeds 
Gingricli as Spealcer 



Representative Bob Livingston (R- 
LA) has been elected by his peers 
to succeed Representative Newt 
Gingrich (R-GA) as Speaker of the 
House for the 106th Congress. Speaker 
Gingrich surprised even beltway insid- 
ers when he announced that he would 
resign from his post and leave Congress. 
He leaves after two tumultuous terms of 
leadership, which ended with Demo- 
crats eroding away the Republican mar- 
gin of control that he helped to establish. 
Rep. Livingston, who has served as 
Chairman of the House Appropriations 
Committee for the past four years, was 
the early favorite to fill the Speaker's 
office. During his more than twenty 
years in the House, he has earned a 
reputation as a hard-nosed legislator 
who is respected on both sides of the 
aisle. 

Democrats Gain Seats in House, 
Parties Fight to Standstill in Senate 

Democrats bucked a historical trend 
in last month's elections by gaining a net 
total of five seats in the House and hold- 
ing Republicans to a draw in the Senate, 
despite the presence of a second term 
Democratic president. Usually, the party 
holding the White House for a second 
consecutive term loses seats in the mid- 
term elections. The turnaround was 



viewed by most observers as a surpris- 
ing victory for Democrats, and sparked 
the change in leadership for House Re- 
publicans. 

Somewhat paradoxically, the House 
elections were distinguished also for the 
strong advantage bestowed by incum- 
bency. All but seven of the 402 members 
seeking reelection were successful. Only 
one member of the House Agriculture 
Committee, Representative Jay Johnson 
(D-WI), was defeated in a bid for reelec- 
tion. Many observers had anticipated a 
tough race for Representative Charles 
Stenholm, who serves as the Agriculture 
Committee's Ranking Minority Mem- 
ber, but the Texas farmer was reelected 
by a margin larger than his last reelec- 
tion. 

The next Congress will bring at least 
two other changes to the Agriculture 
Committee, most prominently in its 
leadership. Representative Larry 
Combest (R-TX) will assume the Chair- 
manship from retiring Representative 
Bob Smith (R-OR), who oversaw the 
Committee for one term. The committee 
will also lose Representative Scotty 
Baesler (D-KY), who retired to seek elec- 
tion to the Senate. He was narrowly de- 
feated in that effort. 

Rep. Combest takes the Chair as the 
domestic farm economy faces a full ar- 



ray of challenges. A combination of 
weather-related disasters, perilously 
low coramodity prices, shrinking export 
markets, and declining government 
payments to subsidized crops during 
the past year prompted legislators to 
pass a $6 billion disaster relief package 
to help out struggling farmers. 

There will also be at least one change 
to the composition of the House Appro- 
priations Subcommittee on Agriculture, 
Rural Development, Food and Drug 
Administration and Related Agencies. 
Representative Vic Fazio (D-CA), an ar- 
dent supporter of strong agriculture 
policies, is retiring. 

Election day brought a few changes 
to the Senate, as well, and was a bit 
tougher on incumbents. Prominent new 
faces include Mike Crapo (R-ID), who 
left the House to fill the seat vacated by 
retiring Senator Dirk Kempthorne (R- 
ID); Evan Bayh (D-IN), son of former 
Senator Birch Bayh (D-UST); Jim Bunning 
(R-KY), who also left the House to edge 
out colleague Rep. Baesler for the seat of 
retiring Senator Wendell Ford (D-KY); 
and former Representative Blanche 
Lambert Lincoln (D-AR), who once 
served on the House Agriculture Com- 
mittee, will replace Senator Dale 
Bumpers (D-AR). 

Ousted from the Senate were Sena- 
tors Al D'Amato (R-NY), Lauch 
Faircloth (R-NC), and Carol Moseley- 
Braun (D-IL). Senator D'Amato was de- 
feated by Representative Charles 
Schumer (D-NY), who for each of the 
last three years has unsuccessfully coau- 
thored a House bill with Representative 
Dan Miller (R-FL) attacking the sugar 
program. 

All four Senate Agriculture Commit- 
tee members with expiring terms were 
reelected. They were Senate Minority 
Leader Tom Daschle (D-SD), and Sena- 
tors Patrick Leahy (D-VT), Paul 



Coverdell (R-GA), and Charles Grassley 
(R-IA). 

November WASDE Reports Higher 
Stocks 

The United States Department of 
Agriculture (USDA) has released the 
World Agriculture Supply and Demand 
Estimates (WASDE) for November, and 
reports a significant increase in the do- 
mestic supply of sugar. The higher sup- 
ply estimates result in a stocks-to-use 
ratio of 16.7%, well above the 15.5% trig- 
ger used by USDA to determine 
whether or not to cancel import tranches 
in January, March, and May. Thus, if the 
current projections are maintained for 
the next two reports, the January import 
tranche of 150,000 metric tons (165,347 
short tons, raw value) would be can- 
celled. 

Several factors contribute to the new 
projections. First, production estimates 
of beet and cane sugar for 1997/98 have 
been raised; 89,000 short tons for beets 
due to greater than expected yields in 
September, and 6,000 tons for cane. Sec- 
ond, lower than expected deliveries for 
1997/98 reduced consumption esti- 
mates for last year by 88,000 tons, mean- 
ing that carry-over stocks were in- 
creased by 180,000 tons. Third, estimates 
of beet production for 1998/99 are up by 
80,000 tons from last month, as a result 
of healthy prospects in the Red River 
Valley. Finally, forecasts for consump- 
tion for 1998/99 were decreased by 
50,000 tons. 

Total domestic production for 1998/ 
99 is now estimated at 8.047 million 
short tons. Total domestic consumption 
is projected to be 10.025 million tons. 

Omnibus Spending Bill Signed by 
Clinton 

In the last edition of "Washington 
Update," I reported that Congress was 



8 



mulling over details of $500 billion om- 
nibus spending bill, which included a $6 
billion disaster assistance package for 
farmers. Also included was language 
directing the USDA to administer the 
forfeiture penalty provisions of the 
sugar program in a manner ''more con- 
sistent with congressional intent/' 
Shortly after last month's article went to 
press, Congress passed the spending 
package, which was subsequently 
signed into law by President Clinton. 



Congressional Staffers Tour Sugar 
Operations 

Staffers representing personal and 
committee offices of House and Senate 
members from around the country trav- 
eled to Louisiana recently to study sugar 
cane harvesting and milling operations. 
Also joining the tour was Representative 
John Cooksey (R-LA), who met with 
members of the League and its staff to 
discuss important issues affecting the 
Louisiana industry. 



Industry Tour 








Thirty Congressional Staffers and Washington Representatives toured the Louisiana Sugar Industry the 
weekend of November 13-15. Despite inclement weather, the tour was deemed a success. 



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10 



FARM NOTES 



BY Dr. Charley Richard 



Crop Report and Polado Usage 
SPRI Director 



As of this date on November 15, 
1998, the harvest season is ap- 
proximately half completed. 
The effects of the summer drought and 
later heavy rains from tropical systems 
are now readily apparent in the harvest 
results. Tonnage is certainly reduced by 
the lack of growth in those areas which 
experienced the worst of the drought 
conditions. Tonnage in other areas is 
closer to normal and even higher than 
last year's yield on a few farms. Since 
there has not been any cold weather so 
far this year, the crop has continued to 
grow, which has helped offset the effects 
of the summer drought. However, the 
continued growth has made sugar per 
ton lower than normal. 

While some growers did not use 
Polado as extensively as normal, other 
growers who did use it found that it was 
very difficult to check the late, rapid 
growth of cane this fall. Other growers 
who used light rates of Polado found 
that sugar per ton was less than hoped 
for. Growers should remember that 
Polado does not guarantee a certain 
level of sugar. It does normally provide 
for a higher percent of sugar per ton 
than untreated cane. It may be that the 
low sugar per ton experienced in Polado 
treated cane is still higher than what 
would have been obtained if Polado had 
not been used. To date, the industry is 
averaging close to 186 pounds of sugar 
per ton of cane. This is about 25 pounds 



less than the industry averaged last year 
at this same time but only 6 or 7 pounds 
less than in 1996 and 1995. Even with the 
lower than expected sugar level, be- 
cause of adequate tonnage and addi- 
tional acreage, the industry could still 
produce over 1.2 million tons of sugar. 
While many growers are complain- 
ing about sugar per ton and the lower 
than expected results from Polado, it 
should also be remembered that Polado 
is not guaranteed to work every year. 
Research has demonstrated that in- 
creased sugar per acre may result from 
Polado in the majority of the years used. 
Therefore, growers are advised not to try 
to guess which years it should be used. 
Instead, growers should use it routinely, 
especially if the factory is providing a 
portion of the cost of the material. Grow- 
ers should then expect that they will 
benefit from Polado usage in the major- 
ity of the years used. LCP 85-384 is 
somewhat sensitive to Polado usage in 
the subsequent crop's germination and 
early growth rate. Therefore, the recom- 
mended usage rate is lower than for 
some of the other varieties. Also, Polado 
generally does not work as well under 
dry field conditions and some growers 
try to offset this with higher rates. How- 
ever, with the concern for the next year 
crop's germination in Polado treated 
cane, growers should be careful about 
using too high a rate of this ripener in 
LCP 85-384. 



11 



As a result of the late rains from the 
tropical systems Frances and Georges, 
planting was delayed for many growers. 
This caused for a difficult start to the 
harvest season since many growers were 
unable to deliver their full quota during 
the first two weeks of the harvest season. 
Some factories ran out of cane repeat- 
edly during these first weeks. Many of 
the factories which didn't run out of 
cane were grinding at a slower than nor- 
mal rate. Tliis slow start means that the 
harvest season may run longer than nor- 
mal and it is very possible that the in- 
dustry will see more factories than nor- 
mal grinding cane into January. Since 
the industry has experienced drier than 
normal conditions in late October and 
early November, some factories have 
made good progress since the poor start. 

Most areas of the cane belt have now 
received enough moisture to adequately 
seal in the late planted cane. The fields 
that were of concern from earlier 
plantings that were packed during the 
heavy rains from the tropical systems 
have, for the most part, germinated and 
are showing fairly well. However, there 
is still a very uneven germination rate 
and some concern about the stands that 
will show next spring in these particular 
fields. 

Fresh, green harvested cane as com- 
pared to burnt cane is again the subject 
being discussed by many growers and 
all processors. While factories would 
like to see the cleanest, freshest cane 
possible, many growers have found it 
difficult to deliver fresh, burnt cane. This 
should be possible, but growers have 
some difficulty in burning only portions 
of precision graded fields and also still 
try to outguess the weatherman by 
burning ahead of predicted rain. These 
conditions have made for burnt cane 
supplies which are not as fresh as green 
harvested cane. To further complicate 



the situation, many growers who are 
harvesting green are also still not doing 
as effective a job as possible at removing 
tops and trash from their deliveries. The 
result is that many factories are request- 
ing burnt cane. Consequently, dextran 
has been higher than expected at many 
factories in the belt thus far this year. 

Rains this past weekend have caused 
sugar recoveries to drop. Complicating 
the problem is the amount of burnt cane 
that is still arriving at some factories 
three days after the rain. LCP 85-384 
holds on to its leaves and leaf sheaths 
very tightly and is difficult to remove 
prior to a frost in either the combine sys- 
tem or soldier system whether green or 
burnt. This has caused more mud to ar- 
rive at the factories and is causing higher 
than desired fiber levels. 

While yields this year are acceptable, 
growers and processors will have to 
work closer to achieve maximum effi- 
ciency. It is important that the maximum 
sugar per acre be achieved at the factory 
for both growers and processors to claim 
top efficiency. The FRESHEST, 
CLEANEST CANE supply has always 
been and continues to be the desired 
objective. 

Sugar Processing Research Institute 
(SPRI) Managing Director 

Dr. Chung Chi Chou, an internation- 
ally prominent sugar technologist has 
been named the new Managing Director 
of SPRI. Dr. Chou replaces Dr. Margaret 
Clarke, the Managing Director of SPRI 
since 1981 until her untimely death in 
June 1998. 

The American Sugar Cane League is 
a member of the SPRI organization 
which conducts research on processing 
related issues. The industry has relied on 
SPRI and Audubon Sugar Institute for 
its processing technologies over the 
years. 



12 



Dr. Chou, born in Taiwan, is trained 
in chemical engineering and physical 
chemistry. He has been involved in the 
sugar industry since 1959 and has most 
recently served as Technical Director at 
Domino Sugar, a part of the Tate & Lyle 
Group. His responsibilities included 
process technology, analytical methods 
development, and governmental regula- 



tory compliance with respect to food 
product safety. 

Dr. Chou has numerous technical 
publications and has received many 
awards in the sugar industry. He is well 
respected throughout the world for his 
expertise and will provide SPRI with the 
leadership to best serve the SPRI mem- 
bership. 



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14 



THE BATON ROUGE LINE 



Sean M. Prados 



Oversize and Excess Weight Veliicie Tasic Force Created 



Governor Foster has formed the 
Oversize and Excess Weight 
Vehicle Task Force to study a 
number of issues relating to transporta- 
tion. Executive Order MJF 98-47 calls for 
an evaluation of the laws that govern 
oversized vehicles, the amount of dete- 
rioration, if any, caused by such vehicles, 
and the adequacy of fees and /or taxes 
that oversized vehicles are assessed. The 
Executive Order also states that "a bal- 
ance should be maintained between the 
economic concerns of businesses and the 
safety and structural integrity of the 
state's highway system." 

The Governor is in the process of ap- 
pointing nineteen members to the Task 
Force. Charlie Melancon's name was 
submitted to represent the American 
Sugar Cane League. Representatives 
from other private associations who will 
participate include the Louisiana Farm 
Bureau Federation, the Louisiana For- 
estry Association, the Louisiana Motor 
Transportation Association, The Louisi- 
ana Good Roads Association, and the 
Louisiana Oilfield Contractors Associa- 
tion. The remaining members will be 
selected from the public sector. 

The League's participation on this 
Task Force is very important. As seen 
before, opponents to special agriculture 
permits have used such public forums to 
vocalize against these permits. How- 
ever, this is also a good opportunity for 



the farming community to display the 
economic benefits from agriculture. 
When all is said and done, the Task 
Force will submit a report to the gover- 
nor and members of the legislature by 
March 1, 1999. 

Taxes 

Another group worth watching is 
the Special Committee to study the 
Louisiana Tax System. This committee 
was created by Senate Concurrent Reso- 
lution 34 of the last Session. This com- 
mittee consists of legislators from the 
Finance, Revenue and Fiscal Affairs, 
Appropriations, Ways and Means, and 
Municipal, Parochial, and Cultural Af- 
fairs committees. Members of this Com- 
mittee will evaluate Louisiana's tax 
structure and report back to the full leg- 
islature in the year 2000. 



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* PVC Irrigated Pipe and Fittings 

* Dual Wall Plastic Culverts 

* Pipe Drops and Weirs 

* Polytubing 

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15 



La Cane 

LOUISIANA CANE MANUFACTURING, INC. 

P.O. Box 71 • Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 447-3771 • Fax: (504) 447-8404 — 

TIGER — 2 Row Chopper Harvester 




Available for the 1998 Harvest 

Season 

Call La Cane (Jim Collinson or 

Ken Caillouet) to Schedule a 

Video Presentation or For 

More Information 



FEATURES: 

• 2-Row Cutting at Pour Rates of 200 to 300 Tons Per Hour 

• Topping, Stripping and Extracting Leaves Before Chopping and Loading 

• 4 Wheel Drive (Rubber Tires) 

• Base Cutting Out iii Front of Running Gear to Help Prevent Mud Induction 
While Cutting in Wet Conditions 

• Excellent Weight Distribution, Balance and Low Ground Baring Pressure 

• Green Cane Cutting in All Conditions 

INCREASE PROFITS BY: 

• Reduced Operating Costs 

• Increased Cutting Sc Loading Rates 

• Reduced Labor 8c Fuel Costs 

• Reduced Trash &: Mud in Cane 

• Reduced Maintenance 
(Less Equipment Sc NO TRACKS) 

• Higher (..R.S. Sc Higher Tonnage 




16 



ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE 



James F. CoERVER, P.E. 
G.E.C. Inc. 



Air Permits and Fine Print 



As predicted, many or most Loui- 
siana sugar mills have received 
Title V Operating Permits, and 
these permits are verbose and compli- 
cated. Unfortunately, the documents 
were received in the busy season of mill 
start-up and operations when there was 
little or no time for a thorough study of 
the ''fine print/' 

Among the gems in the new operat- 
ing permits are requirements for prepa- 
ration and submittal of semiannual and 
annual reports, written "housekeeping" 
plans, and standby plans for the reduc- 
tion of emissions during Air Pollution 
alerts. Air Pollution Warnings, or Air 
Pollution Emergencies declared by the 
administrative authority. I cannot say 
that any of these and some other of the 
Title V permit requirements are going to 
improve the environment or that they 
are not actually wasteful, but I can say 
that failure to comply may be even more 
costly. This is simply part of the price 
that must be paid for permission to op- 
erate a business in the current environ- 
mental regulatory (overkill) situation. 

"Housekeeping" is not defined in 
the permits or in State Regulations, nor 
is any form or format prescribed for 
written housekeeping plans. It appears 



that one could describe in the simplest 
terms what is appropriate, "post the 
housekeeping and maintenance plan at 
the facility," and submit the housekeep- 
ing plan to the Air Quality Division with 
the first of the semiarmual reports which 
are due by March 31, 1999 for the period 
July 1 through December 31, 1998. There 
is no prescribed format for the annual 
and /or semiannual reports either, al- 
though much of what the reports must 
contain is indicated specifically in the 
permits. 

While there is no prescribed form or 
format for the air pollution emergency 
plans, requirements are spelled out 
clearly in Chapter 56 of the Louisiana 
Air Quality Regulations, entitled Pre- 
vention of Air Pollution Emergency Epi- 
sodes. These plans are required by EPA 
to appease paranoid environmentalists 
who believe that air pollution is so bad 
that we must always be prepared to deal 
with episodes such as occurred post- 
WW II in London, England when many 
people died from respiratory distress 
attributable to smog (air pollution) oc- 
curring during winter atmospheric in- 
versions. I personally experienced simi- 
lar but less severe episodes at St. Louis, 
Missouri during the 1930s, when street 



17 



lighting was needed all day long and 
fresh snowfall turned black in short or- 
der. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was 
nearly as bad or worse. In all three cases, 
the culprit was uncontrolled or inad- 
equately controlled burning of high sul- 
fur content bituminous coal (natural gas 
was not available). 

The three notorious problems men- 
tioned above had been cleared up long 
before Congress passed the Clean Air 
Act in 1967, although conditions in 1967 
were much worse than today. Neverthe- 
less, regulations are written to assure 
that emergency measures will be taken if 
conditions get that bad again. The regu- 
lations provide that when pollutants 
reach or are projected to reach specified 
dangerous levels in the ambient air, the 
administrative authority must declare 
emergency measures. In the highest 
danger episode. Emergency Level, all 
manufacturing establishments must 



cease operating all but specifically au- 
thorized emergency facilities. 

Realistically, there is no way that an 
emergency episode can occur in Louisi- 
ana during the months October through 
January. If such does occur, farmers 
should definitely not be out working in 
the fields, nor should cane truck drivers 
be out on the road. Mills would have to 
close down anyway. Therefore, the 
proper thing to do is put a clothes pin on 
your nose and write a plan directing that 
all of the actions prescribed in the regu- 
lations for process steam generating fa- 
cilities will be taken immediately when 
and if any of the three levels of air pollu- 
tion emergency episode are declared by 
the Administrator. 

Please read the fine print in Title V 
permits and pay the dues. In this case 
submission to environmental overregu- 
lation may be much less expensive than 
ignoring it. 



"TRI- 


■STATS 


Delta Chemicals 


Thibodaux, La. 
(504) 447-4081 


Jeanerette, La. 
(318)276-5051 


New Roads, La. 
(504)638-8343 


Lemann's Farm Supply 
Donaldsonville, La. 
(504) 473-7927 
Satellite Plant 



Ourfluids 
make sugar. 



Ouachita 




Fertilizer 



New Iberia, La. (3 1 8) 367-8233 



Hearne Cane Planters 

Patent No. 5,469,791 

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•All Hydraulic* 

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* 1 5 acres per day proven* 

*Stainless Steel Hoppers* 

Simple ^ Rugged > Reliable 

•• Now Available ** 

3-row Billet Planters 

Ptandng Rates up to 50 acres per day 

Hearne Consulting, Inc. 

2450 Powers Ave, 
Opelousas, LA 70570 
To place your order call 

(318)942-8180 



18 



1998 High Yield Winners 



(1997 Crop) 






f 
I. 



m 



%^^ M l^ - 

m^ * .*^%. 



■! David Sanchez of T.J. Sanchez & 
; Son, Inc. 

I. 

. Top 20 Producer - 13th Place 



I Mark Tassin 

|x Iberville County Agent (right) 



J I 



':i 



1^ ^^ i 



H -' ' 



Gary Luke of Baker Plantation 

Top 20 Producer - 14th Place | 

District Acreage Category Winner ^ 

Dr. Don Fontenot f 

St. Mary County Agent (right) 



^. 






^ 



-W 



i 



"- « 

1 ^ 



^^ . 



iilT 



^^^ 







;^ 









I 



Charles Waguespack of 
* Waguespack Farms, Inc. 

\ 

; Top 20 Producer - 15th Place 

I District Acreage Category Winner 



\ Jimmy Garrett 

Fj\ I St. James County Agent (right) 







^.^^ V^^l Ronald Woods 
f^i 1 1 of Woods Farms, Inc. 

Top 20 Producer - 16th Place 

Rick Louque 

Assumption County Agent (right) 

(Eugene Woods not pictured) 



m^^ 
v^i 



Charlie and Al Landry 
of Alton Landry, Inc. 

Top 20 Producer - 17th Place 

Mark Tassin 

Iberville County Agent (right) 








^^*i^;.^ei 



*m^ 



i 





6 



i-- > 



p? 



f 



^ 



t: 



Al and Andy Lanie, Pat 

Langlinois and Wallace Vallot 
of Lanie Farms 

I!" 

•,, J^l ■ Top 20 Producer - 18th Place 
*^^ Top Parish Producer - Lafayette 

District Acreage Category Winner 




J )|^ ^'^ ifc 4 Alfred Guidry 

' "-L ^^ St. Martin County Agent (second 



5 ,^ ^ ^^ from right) 



m 






Stan Dutile 

Lafayette County Agent (far right) 



20 







X.. 



;^ M. 




' f* , Raymond Rousseau, Philip and 
I* ' I Joel Landry of Landry Farms 

j 4 k f Top 20 Producer - 19th Place 

K ^' 

M !fi).Ri^»^Louque 

^^/\ . ' % Assumption County Agent (right) 



Richard Douglas, Don and Mark 
Bergeron of Bergeron/Walton 
Partnership 

Top 20 Producer - 20th Place 

Rick Louque 

Assumption County Agent, (right) 











i I I 
f% » 

i 



Brent Barbier of Sugar Haven 
Farms, Inc. 

Top Parish Producer - Ascension 

Jimmy Garrett 

St. James County Agent (left) 



21 




Brian^ Craig, and Nicky Melancon 
of Melancon Sugar Cane Farms 

Top Parish Producer - St. Martin 

Alfred Guidry 

St. Martin County Agent (right) 



William and Ricky Broussard of 
Ricky, William & John Broussard 
Farms 

Top Parish Producer - Iberia 
District Acreage Category Winner 

Jimmy Flanagan ^ 

Iberia County Agent (right) 




m%k 



m-$\ 1 



'a Mr 












7 



Lawrence Burt, II 

District Acreage Category Winner 

Rick Louque 

Assumption County Agent (right) 



22 



> I 






Ml 






John Paul Fremin 

District Acreage Category Winner 

Dr. Wade Faw 

Extension Service Sugarcane 
Specialist (right) 



Your Numbers Are Important To Us 

Sugarcane farmers manage large amounts of money - some years with minimal 
return on investment. Our staff at PCA is knowledgeable, qualified and experienced 

in dealing with your numbers. We see them everyday. We hope that our financial 
assistance results in maximum returns - and that's a number that's important to YOU! 



vM ^ X^N nVv^ . X?^^ 



^-K- 



?Sf-'V| 



■:^. . 



.*.v 



Andy Andolsek 

Thibodaux 



First South PCA 

Agricultural Lender 

Give us a call! 

(504)446-9450 




Dean Martin 

Thibodaux 



23 



CLASSIFIEDS 



FOR SALE 



• 1983 S30 4x4 cab and air, new style 
air - $35,000. Call J.W. Hurdle, Jr. 
at (225) 749-2892. 



Prentice Transloader with cab, 
Allis Chalmer Motor - $7,000. Call 
(225) 265-4078. 



• 1991 Case/lnt'l 7130, with front 
wheel drive, PTO, heavy duty steel 
bumper with box, 3640 hrs., - 
$37,500; 1972 Thompson Cane 
Cutter with large JD engine and 
front wheel assist - $5,000; 3-row 
Bottom Plow with 3 pt. hitch and 
gauge wheels - $500; 6' Case End 
Row Flat Chopper (parts only)- 
$100; 1990 Case/lnt'l 5120 
Maxum, 3490 hrs. - $22,500. Call 
Randy Gonsoulin at (318) 365- 
0014. 

• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2-row 
Harvester. Call Roland Bourgeois, 
Vacherie at (225) 265-4452 (leave a 
message). 

• Broussard Single-row Cutter, 

Sunstran Hyd. System, JD engine, 
row flipper - $20,000; Cameco 2- 
row Cutter, live gates, new topper, 
extended front end, J.D. Engine - 
$42,000; Tandem Axle Cane 
Wagons - $700. Call Erne Plessala, 
Jr. at (318) 229-8409. 

• 1973 Thompson Cane Cutter; 1981 
7020 Allis Chamberlain Tractor; 6' 
Bush Hog; 5-row Sprayer, 300 
gallon; Drum Planter; 1 Home- 
made Cane Cart, direct haul. 
Bayou Service Grader Tires, direct 
haul; Bayou Service direct haul, 1 
Homemade Cane Cart, 36" wheels 
on direct haul; Set Double Chop- 
pers. Call Henry Jarreau, Jr. at 
(504) 627-5721 or Bill Jarreau at 
(504) 627-5734. 



• 1983 Single-row Broussard 
Harvester, double ends & scroll, 
CAT 3208 engine. New 18-4-38 
tires, with pulling wheel, shredder 
topper - $20,000; John Deere 
4840 with new trans. & engine 
overhauled in '97 - $14,000; 1066 
Hi-Clearance Int'l - $4,000; 856 
Hi-Clearance Int'l - $2,500; 
Bayou Service (set) -$3,500, 
Bayou Service & Brooks (set) - 
$4,000, Jack Brooks -$2,000; 3- 
Row Bottom Type Plow Int'l, 
heavy duty and gauge wheels - 
$3,500; 4-Row JD style with 
gauge wheels and cyclers - 
$3,500; JD 4240, Hi-Clearance, 
1981; 1 front mount spray rig with 
200-gal. tank -$100; JD disk 
plow, heavy duty, 17-ft. - $2,500; 
Rolling Cultivator, Lilliston, 4-row 
- $250; Rolling Cultivator, 
Lilliston, 3-row - $75; JD Clipper, 
model 709, 7-ft. -$1,000; JD 3-row 
chopper, adjustable cylinders - 
$2,000; Int'l 3-row chopper - $1 
,000; 3 one-row shavers - best 
otter; 2 Bayou Service type 
planter's aids. Call Damian Pierre 
at (318)229-6932. 

• 1992 S30 Single Row Cutter, all 

new updates, field ready. Call 
(318) 365-3453 or page (318) 373- 
4937. 

WANTED: Transloader. Call (409) 
296-4996. 



24 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369, White Castle, LA 70788 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard, Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

P O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

100-A Wadsworth, Maurice, LA 70555 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
P O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified PubUc Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

P O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

P O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
P O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

P O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
P O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibernia National Bank 

PO. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
P O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

P O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



MetLife 

5353 Essen Lane, Suite 333, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

P O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

The New Iberia Bank 

PO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, PO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Rohm & Haas 

108 Stonewall Ave., Carencro, LA 70520 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

P O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

P O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

P O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

P O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Tri-State Delta Chemicals 

Fertilizer Region 

P O. Box 28, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Youngsville, LA 70592 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 



o£R 



•i-i^LS DEPl 



-OUISIA 



BATON ROffr-r- . . 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
PERMIT NO. 43 



January 1999 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



N THIS ISSUE 



Up Front With the League 3 

by Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 7 

by Don Wallace 

Farm Notes 11 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Baton Rouge Line 15 

by Sean Prados with Spradley & Spradley 

Environmental Perspective 17 

by James F. Coerver, RE. with G.E.C., Inc. 

Sugarcane Enhancement Through Breeding 19 

by David M. Burner with USDA Agricultural Research Service 

Classifieds 24 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit organiza- 
tion. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 
The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those of 
the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of the 
advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



The Sugar Bulletin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 



Charles J. Melancon /Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson/Senior Agronomist 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist 

John Constant/ Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens /Secretary 

Paul G. Borron Ill/Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
1156 15th St., N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles J. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David Allain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Felix "Gus" Blanchard, New Iberia, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

John 1". Gay, Plaqucmine, La. 

Ronald CJonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 

Dean Gravois, Vacherie, L,a. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Gramercy, La. 

Jackie judice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, I'ranklin, La. 

Buckley Kcsslcr, White Castle, La. 

Lawrence "Boo" Ix'vcrt III, St. Martinville, La. 

A. J. "Brother" LeBourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

D. C. Mattingly, Paincourtville, La. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 

Michael Ci. Melancon, Brcaux Bridge, La. 

Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 



Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Pa tout, Jeanerette, La. 
William S. Patout ID, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Jackie Theriot, Breaux Bridge, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldstmville, La. 
Carlton Townsend, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 



''For Proven Performance & Durability 

FOLLOW THE LEADER! 



jy 



The QUALITY Hi Dump Cane Wagon 




What does this wagon have that others don H? 

Lower centerpoint of gravity, with balanced basket on ground or in air 

Consistent low ground pressure on all (4) tires regardless of terrain 

Wagon design and length allows easier maneuverability and minimal side to side 

rocking when traveling thru the field, crossing over rows, and coming out the cut 

Less sinking and cutting up of headlands and field in muddy conditions 

Less problems with shuck slides and clumps of mud 

Special trunion axle design eliminates unnecessary pressure, stress and fatigue in 

chassis, A-frame and baskets 

Special lift and dump support frame with heavy duty pivot points give greater 

durability 

Dump cane and top off trailers without leaning against highway trailers 

Separate hydraulic lifting and dumping circuits allows dumping cane at any height. 

while reducing unnecessary pressure, stress and fatigue on both basket and chasis 

Rigid basket lip eliminates the problems that accompany other flip gate systems 

Quality's cylinder design requires less hydraulic pressure to dump loaded basket 

Lift cylinders push parallel to slide, causing less wear than single cylinder systems 

that push against the slide 

Hydraulic line placement is free from exterior obstructions 

5a^ ma^te 




Tony Collinson 
Sales 



utfjo^maiien 
gttoe u^. a caii! 



(504) 447-4021 
(800) 447-8403 
(504) 447-4028-Fax 




'44aliLf 



INDUSTRIES, INC. 



P.O. Box 406 
Thibodaux, LA 70302 
118 West Main Street 



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Advanced Composting Systems 




ACS Compost Workshop! 

For new and experienced composters. 

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Co-Hosted by Midwest Bio-Systems and University of SW Louisiana 

February 18*** and W^ - Lafayette, Louisiana 
University of Southwestern Louisiana 



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Email: 104177.1372(g)compuserve.com 



F R O N T W 1 T H T H E L E AG U E 



BY Charlie Melancon 



ASSCT - Louisiana Division 



The annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Society of Sugarcane Tech- 
nologists, Louisiana Division, 
will be held in Baton Rouge at the 
Radisson Hotel on Tuesday, February 9 
and continuing through Wednesday, 
February 10, 1999. 1 encourage all grow- 
ers and processors to involve them- 
selves in the ASSCT. The agricultural 
section, as well as the processor section, 
has always been very informative and I 
have always felt that any new piece of 
information gained makes a person bet- 
ter at their vocation, if not personally. 
Additionally, Herman Waguespack and 
I have had several discussions about a 
speaker for the banquet on the Tuesday 
night. Our feeling was to have someone 
that would provoke thought. That being 
said, Robert Buker who is the Senior 
Vice President of Corporate Affairs with 
the U.S. Sugar Corporation of 
Clewiston, Florida has been invited to 
address the attendees on the decisions 
U.S. Sugar Corporation made regarding 
their move into the refinery business. 
Additionally, he has been asked to dis- 
cuss his company's feelings about the 
future of the domestic sugar industry. I 
have known Bob for a number of years, 
and one thing that can be said for him is 
that he has been straight forward; par- 
ticularly about his company's thoughts, 
feelings, and decisions as it pertains to 
the U.S. sugar industry. I encourage each 
and every one of you to attend the 
ASSCT meetings. 

Cane Burning 

During this harvest season I have re- 



ceived a comparatively large number of 
phone calls and correspondence about 
sugarcane burning. Most of the com- 
plaints are coming from people who are 
experiencing the "fall out" from the 
burned, standing cane prior to combine 
harvesting. The public, in general, has 
been accustomed to the smoldering 
burn that we have used for years with 
the whole stalk laid down across the 
row. But, the new burn method is appar- 
ently upsetting some people. I sent out a 
memo to the mills during the harvest 
season asking them to distribute it to all 
growers asking that they be cognizant of 
their field fires and the surroundings 
nearby to their fields. I guess I should 
suggest that compared to the number of 
acres of sugarcane in this state, and the 
communities and structures nearby to 
the fields, the number of complaints 
might well be low. Comparatively! 
However, most of the people who com- 
plained were relatively indignant. Some 
of the complaints were that the farmer 
"flat out" told the neighbor affected by 
the burn that they could do whatever 
they wanted to on their property. With 
this type of attitude, the ability to con- 
tinue to bum fields for purposes of gain- 
ing milling efficiencies, may come to an 
abrupt halt. Everyone who is involved 
in this industry understands the impor- 
tance and the need to burn the trash 
from the stalk. But, your fellow citizens 
(particularly those that are not Louisiana 
natives) only know that they are experi- 
encing large amounts of smoke, fiercely 
burning fires, and an abundant amount 
of soot on or about their premises. And, 



they don't understand that! 

It should be the mission of every 
grower of sugarcane in this state to work 
closely with their neighbors to ensure 
that if you are going to burn a field adja- 
cent to their property that it would be a 
simple, common courtesy to make a dili- 
gent attempt to advise the neighbor- 
hood of the day that the burn may occur. 
Simply said, keep them informed. Addi- 
tionally, it is inherent upon our industry 
to have someone at the burn in the event 
that the fire should not end up being a 
friendly fire. I have had several in- 
stances of reports of fires that were lit 
and left to burn throughout the night. 
Dr. Richard wrote in his pre-harvest ar- 
ticle about the best management prac- 
tices (BMP's) for burning, and I am urg- 
ing each and every farmer to go back 
and review those same practices and to 
remember them each and every time a 



field is to be ignited for harvest pur- 
poses. It is not a difficult task to work 
with your neighbors in your commu- 
nity, but it is a very difficult task to try 
and educate one of your neighbors if 
you or one of your fellow farmers have 
already agitated them to a point of ag- 
gravation. If you wish to continue to be 
able to bum cane in the future, it is inher- 
ent upon you to maintain good relation- 
ships with your neighbors adjacent to 
your fields and within your communi- 
ties. To handle a problem after it has al- 
ready developed to anger is not only 
difficult, but almost impossible. Rightly 
or wrongly, in the business vernacular, 
the customer is always right. In this case, 
"the customer" is the neighbors to your 
fields. Treat them as you would have 
them treat you, and your problems 
should be minimal. Please think about 
it! 



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W AS H I N G T O N U P D A T E 



WITH Don Wallace 



Combest Takes the Helm for Agriculture 



When the 106th Congress con- 
venes in January, the House 
Agriculture Committee will 
have a new Chairman. Representative 
Larry Combest (R-TX) will replace out- 
going Chairman Bob Smith (R-OR), who 
is retiring. Rep. Combest will take the 
chair just as Representative Bob 
Livingston (R-LA) moves into the 
Speaker's office. The two legislators will 
assume their posts as Republicans begin 
the new year with one of the narrowest 
margins of control in recent memory. 
The presidential impeachment proceed- 
ings have served only to heighten ten- 
sions both within and between the two 
parties. 

A fourth generation farmer from 
west Texas, Rep. Combest has earned a 
reputation as an unswerving champion 
of production agriculture, and has won 
the respect of the agriculture community 
for his staunch advocacy of farmers dur- 
ing the debates of the last three farm 
bills. His district spans a vast area across 
the High Plains along Texas' western 
border where cotton, wheat, vegetables, 
and cattle are among the major crops. 
His neighbor to the east. Representative 
Charlie Stenholm (D-TX), of Texas' 17th 
District, will serve as the highest ranking 
Democrat on the Committee. 

Joining the new Chairman will be 
several new Committee members. For 
Republicans, the new members will be 



Representative Gil Gutknecht (R-MN), a 
strong supporter of the sugar program, 
and Representatives-elect Ernie Fletcher 
(R-KY), Robin Hayes (R-NC), Doug Ose 
(R-CA), Mike Simpson (R-ID), and Greg 
Walden (R-OR). They will replace outgo- 
ing members Representatives Roy Blunt 
(R-MO), John Doohttle (R-CA), Mark 
Foley (R-FL), Jo Ann Emerson (R-MO), 
Ron Lewis (R-KY), and Chairman Smith 
(R-OR), with one vacancy to be filled 
later in January. As of this writing. 
Democrats had not yet named their new 
or outgoing members, though those an- 
nouncements are expected as soon as 
committee ratios are finalized. An up- 
date on Democrat membership will be 
included in next month's "Washington 
Update." 

Several important issues await the 
new members. Severe drought across 
the country and dramatically low prices 
for several major commodities forced 
Congress to appropriate a $6 billion di- 
saster assistance package for farmers. 
Many observers worry that the price 
"disasters" have not yet abated and will 
require more action by the next Con- 
gress. Solving this dilemma will be high 
on the new Chairman's agenda. Already, 
he has identified his priorities to include 
finding a way to protect revenue for 
farmers dealing with the reforms insti- 
tuted by the 1996 farm bill, known as the 
FAIR Act. Rep. Combest's concern over 



the wisdom of the FAIR Act's reforms 
are well known. He voted against the 
FAIR Act when it was marked up at the 
committee level because it contained 
what he considered to be an inadequate 
safety net. Ultimately, he voted for the 
farm bill in order to reflect the wishes of 
his constituent farmers who had de- 
cided to support it. 

There will also be a few new faces on 
the House Appropriations Committee, 
where attacks on the sugar program 
have originated the past three years. As 
Chairman Livingston leaves to become 
Speaker, he will be replaced in the top 
seat by Representative Bill Young (R- 
FL). New to the Committee will be Rep- 
resentatives John Sununu (R-NH), Kay 
Granger (R-TX), Jo Ann Emerson (R- 
MO), and John Peterson (R-PA). Again, 
Democrats have not yet named the new 
minority members, though at least 
seven seats are vacant due to retire- 
ments. 

On the other side of the Capitol, the 
Senate Agriculture Committee will also 
see new faces. For Republicans, Senator 
Phil Gramm (R-TX) will leave the Com- 
mittee, and will be replaced by Senator- 
elect Peter Fitzgerald (R-IL). Senator 
Gramm will assume the Chair of the 
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs 
Committee. For Democrats, Senator- 
elect Blanche Lambert-Lincoln (D-AR) 
will replace Senator Mary Landrieu (D- 
LA), who will join the Armed Services 
Committee. 

The Senate Appropriations Commit- 
tee will see a new member on each side 
of the aisle, as well. Senator Jon Kyi (R- 
AZ) is the new Republican, replacing 
Senator Lauch Faircloth (R-NC), who 
was defeated in his bid for reelection. 
Senator Richard Durbin (R-IL) will re- 
place retiring Senator Dale Bumpers (D- 
AR) for the Democrats. 



Trade Ministerials Scheduled for 
1999 

Preliminary work continues toward 
ministerial meetings of two trade nego- 
tiating bodies. The Free Trade Area of 
the Americas (FTAA) has scheduled a 
Ministerial conference for next Novem- 
ber in Canada to discuss the develop- 
ment of a regional trade bloc to encom- 
pass both North and South America. 
Meanwhile, the World Trade Organiza- 
tion (WTO) will hold its next Ministerial 
conference, also late next year, in the 
United States at a site to be named later. 

Discussions within both bodies are 
still at early stages. The agenda for the 
WTO Ministerial includes setting up 
modalities for the next trade round, 
which will not take place until after 
2000. 



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8 



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FARM NO T E S 



BY Dr. Charley Rjchard 



Crop Report and Cane Flowering » 
Percent of Land in Cane - Breeding for Better Varieties 



It's been said many times, and this 
year certainly proves it again — 
every crop year is unique. First, too 
wet. Then, too dry. Then, much too dry 
Then, much too wet. Then, the crop 
grows late. Then, the crop won't mature 
on time; and now, the crop wants to 
flower. As this article is being written on 
December 10, floral initiation has oc- 
curred in most of the cane belt while 
flower tassels are ready to emerge in the 
southern areas. All varieties seem to be 
affected, assuming cold weather in the 
next few days doesn't interfere with the 
elongation process, entire fields should 
be flowering by next week (Dec. 13th) in 
the more advanced cane. What will this 
mean to the crop yield, especially for 
those growers and processors who will 
grind until mid January? After discus- 
sions with researchers and industry ex- 
perts from Texas, Florida, and other cane 
industries, most feel the Louisiana crop 
should be harvested with little negative 
impact from the flowering. Cane flower- 
ing will mean the end of crop growth 
and hopefully could mean drying up of 
some of the leaves and cleaner cane de- 
liveries. This could, in time, also mean a 
higher fiber top portion which could 
have a negative influence; however, 
these very light flower stems and upper 
portions of the stalk should be easy to 
remove in combine harvested cane with 
proper trash extraction and /or burning. 
Also, the fibrous flower stems and dried 
out tops will probably break up rather 
easily in either soldier or combine har- 
vesting. Other areas of the cane produc- 
ing world routinely harvest cane 



months after flowering occurs. There- 
fore, it should be possible to harvest this 
crop with little or no negative influence 
from the flowering. One possible posi- 
tive influence from the flowering should 
be a dryer top which could be less af- 
fected when mild to moderate freezing 
temperatures occur. As is always the 
case, the weather during the latter part 
of the harvest season will directly affect 
the level of production that the industry 
will ultimately achieve. 

While the growing season (to date) 
consisted of extremely variable weather 
conditions, with the exception of a few 
rainy days, most of the harvest season 
has been much dryer than normal. Al- 
though the crop has been much less 
mature than normal and sugar content is 
reduced from previous years, growers 
generally have been able to harvest most 
of their crop with minimal losses due to 
dry field conditions. Also, dry harvests 
tend to be less expensive than wetter 
harvests. 

Because of low sugar content of cane 
throughout the harvest season, some 
growers have used Polado later into the 
season than they normally would. How- 
ever, after the dry summer and the ex- 
tensive rains from tropical weather sys- 
tems in the early fall, cane growth was 
very difficult to stop. It has been virtu- 
ally impossible to force the cane to 
sweeten to normal levels even by using 
Polado which would normally kill or 
injure the growing point. Proof of that 
can be seen in cane in the belt which 
currently has 6 ounces of Polado on it for 
over 30 days. Top lateral eyes have 



II 



sprouted, which is normal, and the cane 
is now flowering as if no chemical ripen- 
ing was attempted. Growers are re- 
minded (as was printed in the last issue 
of the Bulletin) that Polado does not 
guarantee a certain level of sugar, but 
instead can provide for a percentage in- 
crease over non-Polado treated cane. 
This percentage increase in cane that has 
only 150 pounds of sugar is much less 
than the same percentage increase in 
untreated cane that has 200 pounds of 
sugar. 

A good aspect of the late growth has 
been more tonnage than expected in 
many fields. Even the severely stunted 
fields from the summer drought have 
yielded much higher than anticipated. 
This extra growth along, with the de- 
layed and slow start to the harvest sea- 
son, means that most factories will grind 
past January 1 this crop. 

Another factor affecting this crop is 
the large number of bull shoots, or water 
suckers, that are present. Growers have 
been accustomed to seeing these in 
HoCP 85-845, but they are also very ap- 
parent in LCP 85-384 and CP 70-321 this 
fall. Many of these shoots are over 5 feet 
in length and are affecting the crop, 
whether cut by soldier or combine har- 
vesters. While they do add considerable 
tonnage, they are normally very low in 
juice quality and make the crop even 
poorer in sugar content than it would 
normally be. 

While there are negative factors 
about this crop associated with cane 
quality, without a major catastrophe, 
this will certainly be the largest quantity 
of sugarcane ground in this industry's 
history. It is anticipated that for the sec- 
ond consecutive year, Louisiana will 
grind over 12 million tons of sugarcane. 
While sugarcane production will be a 
new record, it is doubtful if sugar pro- 
duction will reach record levels due to 
poor cane quality. Industry officials are 



still predicting some 1.2 millions tons of 
sugar (raw value) to be produced in the 
industry. Given the 428,000 acres re- 
ported in the industry, and the antici- 
pated harvest of over 390,000 acres for 
sugar, a yield of over 30 tons of cane per 
acre would result. This would make two 
consecutive years with yields in the 30-1- 
category It would also make the second 
consecutive year that yields will have 
been made late in the crop year rather 
than in the traditional grand growth 
period of June through August. The 
vigor of newer varieties along with the 
healthiness of the cane supply are obvi- 
ously two factors which have affected 
this kind of late growth. 

With the anticipated late harvest of 
this crop and the typical rainfall that 
occurs late in a season, growers are re- 
minded of the importance of keeping 
fields well drained. All varieties are af- 
fected by poor drainage, but LCP 85-384 
seems especially sensitive to "wet feet'.' 
As harvesters and transport equipment 
complete fields, drains should immedi- 
ately be opened to insure that stands 
will have the best opportunity to germi- 
nate and grow in the spring. Growers 
should keep a drain cleaner in the field 
at all times during the harvest season 
and make sure they don't needlessly 
reduce the crop's potential for next year 
by allowing water to stand. 

Percent of Land in Cane 

As the percentage of LCP 85-384 con- 
tinues to expand in the industry, and 
with the mild winters of recent years, 
more growers are able to keep third, and 
sometimes fourth stubble fields. This 
results in fewer fallow acres to plant 
each year. In addition, this variety has 
such a high population that fewer acres 
of seed cane are required to plant an acre 
of land. On top of these factors, with the 
dry harvest season experienced this 
year, there was some succession plant- 



12 



ing accomplished. This has resulted in a 
larger percentage of the available crop 
land in cane and consequently a smaller 
percentage of fallow land each year. 
Should this winter be harsher than nor- 
mal, this trend may reverse. However, it 
is anticipated that with normal weather 
conditions the trend of fewer fallow 
acres in the industry will continue. 

Breeding for Better Varieties 

Combine harvesters, coupled with 
new varieties, have brought the Louisi- 
ana sugar industry into a new era. How- 
ever, to maximize efficiency, the indus- 
try must have even better varieties that 
yield as well, or superior to currently 
grown ones, while at the same time are 
more suited to combine harvesting. The 
small stalks of LCP 85-384 make it diffi- 
cult to separate cane trash without los- 
ing valuable tonnage of this variety in 
the trash extraction system of combines. 
Of course, the extreme lodging of LCP 
85-384 makes it difficult to harvest ex- 



tensive acreage of this variety using the 
older soldier system. The industry has 
always placed cane breeding as its num- 
ber one objective and at this important 
time in history, it would be wise to make 
sure that all possible efforts are being 
undertaken in this endeavor. The 
League, working with its partner agen- 
cies LSU and USDA, are continuously 
examining their efforts to insure grow- 
ers and processors that maximum effort 
is being given to finding the best variet- 
ies for this industry. 



-TRI-STAXe 


Delta Chemicals 


Thibodaux, La. 
(504) 447-4081 


Jeanerette, La. 
(318)276-5051 


New Roads, La. 
(504) 638-8343 


Lemann's Farm Supply 
Donaldsonville, La. 
(504) 473-7927 
Satellite Plant 



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14 



T H E B A T O N ROUGE LINE 



Sean M. Prados 



Dropping Oil Prices Hurt State Revenue 



State officials estimate state revenue 
will increase only .6 percent in 
1999, in contrast to the 2.3 percent 
increase in 1998. One reason for the de- 
cline is oil companies have reduced pro- 
duction approximately 12 percent be- 
cause of low oil prices. In the first few 
months of the current fiscal year, the 
state has collected oil revenue averaging 
$11.65 per barrel, down from $17.95 last 
year. 

The good news is that Louisiana now 
collects 10 percent of its revenues from 
the oil and gas industry, opposed to 42 
percent in the early 1980s. The bad news 
is that state lawmakers will have a hard 
time finding adequate funds for pro- 
grams like highway improvements, 
teacher pay raises, and Medicaid next 
session. Furthermore, areas in the state 
that rely heavily on the oil and gas in- 
dustry will experience recession-like 
conditions. 

State sales and personal income tax 
has also declined in recent months. This 
is in part due to energy workers being 
laid off and curbing their spending. 
Statewide personal income revenue is 
down but has remained stronger than 
projected. 



DED Changes 

The Governor announced that he 
plans to introduce legislation that will 
change the way the Department of Eco- 
nomic Development (DED) operates. 
The plan, called Vision 2020, covers is- 
sues such as job creation, improving 
schools, and enhancing state parks. 

Steve Perry, the Governor's chief of 
staff, recently discussed the program at 
a public meeting in Baton Rouge. Perry 
said the plan calls on government to 
define its goals for the next twenty years 
and then measure how well they do. 

Other goals set forth in the 
Governor's plan include fully funding 
the Tuition Opportunity Program 
(TOPS) and making it easier for univer- 
sity researchers to work with private in- 
dustry. The TOPS program, a free tuition 
program for students who meet certain 
requirements, is expected to grow to 
approximately $83 million next year, up 
from $63 million this year. 

Department of Transportation 

Dr. Kam Movassaghi, a former engi- 
neering professor at the University of 
Southwestern Louisiana, began his ten- 
ure as the Secretary of DOTD in early 
December. We look forward to working 
with him and wish him the best. 



15 



List of Honorary Members 

Joseph G. Beaud, Sr., New Roads, LA 

Neal Bolton, Vacherie, LA 

Joseph Boudreaux, Thibodaux, LA 

Patrick Cancienne, Belle Rose, LA 

Fred Y. Clark, Natchitoches, LA 

PJ. "Pete" deGravelles, Lafayette, LA 

Jerry Dickson, New Orleans, LA 

Gilbert Durbin, New Orleans, LA 

Lawrence Dugas, St. Martinville, LA 

J.N. Foret, Jr., Thibodaux, LA 

Andrew P. Gay, Flaquemine, LA 

F.A. Graugnard, Jr., St. James, LA 

Warren Harang, Jr., Thibodaux, LA 

Roddy Hulett, Jeanerette, LA 

Kenneth Kahao, Port Allen, LA 

Denis Lanaux, Edgard, LA 

Melvin Landry, Loreauville, LA 

Lloyd Lauden, New Orleans, LA 

E.W. McNeil, Baton Rouge, LA 

Leonard Oncale, Gheens, LA 

■ _ Charles Savoie, Sr., Belle Rose, LA 

Edward T. Supple, Baton Rouge, LA 

James Thibaut, Donaldsonville, LA 

John "Sonny" Thibaut, Napoleonville, LA 

Glenn Timmons, Brush/, LA 

Roland Talbot, Thibodaux, LA 



16 



E N V I R O N M EN T A L P E R S P E C T I V E 



James F. Coerver. P.E. 
G.E.C. Inc. 



Boiler Rules » HAPs Testing Update 



Sugar millers and farmers depend- 
ing on continued operation of 
sugar mills have good reason to be 
concerned about the rules now being de- 
veloped by the U.S. Environmental Pro- 
tection Agency pursuant to provisions 
of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 
1990. Revised rules aimed specifically at 
Industrial Combustion sources (boilers 
and incinerators) are scheduled for pro- 
mulgation by year 2000, and the primary 
focus of these rules is on a long list of 
hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). 

Earlier Federal laws and rules dealt 
primarily with major sources of HAP 
emissions, and implementation of these 
regulations has eliminated public expo- 
sure to significant hazards. However, 
environmentalists were able to dupe 
Congress into voting for amendments 
which are so comprehensive that, with 
aggressive legalistic interpretation, per- 
haps "area" sources as small as kitchen 
matches can be regulated out of exist- 
ence. Curiously, motor vehicles (which 
are notorious HAPs emitters) are ex- 
empted by the Act, probably so that the 
modern day "environmentalists" can 
ride in their BMWs instead of walking to 
their frequent pollution protest meet- 
ings. 

The rules planned for by Y2K could 
have a profound impact on old, recently 
built, and new bagasse boilers, and thus 
there is much concern and frequent 
questions on the status of rulemaking. 
The questions are hard to answer accu- 
rately because there is no direct source of 



information on what EPA is really 
"thinking". 

In 1966, EPA appointed advisory 
committees to help in the enormous 
task, and the sugar industry pays the ex- 
penses of a boiler and air pollution ex- 
pert to assist EPA in this committee 
work (see Sugar Bulletin of September 
1996). In order to support the 
committee's work, sugar mills submit- 
ted detailed technical information on all 
bagasse boilers and the American Sugar 
Cane League has undertaken a very 
costly stack testing program during the 
1998 grinding season to measure the 
HAPs emissions from Louisiana bagasse 
boilers. As of today (December 10, 1998), 
HAPs sampling on two boilers has been 
completed, and the third and final sam- 
pling is scheduled for next week. It will 
be at least a month or two before all the 
laboratory analysis work can be com- 
pleted. It appears that the results of this 
expensive and more accurate sampling 
procedure will show what our prelimi- 
nary studies have shown - that HAPs 
emissions from bagasse boilers are low. 

An indication of how well the com- 
mittee work is going, is that EPA re- 
cently announced the advisory commit- 
tees are being dissolved and EPA will 
finish up the work on its own. The advi- 
sory committee approach was doomed 
from the start, when EPA "packed" com- 
mittees with environmentalists who in- 
sist on total elimination of HAPs rather 
than practical controls. However, the 
committees have been a vehicle through 



17 



which accurate technical information 
has been made available to EPA, and this 
should help prevent inappropriate rules 
or establish a strong legal basis for over- 
turning unnecessary or overly restric- 
tive rules. 

Recent committee work reports indi- 
cate EPA now realizes bagasse is not a 
"waste", is a comparatively clean boiler 
fuel, that few if any sugar mills are "ma- 
jor" HAPs emission sources, and that 
bagasse boilers may fall into the "area 
source" category and thus not be af- 
fected by new rules for another one to 
three years. Also, there is indication that 
EPA wants to see proof of what emis- 
sions of dioxin/furans is from bagasse 
boilers. Accordingly, a very sensitive test 
for these pollutants, that costs $7,500 per 
boiler sampled, is to be included in the 
sampling scheduled for next week. 

Hopefully, there will be better news 
to report in late 1999. 




Ask your Land 
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various loan options. 

Federal Land Bank Association 
of South Louisiana 



Opelousas 
(318) 942-1461 

Port Allen 
(225) 344-2691 



(h) 



-^ — 



VBRoussARoy r 

\ CA NE EQUIPMEN T / I * 



Cane 

Contractors 

Inc. 



Chopper Type 
Cane Harvesters 



Wholestalk 
Cane Harvesters 



High Dump Wagons Cane Loaders 



Contract Harvesting 

with Chopper 

Harvesters 



Sales ♦ Service ♦ Parts 

Vernon Manufacturing, Inc. 

P.O. Box 2650 • Parks, LA 70582 • Phone (318) 845-5080 



18 



Sugarcane Enhancement 
Through Breeding: 

A report of the Houma Basic Breeding Program 



By David M. Burner 

United States 
Department of Agriculture 

Agricultural Research Service 

Southern Regional 
Research Center 

Sugarcane Research Unit 
Houma. Louisiana 



Breeding is the traditional means 
through which new sugarcane 
varieties are developed for the 
grower. The Houma breeding program 
consists of two components: commercial 
and basic. In commercial breeding, vari- 
eties are developed through crosses be- 
tween elite (commercial or near-com- 
mercial) parents. In basic breeding, 
crosses are made between elite and ex- 
otic (wild) parents mainly to develop 
improved stock. Basic parental stock are 
then used to breed new commercial va- 
rieties. Saccharum spontaneum is the 



most frequently used exotic species in 
the basic program. This species, and 
most exotic sugarcane species, have little 
or no commercial value. So why have 
basic breeding? 

Exotic sugarcane species can possess 
desired traits (e.g., disease or insect re- 
sistance) or growth habits (e.g., peren- 
nial stubbling) that may be absent or 
rare in commercial varieties. The objec- 
tive of basic breeding is to transfer these 
traits into commercial-type varieties. 
However, transfer of desired traits 
through breeding is usually accompa- 
nied by transfer of negative traits (e.g., 
high fiber or low sucrose content). The 
positive traits must be preferentially se- 
lected over negative traits, a longer-term 
endeavor than commercial breeding. A 
recurrent selection program is used to 
maintain the desirable traits and select 
against the negative traits (Fig. 1). It 
takes about three times as long, 30+ 
years, to develop a new variety from 
basic breeding compared to commercial 
breeding. Three of the last four varieties 
released in Louisiana were developed 
by this recurrent selection method. LHo 
83-153 (1991), HoCP 85-845 (1993), and 



19 



LCP 85-384 (1993) are BC^ derivatives of 
S. spontaneum clone US 56-15-8, dem- 
onstrating that basic breeding has sig- 
nificant real world application. The ini- 
tial cross involving US 56-15-8 was 
made at the Sugarcane Field Station in 
Canal Point, FL. The basic breeding pro- 
gram was shifted from Canal Point to 
Houma in 1972 after construction of new 
photoperiod and crossing facilities 
funded by the American Sugar Cane 
League (ASCL). 

From 1994 through 1998, the Ameri- 
can Sugar Cane League provided 
$91,315 in labor support for basic breed- 
ing at Houma. This report summarizes 
the direct and indirect research activities 
of the basic breeding program from 1994 
through 1997. 

Direct Breeding Research 

Crossing procedures were described 
in a previous Sugar Bulletin report (1). 
Record or near-record numbers of par- 
ents were successfully used in crosses 
during 1994 through 1997 (Table 1) com- 
pared to previous years. Number of par- 
ents is a more important statistic than 
seed yield, because there is greater like- 
lihood of discovering high-performing 
progeny as the number of cross combi- 
nations increases. This is especially true 
in basic breeding where we use un- 
proven parents which often lack perfor- 
mance data. From 1994 through 1997 we 
made 158 F^ crosses, 346 backcrosses, 
260 elite and special crosses, and 172 
selfs. F^ hybrid crosses are those be- 
tween elite and wild clones, and back- 
crosses are between the hybrid deriva- 
tives and elite clones. Elite crosses are 
between commercial types of parents. 
Special crosses are also made in the 
course of genetic studies (see next sec- 
tion). For some special crosses, any seed 



yield, regardless of quantity, can be sig- 
nificant. Selfs are made to test pollen 
production, an additional source of data 
obtained during crossing. All these 
types of crosses, except selfs, have the 
potential of yielding new varieties of 
sugarcane, although most yield im- 
proved breeding stock. 

Parents with CP, Ho, and L designa- 
tions are considered commercial even if 
they were developed from basic parents. 
Letter designations are CP = Canal 
Point, Ho = Houma, and L = Louisiana 
Agricultural Experiment Station 
(LAES). Joint letter designations are also 
used; for example, HoCP refers to the 
cross being made at Canal Point and 
selected at Houma. 

Seed yield varies substantially 
among years. Plants are grown each 
year in 10 gallon cans under specific, 
generally unchanging watering, fertili- 
zation, and pest control regimens. The 
main stresses are possible root restric- 
tion due to can culture, and slight nitro- 
gen stress to foster flowering. Thus, we 
have attributed this annual variation to 
random genetic effects (new parental 
clones crossed each year) and environ- 
mental effects (e.g., cloud cover and 
temperature). 

Of the nearly 300,000 seeds pro- 
duced, only about 5% (15,000) are 
planted to the field each year. This 5% 
represents most of the new cross combi- 
nations. Remaining seed is stored in 
freezers for future use. Technical and 
resource limitations usually limit com- 
mercial and basic plantings to about 
100,000 seedlings. Thus, about 85,000 
seedlings planted each year are from 
commercial crosses of CP/Ho/L variet- 
ies made at Canal Point, FL. Seedlings 
are usually transplanted to the field in 
mid-April in a single-stool nursery, the 



20 



first step in a lengthy process of variety 
selection and development. 

Collateral Breeding Research 

Collateral studies are conducted on 
plants maintained in the crossing pro- 
gram to further our understanding and 
application of sugarcane genetics: 1) 
Flowering plants are an excellent source 
of tissue for chromosome analysis, pro- 
viding information useful in plant iden- 
tification, hybrid verification, and ge- 
netic analysis. Chromosomes of particu- 
lar species or varieties are examined as 
needed. 2) Seeds obtained from some 
exotic species have been sent for regis- 
tration, long-term storage, and 
germplasm dissemination and preserva- 
tion at the National Seed Storage Labo- 
ratory in Fort Collins, CO. 3) We some- 
times test foreign, elite varieties for their 
potential in improving Louisiana variet- 
ies. These clones usually do not perform 
well agronomically, and they rarely 
flower in our tests, but the occasional 
clone offers potential benefits through 
their progeny. 4) Exotic germplasm is 
routinely tested for diseases such as 
mosaic, smut, and more recently, leaf 
scald, yellow leaf syndrome, and red rot. 
Disease resistant parents tend to in- 
crease the frequency of disease resis- 
tance in their progeny. 5) There are few 
known sugarcane mutations. We have 
recently studied dwarf, multiple bud, 
and red leaf mutants to better under- 
stand sugarcane genetics through these 
easy-to-see alterations in growth traits. 
6) F^ hybrids of sugarcane with S. 
spontaneum tend to have excellent 
stubbling ability and biomass yield. We 
have ongoing investigations into their 
stubble longevity, biomass potential, 
and red rot resistance. 7) Hot water 
emasculation may have potential for 



inducing male sterility in sugarcane. We 
are attempting to optimize this proce- 
dure to open up new crossing possibili- 
ties. 

Summary 

The Houma basic breeding program 
has been underway since 1972 following 
construction of the photoperiod and 
crossing facilities. The American Sugar 
Cane League was committed then, as 
now, to basic breeding. Basic breeding is 
fundamentally important in assuring 
future success of commercial breeding 
programs by broadening the genetic 
base of sugarcane and infusing traits 
from exotic species. These factors enable 
sugarcane to better withstand the cli- 
mate, pests, and soils of Louisiana. Re- 
sults of basic breeding are indeed long- 
term, but have come to fruition as evi- 
denced by the development of mosaic 
resistant germplasm (2), and more sig- 
nificantly, the development of three 
commercial varieties (LHo 83-153, 
HoCP 85-845, and LCP 85-384) derived 
from basic crosses. Further, the work 
would not have been possible without 
collaboration between researchers at 
Houma, ASCL, LAES, and Canal Point, 
FL. Louisiana sugarcane growers are the 
ultimate benefactors of this research. 



References: 

1. Burner, DM. 1994. Sugarcane seed pro- 
duction from the basic breeding program at 
Houma 1992 and 1993. Sugar Bull. 
72(12):10, 22-28. 

2. Legendre, B.L. 1989. Use of feral 
germplasm for sugarcane improvement in 
Louisiana. Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane 
Technol. 20:883-891. 



21 



Table 1: 



Seed production statistics of the 

Houma basic breeding program 

with emphasis on 1994 through 1997. 











Estimated 


Plants 


Cross 








Seed 


Set To 


Year 


Crosses^ 


Parents^ 


Seed/g3 


Production 


Field 


1994 


260 


115 


120 


323,317 


12,035 


1995 


194 


85 


82 


121,863 


14,358 


1996 


247 


117 


102 


211,761 


12,394 


1997 


235 


123 


56 


109,356 


23,753 


MearT* 


234 


110 


90 


191,574 


15,635 


Mean^ 


201 


62 


99 


298,969 


21 ,350 



^ Number of crosses plus selfs. 

^ Number of parents yielding seed. 

^ Estimated number of viable seeds per gram of fuzz. 

^ Mean for 1994 through 1997. 

^ Mean for 1972 through 1997. 



11 



Figure 1: 

Typical procedure for developing a new sugarcane variety 
through basic breeding using modified recurrent selection. 

Cycle 1 

Year 1 Elite variety (e.g., CP 65-357) X Saccharum spontaneum (exotic) 

done, e.g., US 56-15-8 

Year 2 Seedlings in plant cane of single-stool nursery. 

Year 3 Select F^ hybrid in 1st stubble of seedling nursery^ Assign US (breeding) 
number. Plant in can for crossing. 

Year 4 Cross F^ with elite variety. 

Year 5 Seedlings in plant cane of single-stool nursery. 

Year 6 Select BC^ progeny in 1st stubble of seedling nursery^. Advance to 1st line 
trial. 

Year 7 Select BC^ progeny in plant cane of 1st line trial. Advance to 2nd line trial. 

Year 8 Plant cane 2nd line trial. 

Year 9 Assign US number in 1st stubble of 2nd line trial. Plant in can for crossing. 

Cycles 2, 3 

Year 10 to 30 Repeat crossing with elite parent and selection as in Year 4. Hybrid 
derivatives usually are BC3 or higher when assigned CP/Ho/L 
numbers and advanced for further testing. Final testing requires a 
minimum of 12 years culminating with outfield trials and varietal 
release. 

Year 30 Commercial release of basic CP/Ho/L variety. 

^ Fj refers to the first generation of a cross between two diverse parents. 

^ The first backcross (BC^) generation is made when the F^ is crossed with any elite 
variety. Similarly, the BC^^ generation is the cross between a BC^^^ individual and 
an elite variety. 



23 



CLASSIFIEDS 


- FOR SALE 


• 1991 Case/lnt'l 7130, with front 


• 1973 Thompson Cane Cutter; 


wheel drive, PTO, heavy duty steel 


1981 7020 AIMS Chamberlain 


bumper with box, 3640 hrs., - 


Tractor; 6' Bush Hog; 5-row 


$37,500; 1972 Thompson Cane 


Sprayer, 300 gallon; Drum 


Cutter with large JD engirre and 


Planter; 1 Homemade Cane Cart, 


front wheel assist - $5,000; 3-row 


direct haul. Bayou Service Grader 


Bottom Plow with 3 pt. hitch and 


Tires, direct haul; Bayou Service 


gauge wheels - $500; 6' Case End 


direct haul, 1 Homemade Cane 


Row Flat Chopper (parts only)- 


Cart, 36" wheels on direct haul; Set 


$100; 1990 Case/lnt'l 5120 


Double Choppers. Call Henry 


Maxum, 3490 hrs. - $22,500. Call 


Jarreau, Jr. at (504) 627-5721 or 


Randy Gonsoulin at (318) 365- 


Bill Jarreau at (504) 627-5734. 


0014. 






• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2-row 




Harvester. Call Roland Bourgeois, 


• Broussard Single-row Cutter, 


Vacherie at (225) 265-4452 (leave 


Sunstran Hyd. System, JD engine, 


a message). 


row flipper - $20,000; Cameco 2- 




row Cutter, live gates, new topper, 


• 1983 Single-row Broussard 


extended front end, J.D. Engine - 


Harvester, double ends & scroll. 


$42,000; Tandem Axle Cane 


CAT 3208 engine. New 18-4-38 


Wagons - $700. Call Erne 


tires, with pulling wheel, shredder 


Plessala, Jr. at (318) 229-8409. 


topper - $20,000; John Deere 4840 




with new trans. & engine over- 




hauled in '97 - $14,000; 1066 Hi- 


• 1992 S30 Single-row Cutter, all 


Clearance Int'l - $4,000; 856 Hi- 


new updates, field ready. Call 


Clearance Int'l - $2,500; 3-Row 


(318) 365-3453 or page (318) 373- 


Bottom Type Plow Int'l, heavy 


4937. 


duty and gauge wheels - $3,500; 4- 




Row JD style with gauge wheels 




and cyclers - $3,500; JD 4240, Hi- 




Clearance, 1981; 1 front mount 


•1993 CAMECO S30 4-Wheel 


spray rig with 200-gal. tank - $100; 


Drive Cane Cutter, cab and air. 


JD disk plow, heavy duty, 17-ft. - 


excellent condition - $45,000; 


$2,000; Rolling Cultivator, 


J&L 4-Wheel Drive Field Loader, 


Lilliston, 4-row - $250; Rolling 


cab and air -- $10,000; Drott 40 


Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row - $75; 


Excavator, rubber tires, 4-wheel 


JD 3-row chopper, adjustable 


drive, cane grab and bucket - 


cylinders - $2,000; Int'l 3-row 


$20,000. Call Jimmy Jarreau at 


chopper - $1 ,000; 3 one-row 


(225) 637-4873. 


shavers - best offer. Call Damian 




Pierre at (318) 229-6932. 



24 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Ino 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369, White Castle, LA 70788 ' 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard, Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

R O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

100-A Wadsworth, Maurice, LA 70555 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
R O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified Public Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

P O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

R O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
R O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

R O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
R O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibernia National Bank 

P.O. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
R O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

R O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



MetLife 

5353 Essen Lane, Suite 333, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

R O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, RO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Regions Bank 

RO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Rohm & Haas 

503 S. Michot Dr., Lafayette, LA 70508 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

R O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

R O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

R O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

R O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Youngsville, LA 70592 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaux, L^ "" 



:r 






cr- { 



LIBRARY ■■" ' 

Bf)TQN ROUGF 



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OSOo 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

I ^AID 

I ibodaux, La. 

^MITNO. 43 



Volume 77, No. 5 



February 1999 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



Announcing the 

Seventy-Sixth Annual Meeting 

of the 

American Sugar Cane League 

ofthe 
U.SJi., Inc. 

Wednesday y February 24, 1999 - 10:00 a.m. 

Howard Johnson Lodge 
201 N. Canal Blvd., Thibodaux, Louisiana 

Registration begins at 9:00 a.m. 

At this meeting there will be an election of members 

ofthe Board of Directors to serve during the ensuing year. 

A luncheon will follow the meeting at 12 Noon. Jeffrey Lang will be 

the luncheon guest speaker 

(See Up Front with the League for more information) 

The League Foundation will also hold a meeting to elect a Board of Directors. 

All members of the League will please consider this an 
ofiQcial notice to attend. 



The Sugar Bulletin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon /Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson/Senior Agronomist > 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist * 

John Constant/Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens /Secretary 

Paul G. Borron Ill/Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
1156 15th St., N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles J. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David Allain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Felix "Gus" Blanchard, New Iberia, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

John F. Gay Plaqueminc, La. 

Ronald Gonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 

Dean Gravois, Vachcrie, La. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Gramcrcy La. 

Jackie Judice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, F'ranklin, La. 

Buckley Kcssler, White Castle, La. 

I,awrence "Boo" Ix.>vert III, St. Martinville, La. 

A. J. "Brother" LeBourgcois, Baldwin, La. 

D. C. Mattingly, Paincourtvillc, La. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKce, Lhibodaux, La. 

Michael C. Melancon, Brcaux Bridge, La. 

Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 



Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Patout, Jeanerette, La. 
William S. Patout III, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Scgura, New Iberia, La. 
Jackie Theriot, Brcaux Bridge, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donald.sonville, La. 
Carlton Townscnd, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, U. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 



I N T H IS IS SUE 



Up Front With the League 3 

by Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 7 

by DonWallace 

Farm Notes 13 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Baton Rouge Line 17 

by Sean Prados with Spradley & Spradley 

Classifieds 20 






n 



m 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit organiza- 
tion. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 
The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those of 
the American Sugar Cane League. Vieivs and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of the 
advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



Your Numbers Are Important To Us 

Sugarcane farmers manage large amounts of money - some years with minimal 
return on investment. Our staff at PCA is knowledgeable, qualified and experienced 

in dealing with your numbers. We see them everyday. We hope that our financial 
assistance results in maximum returns - and that's a number that's important to YOU! 



First South PCA 




^ 

^ 



Andy Andolsek 

Thibodaux 



Agricultural Lender 

Give us a call! 

(504) 446-9450 



Dean Martin 

Thibodaux 



Last year many farmers switched over to the billet cane system. 1999 will 
probably be a repeat of 1998. 

Alot of those customers waited so late to put in their orders on cane wagons 
and highway trailers that it hindered the time of delivery. 

PLEASE DON'T WAIT! HELP US TO HELP YOU! 

We need your orders in EARLY to properly schedule production and early 
deliveries. 




"For Proven Performance & Durability ^^ 

FOLLOW THE LEADER! 





Tony CoHinson 



U gHeatiif 
appreciated! 

(504) 447-4021 
(800) 447-8403 
(504) 447-4028 -Fax 




V4a/i^ 



INDUSTRIES, INC. 



P.O. Box 406 
Thibodaux, LA 70302 
118 West Main Street 



UP F R. O N 



W I T H THE LEAGUE 



BY Charlie Melancon 



Annual Meeting of the American Sugar Cane League 
Wednesday, February 24, 1999, 19:90 A.M. 



In spite of the fact that I quite often 
suggest to the people of our industry 
that we have to look past traditions, 
and look to what keeps us viable as an 
industry, my article this month reflects a 
tradition. First, by tradition, the official 
announcement of the Annual Meeting of 
the American Sugar Cane League ap- 
pears on the cover of this February bul- 
letin. The meeting is scheduled to be 
held in Thibodaux on February 24 with 
morning registration and a lunch to be 
served. Lunch is complimentary, but 
please return the RSVP card located in 
the center of this issue so that we can 
give a head count. 

As our industry, as well as the rest of 
agriculture in the United States, moves 
toward the expiration date of the present 
Farm Bill, we find ourselves in new ven- 
ues within the Congress. There was a 
time when the American Sugar Cane 
League and its allied sugar organiza- 
tions concerned itself with the Farm Bill 
renewal under the auspices of the House 
Ag Committee. This occurred, approxi- 
mately, every five years. Now, on an 
annual basis, the arena has moved to the 
Ag Appropriations Committee (be- 
tween farm bills) where attempts are 
now made annually to put you out of 
business. 

Now, with the advent of the new 
multilateral trade agreements on the 
front burner, we find ourselves in a new 
venue. That of the Ways and Means 
Committee. We are also paying as much 
attention to the official positions taken 



by the United States Trade Representa- 
tives office just as much as we worry and 
concern ourselves with the size of the 
TRQ and the stocks-to-use ratio that is 
published monthly by USDA. 

Because of this changing landscape 
that could have a direct affect upon our 
livelihoods, the League has invited Jef- 
frey M. Lang, a former Deputy United 
States Trade Representative, to address 
this year's annual meeting. Jeff Lang, 
after his honorable discharge as a Cap- 
tain from the United States Army in 
1970, did a short stint as a practicing at- 
torney. In 1974, he joined the General 
Counsel's office of the U.S. International 
Trade Commission where he became 
Deputy General Counsel, and subse- 
quently he joined the staff of the Senate 
Finance Committee. There he became 
Chief International Trade Counsel. In 
1995, Mr. Lang became Deputy U.S. 
Trade Representative during which time 
he served as a lead U.S. Negotiator in 
numerous multilateral and bilateral ne- 
gotiations, including the successful 
WTO negotiations on telecommunica- 
tions services and financial services, and 
in settlement negotiations on U.S./EU 
disputes, including U.S. grains exports 
to the EU, U.S. local area network ex- 
ports to the EU, and U.S. claims arising 
under WTO agreements on intellectual 
property enforcement. Jeff was also re- 
sponsible for negotiations on Russia's 
accession to the WTO, and he was one of 
the architects of the Administration's 
effort to increase trade with subsaharan 



Africa. Jeff Lang is presently a partner in 
a Washington law firm with a practice 
that concentrates on international eco- 
nomic regulatory issues, with particular 
emphasis on the application of World 
Trade Organization agreements and U.S. 
and foreign law to the barriers faced by 
U.S. companies seeking access to foreign 
markets. 

The League has asked Mr. Lang to 
address Louisiana's position, on a com- 
parative basis, with that of our counter- 
parts in this country and abroad. His 
challenge is to assure that the domestic 
cane sugar industry's position in foreign 
trade does not run counter to domestic 
policy and to assist our industry during 
these times of trade pact negotiations so 
that our industry might be treated fairly 
and with understanding. I urge each and 
every one of you in this industry to take 
the time on February 24th to come to the 
League meeting, to listen and partici- 
pate, and to give input to your Board 
and me as we move into new and rela- 
tively untested waters. As I have stated 
in previous articles, this is your organi- 
zation, and even though the Board and I 
feel we have been fighting the correct 
battles and concerning ourselves with 
the correct issues it is still important for 
me to hear from you. 

During the Annual Meeting, the 
chairmen of the League's three major 
committees will give reports to the 
membership. These three reports will be 
presented by Danny Viator, Chairman of 
the Finance Committee, Charles 
Thibaut, Chairman of the National Leg- 
islative Committee, and Roddy Hulett, 
Chairman of the Research Committee. 
Additionally, Dan Duplantis, Chairman 
of the Board for 1997-99 will present his 
report. 

An election of the League's Board of 
Directors will also be conducted at this 
time. 



Report of the Nominating Committee 

The following individuals were 
nominated at the annual committee 
meeting to serve on the American Sugar 
Cane League Board of Directors begin- 
ning on February 24, 1999. 

Grower Members 

Henry Adolph 

David Allain 

J.G. Beaud, Jr. 

John Gay -^ 

Ronald Gonsoulin 

Dean Gravois 

Warren Harang, III 

George "Scrap" Hymel 

Jackie Judice 

Robert "Bobby" Judice 

Lawrence "Boo" Levert, III 

Jerome "Jerry" McKee 

Daniel Naquin, Jr. 

Glynn Rivet 

Howard Robichaux 

Raphael Rodriguez 

Donald Segura 

Frank Sotile 

Carlton Townsend 

William Vallot 

Daniel Viator 

Kirk Walker 

Processor Members 

Branan "Bert" Beyt 

Ronald Blanchard 

Grady Bubenzer 

Craig Caillier 

Mike Daigle 

Dan Duplantis 

Buckley Kessler 

Irving E. Legendre, Jr. 

Wilson LeBlanc 

A.J. "Brother" LeBourgeois 

Chris Mattingly 

Anthony Parris 

Rivers Patout 

Kenneth Peltier 

Matthew "Butch" Plauche 



R.L. "Bobby" Roane 
Mel Schudmak 
David Stewart 
Jackie Theriot 
Charles Thibaut 
Tommy Thibodeaux 
Gerald Wood 

Again, I am hopeful that all growers 
will make an attempt to attend the An- 
nual meeting. 



REMINDER: 

Don't forget to return the RSVP 

card in this issue to reserve your 

spot at the 66th Annual Meeting 

of the American Sugar Cane 

League of the U.S.A., Inc. 

The meeting is Wednesday, 

February 24, 1999, 

at 10:00 a.m. 



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WASHINGTON UPDATE 



WITH Don Wallace 



January Import Tranche to be Cancelled 
as Production Estimates Surge 



The Department of Agriculture 
(USDA) has released the World 
Agricultural Supply and De- 
mand Estimates (WASDE) for January, 
and for the third year in a row, high do- 
mestic stocks will trigger a cancellation 
of the planned January import tranche 
of 165,347 short tons. Total domestic pro- 
duction for 1998/99 is now estimated at 
8.257 million short tons, raw value, re- 
sulting in a stocks-to-use ratio of 18.8%, 
more than three points above the 15.5% 
necessary to cancel an import tranche. 
The increased production estimates 
are due primarily to higher forecast 
yields and expected sugar content in 
Florida, where cane output should reach 
2.075 million short tons. Projections for 
Louisiana were increased 30,000 tons, to 
a total of 1.250 million short tons. Beet 
production estimates were unchanged 
at 4.5 million short tons. Total consump- 
tion projections were also stable at 10.2 
million short tons. 

As a result of the cancelled tranche, 
imports of raw sugar under the tariff- 
rate quota for 1998/99 will be 1.568 mil- 
lion short tons. The next planned import 
tranche is scheduled for March. If the 
stocks-to-use ratio in March, as reported 
by the WASDE, is above 15.5%, then the 
March tranche would be cancelled, as 
well. The third and final planned 
tranche is slated for May. If the stocks-to- 
use ratio in either of these months, as 
reported by the WASDE, is above 15.5%, 
then the import tranche for that month 



will be cancelled. 

Hastert Elected Speaker of the House 

Representative Dennis Hastert (R-IL) 
was elected by his peers to serve as 
Speaker of the House for the 106th Con- 
gress. His selection follows the with- 
drawal of Representative Bob 
Livingston (R-LA) as the Republican 
nominee for the Speaker's chair. 

Rep. Hastert begins his seventh term 
representing Illinois' 14th District, 
which stretches westward from the edge 
of the Chicago metropolitan area into 
the northern central portion of the state. 
He has consistently supported produc- 
tion agriculture throughout his career, 
and once toured the Louisiana sugar 
industry with former Representative 
Clyde Holloway (R-LA). 

His rise unfortunately coincides with 
the announced departure of Rep. 
Livingston, whose own election to the 
Speakership was considered by most 
observers to have been secure had he 
chosen to stay. Rep. Livingston leaves 
Congress after serving Louisiana's 1st 
District more than twenty years. For the 
last four years, he has served as Chair- 
man of the House Appropriations Com- 
mittee, earning the respect of Members 
from both sides of the aisle. His resigna- 
tion announcement was met with pleas 
from the leadership of both parties to 
remain and accept election as Speaker. 
His support for Louisiana agriculture 
was ardent and invaluable, and he will 



be sorely missed. 

Combest Era Begins 

As reported in the last edition of the 
"Washington Update," the House Agri- 
culture Committee begins the 106th 
Congress under new leadership. Chair- 
man Larry Combest (R-TX) takes over 
the reins from former Representative 
Bob Smith (R-OR), and has begun to 
shape an agenda aimed at rebuilding a 
safety net for production agriculture. 

Ever since passage of the Federal 
Agriculture Improvement and Reform 
Act of 1996 (FAIR Act), critics have noted 
the lack of protection available to farm- 
ers in the event of economic or weather- 
related disaster. The criticism intensified 
significantly last year when perilously 
low commodity prices and severe 
weather problems hammered farmers 
across the country. Congress responded 
by appropriating a $6 billion disaster 
assistance package to aid the depressed 
farm economy. 

Chairman Combest has signaled his 
intention to tackle the problem head on 
by improving the options for revenue 
protection that are available to farmers. 
Sources familiar with the Chairman's 
agenda have indicated that high on his 
list of priorities is a total revamping of 
the federal crop insurance program so 
that it can be a resource for a much wider 
range of farmers than those who cur- 
rently use it. According to these sources. 
Chairman Combest would like to re- 
build a crop insurance program that is 
focused on a revenue assurance concept, 
which would enable a farmer to recoup 
lost income by insuring the difference 
between the income received from the 
crop and the income he or she expected 
to receive. 

Chairman Combest hopes to bring in 
a host of ideas from all of agriculture, 
including the farmers for whom crop 



insurance is not currently beneficial. By 
fundamentally remaking the program, 
farmers should have a new resource for 
protecting themselves. 

Emerson Joins House Agriculture 
Appropriations 

Representative Jo Ann Emerson (R- 
MO) has been appointed to the House 
Agriculture Appropriations Subcom- 
mittee, becoming its eighth Republican 
member. She joins Chairman Joe Skeen 
(R-NM) and Representatives James 
Walsh (R-NY), Jay Dickey (R-AR), Jack 
Kingston (R-GA), George Nethercutt (R- 
WA), Henry Bonilla (R-TX), Tom 
Latham (R-IA). 

Democrats have not yet named their 
subcommittee roster, though there will 
be at least one change, due to the retire- 
ment of former Representative Vic Fazio 
(D-CA). 



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THE DIFFERENCE 
■SNOW 

CRYSTAL^lXAd 

CLEAN 




Cane Harvesting ^^ Equipment 



LEJIAANN*S 

Farm Supply, Inc. 

Donaidsonv2llc Thibodaux 

(225) 473-7927 (504) 447-3776 



Ask about i 

Case Cpean ^^M cASECRmmr 

mandng 



Suggested Chemical Weed 
Control For Sugarcane 

• PROWL is rated excellent for seedling johnsongrass, itchgrass, browntop panicum and armual grasses. 

• PROWL should be your base grass chemical for your herbicide program. 



Planted Fields 
Preemergence 

Sinbar G-E 

Sencor/Lexone G-E 
Treflan, Trifluralin, 



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PROWL 


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Atrazine 


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Control Rating Scale Poor - less than 49%; Fair - 50-69%; Good - 70-89%; 

Excellent - 90-100%; does not apply or not rated. 

*Chart and ratings from Louisiana's Suggested Chemical Weed Control Guide 1998, 
Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service 

American Cyanamid's Spring Herbicide Sugarcane Weed Control Program: 

PROWL -- 2 qt./acre Banded 

+ Broadleaf Herbicide (Karmex/Direx, Atrazine or Sencor/Lexone) 

+ Burndown Herbicide as needed for winter weeds 

(Gramoxone Extra, 2,4D or Weedmaster) 

+ Surfactant 

For questions contact American Ci/anamid: 
Marc A. Grabert (225) 927-9331 



*^Always read and follow label directions 



PROWL 



Sugarcane Testimonials 






'M 









'ft 



'7'ye ^een i/sm^ PROWL on 
sugarcane ever since the first year 
it was released. PROWL does a 
good job controlling itchgrass." 

Joseph Beaud 

Joe Beaud Farms 

New Roads, LA 

PROWL user on 2,000 acres of sugarcane 









; s- . % 




''We apply two applications of 
PROWL to 4,000 acres of sugarcane. 
These two applications aid in 
surpressing the seedling Johnsongrass 
so that our fields remain clean for the 
following years. PROWL helps us to 
increase our profits and offers 
flexibility in application." 

Rocky Ourso 

Ourso Farms 

White Castle, LA 

PROWL user on 4,000 acres of sugarcane 

Pictured L to R: Mitchell, Donnie, Rocky and Artie 



PROWL 



berbicirie 
Sugarcane Update ^ 

from American Cyanamid 

Spring Chemical Weed Control 
Should I use my lilliston? No. 



Reasons Why: 

1. Can decrease yields 0-4 tons/acre. 

• Supported by 1988 and 1989 LSU St. Gabriel Research Station 
Cultural Practice Research. 

2. Can increase the spread of Ratoon Stunting Disease (RSD) and 

Leaf Scald. 

• Could cause from 1/8-1/3 crop loss! 

• Risk infecting your clean seed investment. 



PROWL 3.3EC 2 qt./acre Offers: 

• Safe and dependable grass control 

• No incorporation 

• Increased yields 

• Tank mix flexibility (base for your weed control program) 

• One pass weed control (saves time and labor) 

• Excellent control of seedling johnsongrass, browntop 
pancium, itchgrass and other annual grasses 



For questions contact American Cyanamid: 
Marc A. Grabert (225) 927-9331 



FARM NOT E S 



BY Dr. Charley Richard 



Crop Report - Cultural Practices - Warming Trend 



As of this writing on January 13, 
1999, the industry has still not 
completed the 1998 harvest 
campaign with several factories still 
grinding. In what can only be described 
as "a very unique" weather year, the in- 
dustry will post new records for acreage, 
gross tons of cane ground, and tons of 
cane per acre. While sugar per ton yields 
were disappointing, the yield of sugar 
per acre and total sugar production will 
probably be the second highest on 
record. Final numbers will be presented 
in the next issue of the Bulletin, but cane 
acreage for 1998 was at 428,000 acres. 
Cane ground will exceed 13,000,000 
tons. Cane per acre will exceed 33.0 tons 
with sugar per acre exceeding 6,000 
pounds. Total sugar production will ex- 
ceed 1,250,000 tons (raw value). All this 
in a year when early fall predictions 
called for a potential crop disaster due to 
the summer droughts! 

After an unusually warm fall and 
early winter, the last few weeks of the 
harvest season have brought freezing 
weather. Temperatures fell below 25°F 
throughout much of the cane belt with 
warm weather between the cold fronts. 
However, the cold tolerance of the cur- 
rent varieties has once again enabled the 
industry to harvest the entire crop. 
While there were undoubtedly some 
losses experienced from the freezing 
weather by individual growers, the im- 
pact on the industry totals is negligible. 
However, the industry should realize 
that had freezing temperatures occurred 



nearer the average date, significant 
losses could have been experienced. The 
industry gambled by having a season 
that extended this late and won — this 
time! If the industry is going to continue 
at this level of production, grinding ca- 
pacity or scheduling will have to be ad- 
justed to insure completion before disas- 
ter can impact growers, especially in the 
northern region of the belt. 

While growers and factories con- 
tinue to argue about the sugar predic- 
tion formula, one thing is certain — this 
industry continues to have a level of 
extraneous matter that is much too high. 
Extraneous matter consists of every- 
thing that isn't millable cane stalks. This 
higher than desired level of "trash" costs 
growers and processors to transport, 
crush, sugar losses, etc. But it also ex- 
tends the grinding season because there 
is more of this material to handle. A 
cleaner cane crop could shorten the sea- 
son without increasing milling capacity. 
That translates into spending less to 
make more money! 

While the TRS formula used this 
year worked well to predict sugar con- 
tent in the cane, there still does not seem 
to be enough incentive for growers to 
deliver the cleanest product. It may be 
that the formula for determining sugar 
content is about as accurate as it can get. 
Dr. Harold Birkett has continued to 
work on this issue this past harvest sea- 
son and has data to further substantiate 
the formula. To make the system more 
efficient for the industry (for both grow- 



13 



ers and processors to have a reward), it 
may be that a premium /penalty system 
will be required, separate from the sugar 
calculation formula, but within the dis- 
tribution of proceeds from the sugar. 
One thing is certain, the level of trash 
and mud in cane deliveries must be de- 
creased if this industry is to remain effi- 
cient. 

In light of efficiency, LCP 85-384 has 
brought the industry to a new threshold 
for cane and sugar yields. However, the 
industry must remember that, at least in 
the past, varieties have had a limited 
lifespan. Therefore, it is anticipated that 
new, and hopefully better, varieties will 
be necessary for this industry to remain 
efficient. For this reason, variety devel- 
opment remains the number one re- 
search objective of this industry. The 
joint effort of the Louisiana Agriculture 
Experiment Station, USDA and the 
League in cane breeding is more impor- 
tant than ever for growers and proces- 
sors to justify the tremendous expendi- 
tures that have been made in combine 
harvesting and billet transport equip- 
ment. 



tory cane row and reduce field soil that 
winds up in cane deliveries need consid- 
erable discussion. With heavy cane ton- 
nage and lodged cane, it is inevitable 
that some field soil will arrive at the fac- 
tory. Growers have gone from soldier 
harvesting which leaves too much cane 
in the field to combines which can 
vacuum the row taking every stalk 
along with a considerable quantity of 
soil. There probably needs to be a happy 
medium. But additionally, some grow- 
ers have a better technique of producing 
cane rows which allows for maximum 
harvester performance while keeping 
sediment levels at a minimum. In dis- 
cussing cultural practices, there may not 
be a lot of scientific data upon which to 
base recommendations. However, com- 
mon sense and experiences of those who 
have developed better strategies for 
building, cultivating and lay-bying cane 
rows will have to be considered. There 
will be discussions on cultural practices 
at several of the spring grower meetings 
and there may even be some special 
meetings called to discuss this very sub- 
ject. IT IS THAT IMPORTANT!!! 



Cultural Practices 

Every year, and usually several times 
a year, within this article a plea is made 
to keep fields drained in order to achieve 
the best yields. The past harvest season 
was relatively dry and there are fewer 
ruts and clogged drains than is normally 
the case. However, growers are re- 
minded of the importance of not letting 
water stand, especially as sensitive as 
LCP 85-384 is with regard to "wet feet". 
KEEP FIELDS DRAINED. 

Drainage has normally been the ex- 
tent of discussions on cultural practices 
in recent years, as it is of extreme impor- 
tance. However, this year the subject of 
cultural practices needs to be expanded. 
The best practices to produce a satisfac- 



Warming Trend 

Over the years, there has been con- 
siderable discussion about the green- 
house effect, global warming, ozone 
depletion and other factors which can 
have long term effects on the weather. 
Scientists are still not sure which factor, 
or cause, has the biggest effect on 
today's weather. However, recently cal- 
culated data has shown that 1998 and 
the decade of the 1990s are the hottest on 
record. Whether this is due to naturally 
occurring factors or man made causes is 
not yet understood. But, one thing is 
certain, unless the weather during 1999 
is the coldest on record, the 1990s will 
stand as the warmest since these records 
FARM NOTES, continue on page 19 



14 



ACS Compost Workshop! 

What is Advanced Composting Systems (ACS)? 

ACS is a "systems approach". By implementing a controlled process through 
monitoring use of efficient turning equipment and compost starter inoculation, you will 
produce a consistent, homogenous, high quality compost in about 8 weeks. Predictable 
quality is paramount for plant production and building a satisfied customer base. 

What will I learn at this workshop? 

* How to turn waste products into valuable assets 

* How different composting methods affect quality 

* Why a controlled composting process is superior 

* How nutrients are captured from raw materials 

* How to control nutrient leaching 

* How to eliminate odor problems 

* How micro-life affects soil fertility 

Who should attend? 

Anyone who has raw material available to them as feedstocks, whether it is a farmer 
with manure and carbon resources or the commercial/municipal composter with organic 
industrial or yard wastes, as well as organic and high value growers 

ACS Workshop Location: 

USL Ira Nelson Horticulture Center 

2206 Johnston Street 

Lafayette, LA 70503 

(318)482-5339 

Thursday and Friday 

February 18**^ and 19^ 1999 

Advanced Registration is Requested. ($295 in advance, $345 after February 19^^, 
$255/$305 for additional participants from the same organization, Spouse fee is $55.00. Price 
includes lunches, dinner, and breaks, one free compost lab analysis per participant) Seating 
is limited. Call 1-800-335-850L 

Mail payment to: Midwest Bio-Systems 

28933-35E Street 

Tampico, IL 61283 

Phone (815) 438-7200 * FAX (815) 438-7028 

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About one quart of material will be required. 



15 



La Cane 

LOUISIANA CANE MANUFACTURING, INC. 

P.O. Box 71 • Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 447-3771 • Fax: (504) 447-8404 

TIGER — 2 Row Chopper Harvester 




Available for the 1998 Harvest 

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Call La Cane (Jim Collinson or 

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More Information 



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• Topping, Stripping and Extracting Leaves Before Chopping and Loading 

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• Excellent Weight Distribution, Balance and Low Ground Baring Pressure 

• Green Cane Cutting in All Conditions 

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• Higher C.R.S. 8c Higher Ibnnage 




16 



BATON ROUGE 



Sean M. Prados 



I N E 



Fight for Tobacco Funds 



Cigarette producers will pay al- 
most $246 billion over the next 
25 years to all 50 states. 
Louisiana's share of the tobacco settle- 
ment will be approximately $4.4 billion 
paid over that time. Some state agencies 
and legislators have already come out 
competing for the money. 

Department of Health and Hospitals 
(DHH) Secretary David Hood outlined 
some health initiatives that could be 
achieved with some of the funding. Ini- 
tiatives such as expanding children's 
health insurance, increasing services for 
the developmentally disabled, anti- 
smoking efforts, and expanding mental 
health services are all on DHH's priority 
list. 

The state's other major health care 
agency, the Louisiana State University 
Hospital System (formerly the Charity 
System), has also shown an interest in 
the money. These hospitals treat a large 
portion of the indigent population and 
feel they deserve more funding. 

Some legislators agree that the funds 
should go toward health-related pur- 
poses, but others have different ideas. 
Other options that have been introduced 
include raising teacher pay and reduc- 
ing state debt. Reducing debt could free 
up approximately $250 million annually 
for other state spending. 



Before anything happens with the 
money, the state has to fight the federal 
government for it. That's right. Uncle 
Sam wants his cut! The federal govern- 
ment argues that it is entitled to up to 70 
percent of the settlement because it pays 
a major portion of the Medicaid budget. 
When healthcare costs rose as a result of 
smoking-related illnesses, both the fed- 
eral and state governments had to in- 
crease health care expenditures for those 
in need. Now that the state has agreed to 
a settlement, the federal government 
believes that it deserves a large portion 
of the funds. 

While the state fights the Feds and 
state agencies fight each other, legisla- 
tors will be dealing with it in the legisla- 
ture this spring. A number of bills will be 
filed allocating the funds to various 
places. I guess we will see whom the 
lucky ones are when session ends in late 
June. 

Elections 

A supporter of sugar. Rep. Jerry Tho- 
mas, M.D. of Franklinton, has an- 
nounced his candidacy for the senate 
seat being vacated by Sen. Phil Short. 
Senate District 12 includes Washington, 
parts of St. Helena, St. Tammany and 
Tangipahoa parishes. We wish him well 
and the best of luck. 



17 



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18 




FARM NOTES, continued from page 14 

have been kept in 1880. What this means 
to agricuhural production, and more 
specifically to Louisiana sugarcane pro- 
duction, is not certain. However, grow- 
ing a tropical crop like sugarcane in a 
semitropical or temperate area like Loui- 
siana during these times can't be all bad. 
Growers should not, however, look at 
news reports on these issues and assume 
that cold tolerance and the ability for our 
varieties to withstand deterioration fol- 
lowing freezes is not important. The 
warming trend that scientists speak 
about involves a one or two degree 
change in the average temperature. It 
doesn't look at the extremes that are ex- 
perienced. In fact, some scientists be- 
lieve that while average temperatures 
may be increasing, there may actually be 
a widening of the extremes in summer 
and winter temperatures. 



Ourfluids 
make sugar. 



Ouachita 




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TRI-SXAXe 


Delta Chemicals 


Ttiibodaux, La. 
(504) 447-4081 


Jeanerette, La. 
(318)276-5051 


New Roads, La. 
(225) 638-8343 


Lemann's Farm Supply 
Donaldsonville, La. 
(225) 473-7927 
Satellite Plant 



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BROUSSARD 

CANE EQUIPMENT 



Cane 

Contractors 

Inc. 



Chopper Type 
Cane Harvesters 



Wholestalk 
Cane Harvesters 



High Dump Wagons Cane Loaders 



Contract Harvesting 

with Chopper 

Harvesters 



Sales ♦ Service ♦ Parts 

Vernon Manufacturing, Inc. 

P.O. Box 2650 • Parks, LA 70582 • Phone (318) 845-5080 



19 



CLASSIFIEDS 



FOR SALE 



• 1991 Case/lnt'l 7130, with front 
wheel drive, PTO, heavy duty steel 
bumper with box, 3640 hrs., - 
$37,500; 1972 Thompson Cane 
Cutter with large JD engine and 
front wheel assist - $5,000; 3-row 
Bottom Plow with 3 pt. hitch and 
gauge wheels - $500; 6' Case End 
Row Flat Chopper (parts only)- 
$100; 1990 Case/lnt'l 5120 
Maxum, 3490 hrs. - $22,500. Call 
Randy Gonsoulin at (318) 365- 
0014. 



• 1983 Single-row Broussard 
Harvester, double ends & scroll, 
CAT 3208 engine. New 18-4-38 
tires, with pulling wheel, shredder 
topper - $20,000; John Deere 4840 
with new trans. & engine over- 
hauled in '97 - $14,000; 1066 Hi- 
Clearance Int'l - $4,000; 856 Hi- 
Clearance Int'l - $2,500; 3-Row 
Bottom Type Plow Int'l, heavy 
duty and gauge wheels - $3,500; 4- 
Row JD style with gauge wheels 
and cyclers - $3,500; JD 4240, Hi- 
Clearance, 1981; 1 front mount 
spray rig with 200-gal. tank - $100; 
JD disk plow, heavy duty, 17-ft. - 
$2,000; Rolling Cultivator, 
Lilliston, 4-row - $250; Rolling 
Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row - $75; 
JD 3-row chopper, adjustable 
cylinders - $2,000; Int'l 3-row 
chopper - $1,000; 3 one-row 
shavers - best offer. Call Damian 
Pierre at (318)229-6932. 



• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2-row 

Harvester. Call Roland Bourgeois, 
Vacherie at (225) 265-4452 (leave a 
message). 

• 1993 Cameco S30 4-wheel drive 
Cane Cutter, cab and air, excellent 
condition - $45,000; J&L 4-wheel 
drive Field Loader, cab and air - 
$10,000; Drott 40 Excavator, 
rubber tires, 4-wheel drive, cane 
grab and bucket - $20,000. Call 
Jimmy Jarreau at (225) 637-4873. 

• 1992 Broussard 2-row Cane 
Harvester with JD engine; 1989 SP 
2300 Cameco Loader with JD 
engine; 1996 SP 2254 4WD 
Cameco Loader with JD engine, 
like new; 6 sets of Davis Chain Net 
Wagons with 24" wheels and tires; 
2-4' Thompson Cane Planters, all 
hydraulic. Call (318) 364-8903 (day) 
or (318) 365-5036 (night), ask for 
Thomas. 

• 10-ton Cameco Hydraulic Dump- 
ing Cart - $18,500. Purchased in 
September. Gall (318) 346-2367. 

• Cameco 2-row Harvester, cab & 

air, split system; 250 HP Cat 
engine, real good condition, field 
ready. Call (318) 276-3423 or (318) 
276-3173. 

• 1993 2-row LaCane Harvester. 

Contact Earline Kraemer, Vacherie 
at (225) 265-4801 or (225) 265- 
7888 (evening). 



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for parts, any age or condition 

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Tires • Rebuilt clutches • Crankshafts • Injector pumps and more 

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20 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

American Sugar Cane League of the 



S.A. IIno 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369., White Castle, LA 70788 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard, Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

P O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

441 E. Magnolia St., Eunice, LA 70535 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
P O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified Public Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

P O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

P O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
P O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

P O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
P O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibernia National Bank 

PO. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
P O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

P O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



MetLife 

5353 Essen Lane, Suite 333, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

P O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, PO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Regions Bank 

PO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Rohm & Haas 

503 S. Michot Dr., Lafayette, LA 70508 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

P O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

P O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

P O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

P O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Youngsville, LA 70592 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaux,LA 70301 



SERIALS DEFT 

LOU I S I ANA STATF '• (M T '■ ^ 

libraf;:y " 

BATON ROUGE LA 70903 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
PERMIT NO. 43 



Volume 77, No. 6 



March 1999 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



IS ISSUE 



Up Front With the League 3 

by Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 7 

by Don Wallace 

Farm Notes 11 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Environmental Perspective 23 

by fames F. Coerver, P.E., with G.E.C., Inc. 

Baton Rouge Line 25 

by Sean Prados with Spradley & Spradley 

Classifieds 27 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit 

organization. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year. 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 

The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those 

of the American Sugar Cane League. Viezvs and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of 

the advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



The Sugar Buliletin 



OD 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane LeapJUbf the^?5. A. Inc. 



Charles }. Melancon/Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson /Senior Agronomist 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist 

John Constant/Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens/Secretary 

Paul G. Borron Ill/Legal Counsel 



> 

m 



CCL» 






Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
1156 15th St., N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles J. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr, Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David AUain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Felix "Gus" Blanchard, New Iberia, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

John K Gay, Plaquemine, La. 

Ronald Gonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 

Dean Gravois, Vacherie, La. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Gramercy, La. 

Jackie Judice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judicc, Franklin, La. 

Buckley Kessler, White Castle, La. 

Lawrence "I5oo" Levert III, St. Martinville, La. 

A. j. "Brother" LeBourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

U. C. Mattingly, I'aincourtville, La. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 

Michael (i. Melancon, Breaux Bridge, La. 

Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 



Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Pa tout, Jeanerette, La. 
William S. Patout III, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
F'rank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Jackie Thenot, i^reaux Bridge, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Carlton Townsend, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 



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FRONT 



BY Charlie Melancon 



LEAGUE 



World Economy Impacts Domestic Sugar Market 



In my previous article I made men- 
tion that we will be facing challenges 
in new areas such as trade pacts. At 
this juncture it appears that sugar, as 
well as all of agriculture, is impacted by 
the economies of other parts of the 
world. This, then brings to the domestic 
sugar industry a concern that centers 
around over-quota imports of sugar. 

Early in the month of January, the 
government of Brazil decided to allow 
the exchange rates of the real (the Brazil- 
ian currency) to float vis-a-vis the dollar. 
With this event, and others throughout 
the world, we have seen world sugar 
prices that are among the lowest in his- 
tory. In less than three weeks, the closing 
price of the nearby March #1 1 contract 
has dropped by more than two full 
cents, from 8.80 cents per pound on 
January 7 to 6.65 cents per pound on 
January 27. A decline of almost 25%, hit- 
ting an 11-year low. The weakness of the 
market appears to be directly linked to 
calculations that Brazil's sugar produc- 
ers will increase exports dramatically to 
maximize their returns in reals, the local 
currency, which has lost more than 1/3 
of its value since being allowed to float. 

According to a study presented at 
last year's International Sugar Sympo- 
sium by Patrick Henneberry, Executive 
Vice President of Louis Dreyfus Sugar 
Co., that during 1999, a domestic price of 
22.5 cents per pound is vulnerable to 
above-quota imports of raw sugar from 
Mexico whenever the world price is be- 
low 7.40 cents per pound. This calcula- 



tion is based upon the tariff on Mexican 
raws under NAFTA declining to 13.60 
cents per pound in 1999, and assumes 
transportation costs of 1.5 cents per 
pound. With the tariff set to decline fur- 
ther to 12.09 in 2000, the 22.5 cents per 
pound domestic price would be vulner- 
able at a world price below 8.91 cents per 
pound. While in 2001 a world price of at 
least 10.42 cents per pound will be re- 
quired in order to protect the domestic 
price at its current level, as the tariff will 
then be just 10.58 cents per pound. The 
NAFTA tariff will continue to decline by 
1.51 cents per year, reaching zero in 
2008. 

A parallel, but initially less serious 
situation exists in the case of refined 
sugar, with a domestic price of 26 cents 
per pound becoming vulnerable during 
1999 to Mexican imports if the world 
refined price goes below 8.58 cents 
(10.19 cents per pound in 2000). How- 
ever, the tariff (currently 14.42 cents per 
pound) is set to decline by 1.60 cents per 
year, disappearing completely in 2008. 
The current world price for refined is 
around 11 cents per pound. 

Above quota imports of raw sugar 
from non-NAFTA sources would be a 
threat in 1999 only in the unlikely sce- 
nario that the #1 1 contract goes below 
5.18 cents (5.64 cents in 2000 and there- 
after). Refined sugar from non-NAFTA 
origins would constitute a threat in the 
even more unlikely scenario that the #5 
contract goes below 6.29 cents per 
pound in 1999 (6.77 cents per pound in 



2000 and thereafter).^ 

This brings us to the point of really 
talking about the issues that I have 
placed before you during the past six 
years. The potential for price reduction 
because of internal and external forces 
are increasing daily as we move toward 
the year 2003 and the year that the Farm 
Bill is scheduled for debate in the Con- 
gress. It is mine, Charles Thibaut's, and 
the rest the industry's hopes that Con- 
gress understands the dilemma that we 
are in when trying to compete against 
foreign governments. However, at the 
same time, a large number of people in 
the Congress believe that there is such a 
thing as free trade and open trade with- 
out barriers, and our government con- 
tinues to lead by example rather than 
forcing other governments to the table 
and demanding that they multilaterally 
ratchet down their support mechanisms. 

Your industry leaders, along with 
your Washington representatives, con- 
tinue to plan strategy and evaluate posi- 
tions that will give you the best advan- 
tage into the next century. However, it is 
quite difficult to stop a train when it is 
moving. In my mind, the next three 
years leading up to the renewal of the 
Farm Bill will be very critical years. I just 
hope that the majority of the people in 
this industry will not just take it for 
granted that the problem will resolve 
itself or just go away. We will do the best 
that we can to protect this industry, but 
it is inherent on each and every producer 
and processor to be strategically situated 
in the event the worst scenario should 
occur. 

Let me close by saying that I have 
always been an optimist, and still am. 
However, 1 am also a realist, and, reality 
is telling mc that some '' handwriting is 
beginning to appear on the wall ." 



The League hopes to have the Loui- 
siana industry study completed in the 
late fall of this year. 

American Sugar Alliance Addresses 
Senate Finance Committee 

James W. Johnson, Jr., Chairman of 
the American Sugar Alliance (ASA), 
appeared before the Senate Finance 
Committee on Jan. 26, to convey the 
Alliance's concerns with regard to the 
upcoming WTO trade negotiations. Mr. 
Johnson, who is also president of the 
United States Beet Sugar Association, 
compared the position of the sugar in- 
dustry to that of steel, a highly visible 
instance of an industry being undercut 
by subsidized foreign product dumped 
on the U.S. market. 

The ASA is on record as supporting 
free trade, because U.S. sugar and corn 
producers are efficient by world stan- 
dards. However, as long as foreign pro- 
ducers continue to subsidize exports, 
the ASA says that at least the minimal 
sugar policy now in place must be re- 
tained to protect American farmers. 

While supporting the goal of free 
trade, the ASA has serious concerns over 
past agreements and about the structure 
of future multilateral or regional trade 
agreements. Mr. Johnson listed five spe- 
cific recommendations to U.S. trade ne- 
gotiators: 

1) Before forging any new agreements, 
the U.S. should insist that countries 
comply with past agreements, par- 
ticularly the Uruguay Round and 
NAFTA. 

2) The U.S. must not reduce its support 
for agricultural programs any further 
until other countries have reduced 
their support to the U.S. level. 

3) Top priority must be given in the next 



'Dycr^ram, B.W. Dyer & Company, 106 Mine Brook Road, Bemardsville, Nf 07924-2432. 



round of negotiations to elimination 
of export subsidies, and to addressing 
the question of state-trading enter- 
prises (STEs). 

4) The wide gap in labor and environ- 
mental standards between developed 
and developing countries must be 
taken into account. Negotiators must 
provide both incentives and penalties 
to ensure global standards rise to de- 
veloped-country levels, rather than 
fall to develop ing-country levels. 

5) A flexible "request-offer" negotiating 
strategy must be adopted, rather than 
a rigid across-the-board formula. The 
U.S. must promise to reduce our gov- 
ernment programs only when foreign 
countries have eliminated their ex- 
port subsidies and STEs, and reduced 
their internal support import tariffs to 
our levels. 

Let's just hope that the Senators and 
others who affect our future are listening 
~ Better yet, understanding. 



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CANE EQUIPMENT 



Cane 

Contractors 

Inc. 



Chopper Type 
Cane Harvesters 



Wholestalk 
Cane Harvesters 



High Dump Wagons Cane Loaders 



Contract Harvesting 

with Chopper 

Harvesters 



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Vernon Manufacturing, Inc. 

P.O. Box 2650 • Parks, LA 70582 • Phone (318) 845-5080 




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^MUMSM^Mm^MUM^MSMSMSISM^MUI^M^I^M^ISM^MSM^M^^^ 



WASHINGTON UPDATE 



BY Don Wallace 



Domestic Supply Estimates Reduced 



The U.S. Department of Agricul- 
ture (USDA) has released the 
February World Agricultural 
Supply and Demand Estimates 
(WASDE), projecting a lower sugar beet 
crop for 1998/99 than previously ex- 
pected. Coupled with the reduction in 
expected imports of raw cane sugar, due 
to the cancellation of the January import 
tranche, the lowered beet estimates 
mean a significant reduction in total 
domestic stocks. 

Overall, domestic stocks are pro- 
jected to reach 11.873 million short tons, 
raw value, down 241,000 tons from last 
month's estimates. Beet production is 
now estimated at 4.4 million tons, 
100,000 tons less than last month. The 
reduction in beet supplies is attributed 
to storage losses caused by above-nor- 
mal temperatures over the past month. 
Though imports under the tariff-rate 
quota (TRQ) were lowered, imports and 
deliveries through the re-export pro- 
gram are expected to rise by 25,000 tons. 
No changes were made to domestic cane 
production estimates. Also, total domes- 
tic deliveries were unchanged, although 
an adjustment of 40,000 tons was made 
from domestic food use to sugar con- 
taining products for re-export, non-ed- 
ible alcohol, and feed. 

The supply loss translates to a 
stocks-to-use ratio of 16.4% for February, 
more than two points lower than the 
January throughput of 18.8%. If 
throughput remains above 15.5% for 
another month, the March import 
tranche should be canceled. This cancel- 
lation would further reduce total im- 



ports by another 166,000 tons, thus, 
again reducing total domestic supply by 
the same amount. The next import 
tranche under the TRQ is scheduled for 
May. Assuming a cancellation of the 
March import tranche, and if no other 
changes are made to current estimates, 
the May stocks-to-use ratio should be 
below 15%, thus triggering an allocation 
of the May tranche. 

Hearings Underway on Crop 
Insurance Reform 

The House Agriculture Subcommit- 
tee on Risk Management, Research, and 
Specialty Crops has begun holding a 
series of field hearings around the coun- 
try to review the crop insurance pro- 
gram and to explore ideas for its restruc- 
turing. As the Sugar Bulletin goes to 
press, hearings have already been held 
in Georgia, and more are scheduled for 
North Carolina and Washington state. 

The Senate Agriculture, Nutrition 
and Forestry Committee plans to hold 
two hearings in March, in Washington, 
D.C. to examine crop insurance and risk 
management strategies. The hearings 
will discuss the financial risk involved in 
agriculture production, as well as vari- 
ous proposals to expand the federal crop 
insurance program and reorganize the 
role of the USDA. 

House Agriculture Committee 
Chairman Larry Combest (R-TX) has 
indicated his highest priority will be to 
address the need for a stronger safety 
net for farmers. His counterpart on the 
Democratic side of the aisle. Ranking 
Minority Member Charles Stenholm (D- 



TX) agrees with Chairman Combest. 
Both consider a reform of the crop insur- 
ance program as the best method for 
providing that safety net. 

Their goal is a program that is avail- 
able to all farmers and is useful for all 
commodities. 

Democrats Make Committee 
Assignments 

Shortly after publication of last 
month's Sugar Bulletin, House Demo- 
crats released its new committee and 
subcommittee assignments. Also, Re- 
publicans have filled a committee seat 
that had been left vacant. 

The House Agriculture Committee 
welcomes four freshmen Democrats: 
Representatives David Phelps (D-IL), 
Ken Lucas (D-KY), Mike Thompson (D- 
CA), and Baron Hill (D-IN). They re- 
place former Representatives Scotty 
Baesler (D-KY), who lost a bid for the 
U.S. Senate, Jay Johnson (D-WI) who 
lost a reelection effort, and Sam Farr (D- 
CA), who moves to the House Appro- 
priations Committee (see below). Repre- 
sentative Bob Riley (R-AL) fills the re- 
maining Republican seat on the commit- 
tee. 

Membership on the Agriculture Sub- 
committee on Risk Management, Re- 
search, and Specialty Crops, which has 
jurisdiction over sugar, was increased to 
handle the new responsibilities for re- 
search issues. Republicans on the sub- 
committee include Chairman Tom 
Ewing (R-IL), Bill Barrett (R-NE), Nick 
Smith (R-MI), Terry Everett (R-AL), 
Frank Lucas (R-OK), Saxby Chambliss 
(R-GA), Ray LaHood (R-IL), Jerry 
Moran (R-KS), John Thune (R-SD), Bill 
Jenkins (R-TN), Gil Gutknecht (R-MN), 
Greg Walden (R-OR), Mike Simpson (R- 
ID), Doug Ose (R-CA), Robin Hayes (R- 
NC), and Ernie Fletcher (R-KY). The 
Ranking Minority Member on the sub- 



committee is Representative Gary 
Condit (D-CA). He is followed by Rep- 
resentatives George Brown (D-CA), 
Cal Dooley (D-CA), Earl HilHard (D- 
AL), Earl Pomeroy (D-ND), Sanford 
Bishop (D-GA), John Baldacci (D-ME), 
Virgil Goode (D-VA), Mike Mclntyre (D- 
NC), Debbie Stabenow (D-MI), Bob 
Etheridge (D-NC), Chris John (D-LA), 
Leonard Boswell (D-WI), and the fresh- 
men Reps. Lucas and Thompson. 

The House Appropriations Commit- 
tee adds seven new Democrats: Repre- 
sentatives James Clyburn (D-SC), 
Maurice Hinchey (D-NY), Lucille 
Roybal-Allard (D-CA), Farr, Jesse Jack- 
son (D-IL), Carolyn Kilpatrick (D-MI), 
and Allen Boyd (D-FL). They replace 
former Representatives Sidney Yates (D- 
IL), Louis Stokes (D-OH), Vic Fazio (D- 
CA), Bill Hefner (D-NC), David Skaggs 
(D-CO), and Esteban Torres (D-CA), all 
of whom retired. Representative Bud 
Cramer (D-AL) was named to the com- 
mittee last fall to replace Representative 
Tom Foglietta (D-PA) who left Congress 
to become Ambassador to Italy. 

Democrats on the Appropriations 
Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural 
Development, Food and Drug Adminis- 
tration and Related Agencies are led by 
Ranking Minority Member Marcy 
Kaptur (D-OH). She is followed by Rep- 
resentatives Rosa DeLauro (D-CT), 
Hinchey, Farr, and Boyd. 



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(504) 446-9450 



General Farm Manager Needed 

Work Description: Day-to-day sugarcane management of large expanding operation. 

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Company offerings: Salary ~ depends on experience; Company vehicle; Paid vacation; 

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Send resume to: Personnel Department, 2513 E. Admiral Doyle, New Iberia, LA 70560 



Wanted: p & I-H Tractors 
for parts, iilny age or condition 

New, used and rebuilt hi crop and row crop tractor parts 

Tires • Rebuilt clutches • Crank shafts • Injector pumps and more 

Also any hard-to-find parts. We buy farm equipment and salvage tractors 



Cane 

Tractor 

Parts 




ToU Free 
1-800-259-3453 
(318)276-3453 
(318)276-6230 




Hwy. 90, Jeanerette, La. 



Last year many farmers switched over to the billet cane system. 1999 will 
probably be a repeat of 1998. 

Alot of those customers waited so late to put in their orders on cane wagons 
and highway trailers that it hindered the time of delivery 

PLEASE DON'T WAIT! HELP US TO HELP YOU! 

We need your orders in EARLY to properly schedule production and early 
deliveries. 




For Proven Performance & Durability'' 

FOLLOW THE LEADER! 





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(vpypHeciated! 

(504) 447-4021 
(800) 447-8403 
(504) 447-4028 -Fax 




'ddcMltf^ 



INDUSTRIES, INC. 



P.O. Box 406 
Thibodaux, LA 70302 
118 West Main Street 



10 



FARM NOTES 



BY Dr. Charley Richard 



1998 Yields - Variety Releases 



The final yields of the 1998 crop are 
now history since the final factory 
completed the harvest season on 
January 21, 1999. For the first time in 
history, all but one factory ground into 
the new year to complete their seasons. 
Factory reports indicate that 13,358,869 
gross tons of cane were ground. From 
these tons, 1,263,400 tons of sugar (raw 
value) were produced. This is a recovery 
rate of 9.43%. Based on 395,000 acres es- 
timated for harvest (not including seed 
acreage), a yield of 33.8 tons of cane per 
acre and 6,397 pounds of sugar per acre 
were produced. Of these, cane tonnage, 
acreage and tons of cane per acre would 
be new industry records. Because of a 
lower than normal yield of sugar per 
ton, total sugar production would not be 
a new record. However, this level of 
sugar production is second best only to 
last year, and is the fifth consecutive year 
that the industry will have produced 
more than a million tons. Numerous in- 
dividual records were set by growers 
and factories alike and all are to be com- 
mended for an excellent yield despite 
the horrible growing conditions that 
plagued the 1998 crop through late sum- 



mer. 



Variety Releases 

LCP 85-384. It has often times been 
blessed and many times been cursed! 
This variety has its heritage in the basic 



breeding program which has attempted 
to incorporate genes from wild sugar- 
cane parentage into the commercial va- 
riety selection program conducted coop- 
eratively by LSU, USDA and the League. 
Its population undoubtedly comes from 
one of its wild parents, as does its 
stubbling ability. Never before in the 
history of Louisiana sugarcane produc- 
tion have yields been achieved that rival 
what LCP 85-384 can deliver. Of course, 
the variety is not perfect and is normally 
difficult to harvest, slow to germinate, 
sometimes difficult to establish (espe- 
cially in wet soil or when planted too 
deep) and is susceptible to the sugarcane 
borer. But, when established, it has pro- 
duced outstanding yields of cane and 
sugar per acre, and looks like it will pro- 
vide adequate stands in third stubble in 
many situations. 

The net effect of having LCP 85-384 is 
that the industry has crossed a new yield 
hurdle. But it also has meant a transition 
to chopper harvesters in order to handle 
the oftentimes badly lodged fields that 
come with the high tonnage. The yield 
potential (and income potential) is easily 
recognizable, as seen in the graph of 
crop cycle sugar per acre seen below. 
However, growers estimate spending 
some $300,000 a piece to purchase com- 
bine harvesters and the appropriate in- 
field transport to accompany the system. 
Highway transport and mill alterations 



11 



to handle billet cane has also been a siz- 
able cost for the industry. 

LCP 85-384 has allowed the industry 
to survive despite a flat price of sugar. 
This has come with considerable ex- 
pense, however. At this point, questions 
that are often asked include: How long 
will LCP 85-384 last and when will the 
next high yielding variety be released? 

The chart following provides a list- 
ing of varieties released to the Louisiana 
industry since the cooperative program 
between LSU, USDA and the League 
was established. Prior to 1924, D-74, La. 
Purple, and La. Striped were grown as 
predominant varieties in the industry. It 
can be seen from the chart that, on aver- 
age, a variety is released every 1.5 years. 



However, only once every five or so 
years is a variety released which reaches 
25% or more of the industry's acreage 
and only once a decade does a variety 
occupy more than half of the acreage. 
The answers to the questions concerning 
LCP 85-384 are only speculation. How- 
ever, industry members should rest as- 
sured that the League, working with its 
team members at LSU and USDA, is at- 
tempting to address these concerns to 
insure the best varieties possible for the 
industry and have them released as 
quickly as possible. 

To follow the release of these variet- 
ies, use of healthy seed cane to prolong 
their use has always been a high priority 
for the industry. 



Year 
Released 



Variety 



Max. Percent of Peak 

Acreage Attained Year 



1924 
1924 
1924 
1924 
1930 
1930 
1933 
1934 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1939 
1939 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1943 
1945 



POJ 234 65 1928 

POJ 213 47 1931 

POJ 36 13 1933 

POJ 36 M 13 1933 

Co 281 47 1936 

CP807 11 1935 

Co 290 41 1940 

CP 28-11 5 1942 

CP 28-19 13 1942 

CP 29-320 24 1940 

CP 29-116 13 1947 

CP 29-103 7 1945 

CP 29-120 10 1947 

CP 33-243 1 1945 

CP 34-120 25 1947 

CP 33-310 1 1947 

CP 33-425 1 1947 

CP 36-105 39 1952 

FARM NOTES, continued on page 17 



12 



PROW 



Sugarcane Update 

from American Cyanamid 

Spring Chemical Weed Control 
Should I use my lilliston? No. 



Reasons Why: 

1. Can decrease yields 0-4 tons/acre. 

• Supported by 1988 and 1989 LSU St. Gabriel Research Station 
Cultural Practice Research. 

2. Can increase the spread of Ratoon Stunting Disease (RSD) and 
Leaf Scald. 

• Could cause from 1/8-1/3 crop loss! 

• Risk infecting your clean seed investment. 



PROWL 3.3EC 2 qt./acre Offers: 

• Safe and dependable grass control 

• No incorporation 

• Increased yields 

• Tank mix flexibility (base for your weed control program) 

• One pass weed control (saves time and labor) 

• Excellent control of seedling johnsongrass, browntop 
pancium, itchgrass and other annual grasses 



For questions contact American Cyanamid: 
Marc A. Grabert (225) 927-9331 



Suggested Chemical Weed 
Control For Sugarcane 

PROWL is rated excellent for seedling johnsongrass, itchgrass, browntop panicum and annual grasses. 
PROWL should be your base grass chemical for your herbicide program. 





5? ^ 


) 






















1 








Jj ^ 

^ f 
^ ^ 




» «5 






•»*< 


fl? 




(n 


Qj (tr 


Planted Fields 


1 i 
1 1 

SI ^ 

CO ^ 


/ 


CO 

i 


1 


QJ 


1 

1 


CO 
CO 


^ J 

k o 


Preemergence 


















Sinbar 


G-E P 


P 


p 


P 


E 


G 


G 


E G-E 


Sencor/Lexone 


G-E P 


P 


p 


F-G 


E 


G-E 


G 


E E 


Treflan, Trifluralin, 
















Trilin aned Tri-4 


E P 


G-E 


p 


G-E 


E 


P 


G 


P P 


PROWL 


E P 


G-E 


p 


G-E 


E 


P 


G 


P P 


Atrazine 


P P 


P 


p 


P 


G 


E 


G 


E E 


Karmex/Direx 


F P 


P 


p 


F 


G-E 


F-G 


G 


G F-G 


Postemergence 


















2,4D 


P P 


P 


p 


P 


P 


G-E 


P 


G G 


Banvel 


P P 


P 


p 


P 


P 


G-E 


P 


G-E G-E 


Weedmaster 


P P 


P 


p 


P 


P 


E 


P 


E E 


Evik 


P-F P 


F-G 


p 


G 


G 


F-G 


F-G 


G G 


Atrazine 


P P 


P 


p 


P 


P-F 


F 


F 


G F-G 


Asulox 


G G 


P-F 


p 


G 


G 


P 


F-G 


P P 


Karmex/Direx 


F P 


G 


p 


F 


G 


F-G 


F 


G F-G 



Control Rating Scale Poor - less than 49%; Fair - 50-69%; Good - 70-89%; 

Excellent - 90-100%; does not apply or not rated. 

*Chart and ratings from Louisiana's Suggested Chemical Weed Control Guide 1998, 
Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service 



American Cyanamid's Spring Herbicide Sugarcane Weed Control Program: 

PROWL -- 2 qt./acre Banded 

+ Broadleaf Herbicide (Karmex/Direx, Atrazine or Sencor/Lexone) 

+ Bumdown Herbicide as needed for winter weeds 

(Gramoxone Extra, 2,4D or Weedmaster) 

+ Surfactant 



For questions contact American Cyanamid: 
Marc A. Grabert (225) 927-9331 

*^ Always read and follow label directions 



PROWl 



herbiciilii 



Sugarcane Testimonials 






'-f- 






'■■■ -.I'i 



"Ifind Prowl allows me to cover more ground 
without having to incorporate. I've always 
had good success with Prowl and like its crop 
safety. " 

Spike Noel 
Spike Noel Farms 
Donaldsonville, LA 



m^^^^i 



r'^WWw^^::M^' 



-H^^jf:-fi¥l 






t:/ 



I 



X;J^:- -.'' 



, f*v- 







"I've been using PROWL on sugarcane ever 
since the first year it was released. PROWL 
-'^ docs a good job controlling itchgrass. " 



Joseph Beaud 



;,, - ' Joe Beaud Farms 
'^^•■^t New Roads, LA 
^?H^ PROWL user on 2,000 acres of sugarcane 



"Wc apply two applications of PROWL to 4,000 
acres of sugarcane These two applications aid in 
surpressing the seedling Johnsongrass so that 
our fields remain clean for the following years. 
PROWL helps us to increase our profits and 
offers flexibility in application." 

Rocky Ourso 

Ourso Farms 

White Castle, LA 

PROWL user on 4,000 acres of sugarcane 

Pictured L to R: Mitchell, Donnie, Rocky and Artie 







1^, 




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Louisiana's Bank For Business 

Is Louisiana's Bank 

For Leasing. 

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Leasing enables you to: 

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HIBERNIA 

V^ere service matters.'" 

© 1998 Hibernia National Bank. Member FDIC. www.hiberniabank.com 




FARM NOTES, continued from page 12 

Year Max. Percent of Peak 

Released Variety Acreage Attained Year 

1946 CP 36-13 7 1953 

1947 CP 34-92 1 1951 

1947 , CP 36-19 1 1951 

1947 CP 36-183 1 1951 

1949 CP 44-101 53 1957 

1949 CP 44-155 11 1955 

1950 CP 43-47 4 1955 

1952 CP 44-154 1 1954 

1954 NCo310 25 1960 

1955 CP 47-193 4 1964 

1955 CP 48-103 12 1968 

1958 CP 52-68.. 49 1968 

1963 CP 55-30 15 1968 

1966 L 60-25 30 1971 

1967 CP 61-37 21 1974 

1969 L 62-96 24 .1974 

1972 L 65-69 7 1976 

1973 CP 65-357 71 1980 

1975 CP 67-412 4 1979 

1978 CP 70-321 49 1995 

1978 CP 70-330 9 1982 

1980 CP 72-356 10 1985 

1980 CP 72-370 11 1993 

1981 CP 73-351 3 1984 

1982 CP 74-383 11 1987 

1984 CP 76-331 5 1988 

1987 CP 79-318 4** 1992 

1990 LCP 82-89 16 1996 

1991 LHo 83-153 4** 1997 

1993 LCP 85-384 43** 1998 

1993 HoCP 85-845 6** 1998 

1994 LCP 86-454 <1** 1998 

** = May not have reached maximum acreage. 

17 



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CD 



Roundup-Ready 

Soybeans 

on Fallow 

Ground. 



Why Not? 





19 



Soybeans for harvest 



Soybeans as cover crop 




BENEFITS: 

• Possible income gain off fallow ground 

• Great weed control 

• May increase organic matter in soil 

• Less erosion 

• More environmentally friendly 



BENEFITS: 

• Great weed control 

• May increase organic matter in soil 

• Less erosion 

• More environmentally friendly 

• Less labor 



NEGATIVES: 

• In dry years it can reduce soil moisture 

• Requires more management 

• In some cases, it can delay planting 
sugarcane 

• More equipment needs (planter) 



NEGATIVES: 

• Must plow under soybeans 3-4 weeks 
before planting sugarcane 

• More equipment needs (planter) 



EXPENSES 


$/ACRE 


$/ACRE 




(Harvest) 


(Cover Crop) 


Roundup 


$19/acre (2 qts.) 


$19/acre(2qts.) 


Sprayer Cost 


$3.68/acret2 sprayings) 


$3.68/acre (2 sprayings) 


Tillage 






Seed Cost 


$28/bag 


$28/bag 


Fungicide 


$10/acre 




Insecticide 


$10/acre 




Contracted Harvest 






($1.25/bu,45bu/acre) 


$56.25/acre 




Gross Income 






($6.50/bu, 45 bu/acre) 


$292.50 





Net 



$161.00 



-$55.25 



20 



Conventional system 

with Roundup applied 

2 weeks before planting 



Conventional system 
with no Roundup 




.*"^ 



BENEFITS: 

• Possibly more soil moisture at planting 

• May allow for earlier planting 

• Less erosion vs. tillage 



BENEFITS: 

• Less chemical usage 

• Labor usage at slow times 



NEGATIVES: 




NEC 

• Rain 


lATIVES: 

dependent 


• Possible erosion from 


tillage • Can reduce soil moisture 


• Equipment wear and tear 


• More labor 








• More erosion 








• Equ 


pment wear and tear 


EXPENSES 




$/ACRE 

(Roundup) 




$/ACRE 

(no Roundup) 


Roundup 
Sprayer Cost 
Tillage 




$19/acre (2 qts.) 
$1.84/acre 
$15.63 (3 passes) 




$26.05-$31.25 (5-6 passes) 


Net 




-$36.47 




-$26.05 to -$31.25 



Selected estimate taken from LAES publication #148-155 

Cost estimates based on $6.50/bushel selling price and 45 bushels per acre yield 

Data provided by: Blaine Viator, Department of Plant Pathalogy at LSU 

Dr. Jim Griffin, Department of Plant Pathalogy at LSU 

Dr. Ed Richard, USDA 



21 



IS NOW 
CRYSTAL ^AlC^ 

CLEAN 




Cane Harvesting x\ Equipment 



LEMANN*S 

Farm Supply, inc. 

Donaldsofiviiic ThSbodaux 

(22S) 473-7927 (504) 447-3776 



Ask about 
Case Credit 
financing 



'>y.t-f^>j.-?^>u 



22 



ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE 



BY James F. Coerver. P.E. 
G.E.C, Inc. 



Title V Deadlines Alert 



Louisiana sugar mills recently re- 
ceived Part 70 Operating Permits 
(Title V, Clean Air Act), and these 
permits impose many new and often be- 
wildering requirements with severe 
penalties for noncompliance. Many of 
these permits arrived during grinding 
season when there was no time available 
for thorough analysis of new permit re- 
quirements or to install and adjust any 
new or revised equipment and /or oper- 
ating procedures needed for permit 
compliance. Fortunately, the Louisiana 
Department of Environmental Quality 
(LDEQ) has been understanding and 
helpful with the difficult transition from 
the old to this new permitting system. 
As of now, however, alibis may be more 
difficult to find. 

One of the Title V deadlines that 
must be faced immediately (by March 
31, 1999) is that for a "Semiannual Re- 
port" covering the period July 1 to De- 
cember 31, 1998. Note that this original 
semiannual report does not cover any 
1999 operations, as these matters are to 
be covered in the next semiannual report 
due September 30, 1999. This second of 
the bi-annual reports must be submitted 
to LDEQ whether or not mills actually 
operated during January, 1999. Also, the 
semiannual report due March 31 should 
not be confused with the annual "Crite- 
ria Pollutant Emissions Certification 
Statement" and "Emission Inventory 
System (EIS) Reports" which are also 
due on the same date. 

There is no specific form or format 
prescribed for the Title V Permit semian- 



nual reports, and that allows a common 
sense approach to the task. That seems 
to be a much better approach than hav- 
ing to use a typical Federal report form 
such as the "1040" used by IRS. The 
common sense format of your own 
choice must, however, include the fol- 
lowing information in the reports: 

• "Reports of any required monitor- 
ing" which, in my opinion, requires 
only a brief summary of what was re- 
quired and what was done. 

• "All instances of deviations from per- 
mit requirements" must be reported, 
including those detected by self 
monitoring, as well as those cited by 
LDEQ or EPA inspectors. 

• "For previously reported (permit) 
deviations, the semiannual report 
should reference the 
communication(s) / 
correspondence(s) related thereto", 
apparently referring to communica- 
tions with LDEQ or EPA. 

• The semiannual report must be "cer- 
tified by a responsible company offi- 
cial", most likely referring to the mill 
manager. 

In addition to these "musts", the 
semiannual report should also include 
simple statements describing how other 
specific permit requirements are being 
complied with. One such specific re- 
quirement in every Sugar Mill Title V 
permit is for a "standby plan for emis- 
sions reduction during emergency epi- 
sodes", as indicated in the December 



23 



1998 issue of The Sugar Bulletin. A 
model emergency episode plan is avail- 
able through the League that is intended 
to assist individual mills in preparing 
theirs. 

Another specific requirement in each 
of the Title V permits is for written 
''housekeeping and maintenance'' 
plans, the posting of such plans at a facil- 
ity, and the submission of the plan to 
LDEQ. There are no definitions or 
guidelines for such plans in the Regula- 
tions. Presumably, all common sense 
measures related to controlling point 
source emissions and for reducing fugi- 
tive emissions should be included in 
such plans. 

A retrospective view of the 1998 air 
permit situation indicates there may be 
much more serious compliance prob- 
lems in 1999. I don't know of anyone 
who anticipated in 1995, when applica- 
tions for the Title V permits were sub- 
mitted to LDEQ, that mills would oper- 



Ourfluids 
make sugar. 



Ouachita 




Fertilizer 



New Iberia, La. (3 1 8) 367-8233 



XRi-snr 

Delta Chemicals 



Thibodaux, La. 
(504) 447-4081 

New Roads, La. 
(225) 638-8343 



Jeanerette, La. 
(318)276-5051 

Lemann's Farm Supply 
Donaldsonville, La. 
(225) 473-7927 
Satellite Plant 



ate as many days as mills actually oper- 
ated during the 1998 grinding season. 
Many mills may now be "bumping the 
ceiling" on emissions authorized in the 
new Title V permits that are not due for 
renewal until year 2002. The urgent 
question is will even longer operating 
periods be necessary in the 1999 season. 
Mill operators would be wise to review 
their individual permit situation imme- 
diately. 

On the bright side, it is possible to 
apply for an amended Title V permit 
that allows increased annual emissions 
associated with additional operating 
days. It costs a lot of money for fees, and 
LDEQ says they need all the money they 
can get. Even if a mill is emitting at or 
near the critical 250 ton per year level, an 
annual increase in emissions of less than 
40 tons per year is possible without trig- 
gering "PSD review". But be careful, it's 
easy for a sugar mill to "shoot itself in 
the PSD foot". 




Ask your Land 
Bank Association 

about... financing 
to buy land or 
improve your farm. 



Most Louisiana farmers today are 
looking at ways to increase their 
productivity... buy or improve 
land... build new facilities. 

Whatever specific needs you have, 
your Land Bank Association can 

provide long-term credit to help. 

If you've got plans that need 
financing, see the people at the Land 
Bank Association to discuss our 
various loan options. 

Federal Land Bank Association 
of South Louisiana 



Opelousas 
(318) 942-1461 

Port Allen 
(225) 344-2691 



1^ 



24 



THE BATON ROUGE 



BY Tom Spradley 
Spradley & Spradley 



I N E 



Excess Weight Vehicle Taslc Force 



The Task Force appointed by Gov- 
ernor Foster has met twice, and in 
less than sixty days wants to issue 
a report. In legislative terms this 
amounts to the speed of light — folks in 
Baton Rouge are used to such projects 
taking a year to a year and a half. Task 
Force member Charlie Melancon re- 
marked at the latest meeting that "this 
looks like a railroad train coming down 
the tracks headed right for me". 

The report indicates that sugarcane, 
cotton and timber carriers are tearing up 
the roads in the state and the suggested 
solution is to reduce weights and /or to 
charge fees high enough to make the 
repairs. Spokesmen for the commodities 
suggest the study has not yet taken a 
broad enough perspective to get the true 
picture. All revenues produced from 
these haulers should be taken into con- 
sideration before any conclusions are 
attempted. 

Task Force Chairman, Bill 
Fensternmaker, assured Melancon that 
it is not his or the administration's inten- 
tion to jump to conclusions and that 
proper consideration will be given to all 
the factors and he has asked representa- 
tives of the truckers and the commodity 
spokesmen to study the report and to 
make presentations at subsequent Task 
Force meetings. The League's fear is that 



a hasty report from the Task Force could 
cause legislation to be filed in the com- 
ing Legislative session which would re- 
peal our special weight permit and jam 
the growers just as other factors are 
making it harder to earn a living. 

Initiative and Referendum 

At its most recent meeting the 
League Board of Directors took a posi- 
tion opposing the Foster administra- 
tion's proposal for initiative and referen- 
dum, I and R, as it is commonly referred 
to, is a system of enacting laws without 
going through the legislature. Quite a 
few states have I and R, but perhaps the 
most famous state is California where 
initiatives have been used to cut taxes 
and curtail government in several other 
ways. This, of course, sounds good to 
most of us. And the Governor feels this 
will empower the average citizen and 
protect him from overzealous lawmak- 
ers. The League's Board was concerned 
about the costs to growers and mills of 
fighting initiatives to outlaw burning or 
to cover loads, or reduce weights, etc... 

Opponents of Initiative and Referen- 
dum don't think the Governor can get 
the two- thirds legislative vote it takes to 
amend the Constitution and to enact this 
proposal. But ...that's why they play the 
game. 



25 



La Cane 

LOUISIANA CANE MANUFACTURING, INC. 

P.O. Box 71 • Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 447-3771 • Fax: (504) 447-8404 

TIGER — 2 Row Chopper Harvester 





)\ 


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r*' '/.:• •' *' (^ j^a^aJflW*'*'^^^^^'^'^**^™ "UPW 


^^^^^IpgjrF' ^ -HSiBpiippil 



Available for the 1998 Harvest 

Season 

Call La Cane (Jim Collinson or 

Ken Caillouet) to Schedule a 

Video Presentation or For 

More Information 



FEATURES: 

• 2-Row Cutting at Pour Rates of 200 to 300 Tons Per Hour 

• Topping, Stripping and Extracting Leaves Before Chopping and Loading 

• 4 Wheel Drive (Rubber Tires) 

• Base Cutting Out in Front of Running Gear to Help Prevent Mud Induction 
While Cutting in Wet Conditions 

• Excellent Weight Distribution, Balance and Low Ground Baring Pressure 

• Green Cane Cutting in All Conditions 

INCREASE PROFITS BY: 

• Reduced Operating Costs 

• Increased Cutting & Loading Rates 

• Reduced Labor & Fuel Costs 

• Reduced Trash &: Mud in Cane 

• Reduced Maintenance 
(Less Equipment & NO TRACKS) 

• Higher C.R.S. &: Higher Tonnage 




S6 



CLASSIFIEDS 



OR SALE 



1991 Case/lnt'l 7130, with front wheel 
drive, PTO, heavy duty steel bumper 
with box, 3640 hrs., - $37,500; 1972 
Thompson Cane Cutter with large 
JD engine and front wheel assist - 
$5,000; 3-row Bottom Plow with 3 
pt. hitch and gauge wheels - $500; 6' 
Case End Row Flat Chopper (parts 
only)- $100; 1990 Case/ Int'l 5120 
Maxum, 3490 hrs. - $22,500. Call 
Randy Gonsoulin at (318) 365-0014. 

10-ton Cameco Hydraulic Dumping 
Cart - $18,500. Purchased in 
September. Call (318) 346-2367. 



• 1992 Broussard 2-row Cane 
Harvester with JD engine; 1989 SP 
2300 Cameco Loader with JD 
engine; 1996 SP 2254 4WD Cameco 
Loader with JD engine, like new; 6 
sets of Davis Chain Net Wagons with 
24" wheels and tires; 2-4' Thomp- 
son Cane Planters, all hydraulic. 
Gall (318) 364-8903 (day) or (318) 
365-5036 (night), ask for Thomas. 

• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2-row 

Harvester. Call Roland Bourgeois, 
Vacherie at (225) 265-4452 (leave a 
message). 



• 1983 Single-row Broussard Har- 
vester, double ends & scroll, CAT 
3208 engine. New 18-4-38 tires, with 
pulling wheel, shredder topper - 
$20,000; John Deere 4840 with new 
trans. & engine overhauled in '97 - 
$14,000; 1066 Hi-Clearance Int'l - 
$4,000; 856 Hi-Clearance Int'l - 
$2,500; 3-Row Bottom Type Plow 
Int'l, heavy duty and gauge wheels - 
$3,500; 4-Row JD style with gauge 
wheels and cyclers - $3,500; JD 
4240, Hi-Clearance, 1981; 1 front 
mount spray rig with 200-gal. tank - 
$100; JD disk plow, heavy duty, 17- 
ft. - $2,000; Rolling Cultivator, 
Lilliston, 4-row - $250; Rolling 
Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row - $75; JD 
3-row chopper, adjustable cylinders - 
$2,000; Int'l 3-row chopper - $1,000; 
3 one-row shavers - best offer. Call 
Damian Pierre at (318)229-6932. 

• 1993 Cameco S30 4-wheel drive 
Cane Cutter, cab and air, excellent 
condition - $45,000; J&L 4-wheel 
drive Field Loader, cab and air - 
$10,000; Drott 40 Excavator, rubber 
tires, 4-wheel drive, cane grab and 
bucket - $20,000. Call Jimmy Jarreau 
at (225) 637-4873. 



• 1993 2-row LaCane Harvester. 

Contact Earline Kraemer, Vacherie at 
(225) 265-4801 or (225) 265-7888 
(evening). 

• 1466 Int'l with cab and quick hitch; 
1066 Int'l with cab "Hi-Clearance"; 
Broussard Loader with chain piler 
and backhoe; (3) Tandum Whole 
Stalk Wagons with extra hubs, tires 
and wheels. Call Russel Judice at 
(318)394-4727. 

• Broussard Single-row Cutter JD 

engine - $20,000; Cameco 2-row 
Cutter with gates, JD engine - 
$40,000 - will trade on Cane 
Combine or Tractor. Call Erne 
Plessela, Jr. at (318) 229-8409. 

• 3 Drum Planters - $3,000 each; Hl- 

Crop JD 4430, stand, tram - $8,000; 
Hi-Crop JD 4430, quad tram - 
$9,000; Mudder JD 2750 MFWD - 

$10,000. Call Gerald or Mark Naquin 
at (504) 526-4249. 



CLASSIFIEDS, continued on page 28 



27 



CLASSIFIEDS 


FOR. SALE 


continued from page 27 


• Cameco 2-row Harvester, cab & 




air, split system; 250 HP Cat 




engine, real good condition, field 


• JD 4455 MFWD - 4,842 hours ■ 


ready Call (318) 276-3423 or (318) 


$35,000; JD 4850 MFWD - 7,680 


276-3173. 


hours - $35,000; JD 7400 Hi-Crop 




MFWD w/low profile tank & rack - 


• 1997 2-row LaCane Harvester 


4,900 hours - $35,000; Int'l 1086 Hi- 


(last 2 row built), 375 hp, 4-wheel 


Crop w/tank & rack - $6,000; 1394 


drive. Call Gonsoulin Farms at 


Case MFWD - $6,000; 93 Cameco 


(318)364-5885. 


CHT 2500 Chopper Harvester; 




Broussard Single Row Harvester - 


• 8 New 20.8x42 R-2 Firestone tires 


$17,500; 1981 Thompson Single 
Row Harvester - $1 ,000; Int'l 856 w/ 


- $800 each 


Broussard Loader - $3,500; Case 


2-1995 Peerless Chip Trailer 42' 


880 Excavator -$10,000; (3) 


-$15,500 each 


Quality Hi-Dump Wagons - $22,000 


2-1988 Peerless Chip Trailer 


each; (1) Cameco Hi-Dump Wagon 


42' - $8,500 each 


-$21,000; (2) Tandem Axle 


Call (318) 879-7932 (W)- leave 


Transloader Wagons - $1 ,000 each; 


message. 


(1) Tandem Axle Planters Aide 8' x 




20' - $3,500; 14' Bushhog - $3,000; 


• S32 Cameco Harvester, cab & air. 


T Bushhog - $1,500; 42' Spray 


big tires, split system gates, master 


Boom w/tank & hydraulic pump - 


control, new torque hubs on rear. 


$1 ,200; 1 ,000 Gal. Water Wagon w/ 


Comes from 600-700 acre farm. 


punfip & motor - $1 ,000; Int'l 501 


$75,000. Call (504) 526-8890. 


Breaking Disk - $1 ,500; Midland 21 ' 




Disk w/hydraulic fold wings - $1 ,200; 




3-row shop made covering tool - 


• MAKE OFFER (will consider 


$3,000; 3-row Opener -$500; V 


package deal) - 1989 Cameco 2- 


Plow w/2 hydraulic cylinders - 


row; 1989 Cameco 4x4 Field 


$1 ,200; Prime 3-row w/off bars - 


Loader; 1980 Thompson Single 


$4,000. Call (225) 937-0846 (day) or 


Row; 1996 Rotobec Excavator 


(225)627-9577 (evenings - 6pm-9pm) 


Grab; (2) 1985 Mechanical 


Ask for David Jarreau. 


Planters; 1996 3 pt. Hitch Spray 




Rig (used 1 time). Call Golden 




Ranch Plantation at (504) 532- 




5221. 



28 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

American Sugar Cane League of the 



S.A. Inc 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369, White Castle, LA 70788 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard, Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

P O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy. 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

441 E. Magnolia St., Eunice, LA 70535 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
R O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway, Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified Public Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

P O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

R O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
R O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

P O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
P O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibernia National Bank 

PO. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
P O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

P O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy. 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



Material Resources, Inc. 

PO. Box 1183, Port Allen, LA 70767 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy. 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy., Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

P O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, PO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Regions Bank 

PO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Rohm & Haas 

503 S. Michot Dr., Lafayette, LA 70508 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

P O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

P O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

P O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

P O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Youngsville, LA 70592 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaux,LA 70301 



^^Rlf^Lc 



-■■OUlSlf. 



jEF'T 



m^oi STATE 



SATON 'rouge 



UNI^ 



LA 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
^ERMIT NO. 43 



Volume 77, No. 7 



April 1999 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 







Warren J. 
Harang, III 

39th 
Chairman of 
the Board 
of the 
American 
Sugar Cane 
League 



Uuir/.:i;;;r.::^''«7iH;!H:;HHK(Ki!;:!i3KS' 



The Sugar Bulletin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon/ Editor, President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 
Windell R. Jackson /Senior Agronomist 
Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist 
John Constant/ Business Manager 
Nannette B. Nickens /Secretary- 
Paul G. Borron Ill/Legal Courisel .. — - 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
1156 15th St., N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Jackie Theriot, St. Martinville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles J. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David AUain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Grady Bubenzer, Bunkie, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

John F. Gay, Plaquemine, La. 

Ronald Gonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 

Dean Gravois, Vacherie, La. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Gramercy, La. 

Jackie Judicc, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, Franklin, La. 

Buckley Kessler, White Castle, La. 

Wilson LeBlanc, Jeanerette, La. 

A. J. "Brother" I^eBourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

Lawrence "Boo" I>evert ni, St. Martinville, La. 

Chris Mattingly, Paincourtville, I^. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 



Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 
Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Pa tout, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Tommy Thibodeaux, New Iberia, La. 
Carlton Townsend, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 



M.J. NAQUIN INC. 



Al WHITE 



AGCO 



AND 



Mh. 


AGCO 
ALLIS 


(aoco) 







White 6144 High Clearance 

Features include a 165 H.P. Cummings engine, with 32 forward, 
32 reverse power shift transmission. Tire sizes are 20.8 x 42 R2 rear 
and 12.9 x 56 front, which gives a 34" inch clearance under the 
drawbar. Available in two and four wheel drive, with an electric 
controlled 3 point hitch that has a lift capacity of 12,000 lbs. 

Shown with the 6144 is a High Clearance 3 Row Cultivator with 
22" blades, off -bar attachments, dirt shields, middle busters and 
adjustable furrow moldboards, which is built in-house. In stock. 

COME BY AND SEE! 



205 ARMS STREET • THIBODAUX, LA 70301 



(504) 447-3296 



FAX: (504) 446-3401 



ABOUT THE COVER. 



WARRB\IJ.HARAI\IG,III 

39th CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD 

1990-2001 



Warren J. Harang, III, the newly 
elected Chairman of the Board of the 
American Sugar Cane League, resides in 
Donaldsonville, Louisiana. A sixth gen- 
eration sugarcane grower, originally 
from the nearby community of 
Thibodaux. 

Harang graduated from Thibodaux 
College High School, and then went on 
to obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in 
Animal Sciences from the University of 
Southwestern Louisiana. There he was 
also an active member of Kappa Sigma 
Fraternity Upon graduation, he married 
the former Becky Herring of New Iberia, 
and they have four children: Jeanne, Jay, 
Amy and Lee. His family is active in the 
local St. Francis of Assisi Church com- 
munity. 

Prior to purchasing St. Emma planta- 
tion in Donaldsonville, Harang served 
in the Louisiana National Guard, attain- 
ing the rank of 2nd Lieutenant before 
discharge. Today, he manages the opera- 



tion of St. Emma's 1800 acre sugarcane 
farm, and he also maintains a herd of 
cross bred cattle and a small thorough- 
bred brood mare band. Harang has 
served as a Board Member of the Ascen- 
sion Parish Farm Bureau (President 
1986-90), and as a former Board Member 
of Cameco Industries. In 1986, he was 
honored by the Louisiana Sugar Cane 
Festival by being name "King Sucrose''. 
He currently serves as a Director of 
Lafourche Sugars, a sugar mill based in 
Thibodaux, and has served as a Director 
of the American Sugar Cane League 
since 1978. 

The League's Chairmanship has tra- 
ditionally rotated every two years, with 
the Chairmen alternating between 
grower and processor, with the other 
serving as Vice-Chair. This tradition car- 
ries on with Jackie Theriot, General 
Manager of LASUCA, Inc. of St. Martin 
Parish, serving as Vice-Chair for the next 
two years. 



Wanted: p & I-H Tractors 
for parts, any age or condition 

New, used and rebuilt hi crop and row crop tractor parts 

Tires • Rebuilt clutches • Crank shafts • Injector pumps and more 

Also any hard-to-fmd parts. We buy farm equipment and salvage tractors 



Cane 

Tractor 

Parts 




ToU Free 
1-800-259-3453 
(318)276-3453 
(318)276-6230 




Hw)'. 90,Jeanerette, La. 



HIS ISSUE 



Up Front With the League 5 

by Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 9 

b}/ DonWallace 

Farm Notes 15 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Baton Rouge Line 19 

by Tom Spradley with Spradley & Spradley 

Environmental Perspective 21 

by fames F. Coerver, RE., with G.E.C., Inc. 

Classifieds 23 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit 

organization. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year. 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 

The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those 

of the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of 

the advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



AGRICULTURAL LIME 

Save on Lime Cost 

''Your key to greater crop production " 

Material Resources, Inc. Liming agent is a Lime by- 
product registered with the Louisiana Department of 
Agriculture and Forestry. 

Call for your very competitive prices. 



MATERIAL RESOURCES, INC. 

Port Allen, LA 
(225) 267-6464 



La Cane 

LOUISIANA CANE MANUFACTURING, INC. 

P.O. Box 71 • Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 447-3771 • Fax: (504) 447-8404 

TIGER — 2 Row Chopper Harvester 




Available for the 1998 Harvest 

Season 

Call La Cane Qim Collinson or 

Ken Caillouet) to Schedule a 

Video Presentation or For 

More Information 



FEATURES: 

• 2-Row Cutting at Pour Rates of 200 to 300 Tons Per Hour 

• Topping, Stripping and Extracting Leaves Before Chopping and Loading 

• 4 Wheel Drive (Rubber Tires) 

• Base Cutting Out in Front of Running Gear to Help Prevent Mud Induction 
While Cutting in Wet Conditions 

• Excellent Weight Distribution, Balance and Low Ground Baring Pressure 

• Green Cane Cutting in All Conditions 

increase PROnTS BY: 

• Reduced Operating Costs 

• Increased Cutting Sc Loading Rates 

• Reduced Labor 8c Fuel Costs 

• Reduced Trash 8c Mud in Cane 

• Reduced Maintenance f 
(Less Equipment 8c NO TRACKS) 

• Higher C.R.S. 8c Higher Tonnage 




P FRONT WITH THE LEAGUE 



BY Charlie Melancon 



Annual Meeting 



The Annual Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Sugar Cane League has come 
and gone having taken place on 
Wednesday, February 24. 1 felt the meet- 
ing was an excellent meeting with much 
information presented on issues rang- 
ing from political activity and legislative 
action in Washington, environmental 
concerns, not only for the fields but also 
for processors, state legislative matters 
and issues that directly affect us, as well 
as the imminent trade pacts and the con- 
cern with the Mexican situation. I know 
full well that competition for attendance 
that day was with mother nature who 
had provided much warm weather and 
a beautiful, sunshiny day with dry 
fields. I guess I must be honest and tell 
you that at least once a year I wish for 
rain. That particular time I wish for rain 
is at the time of the Annual Meeting, 
because I feel it is important for each 
and every grower to know and under- 
stand what hazards lie before us, as well 
as the accomplishments and what your 
League is doing on your behalf. 

That being said, let me say that I felt 
the meeting was a very good meeting 
with much information presented and 
many exchanges of ideas and thoughts 
by the attendees. My only other wish is 
that next year there may be rain if that's 
what it takes to get more of you to at- 
tend. As I have stated many times be- 
fore, this is your organization and it is 
my hope, that through time, you will 
know that we are working in the 
industry's best interest. And though we 
aren't able to do everything for every- 
body, we are trying to do those things 



that are a priority; things that would 
impact us the most dramatically, either 
on the positive side or on the negative 
side. It's your organization and I wish 
for you to participate. See you next year 
at the Annual Meeting! 

Farm Bureau 

Upon arriving here at the League as 
the President and General Manager 
some six years ago, I found that there 
was some discord between the Louisi- 
ana Farm Bureau and the League. One of 
the things that I have made an effort to 
do throughout the last six years, is to 
attempt to bring as much harmony as 
possible between all commodities, the 
Farm Bureau organization, and the 
League. That brings me to the leadership 
of the Farm Bureau. 

Ronnie Anderson has been the leader 
of the Farm Bureau for approximately 
ten years. I have worked with Ronnie 
during my tenure in the legislature and 
now with the League for the past six 
years. During this time I have found 
Ronnie extremely sensitive to the con- 
cerns of southern row crop farmers, in- 
cluding sugarcane. He has, along with 
the President of the Texas Farm Bureau, 
been very helpful in making the Na- 
tional Farm Bureau Board of Directors 
aware that we have problems inherent in 
southern agriculture that differs from 
that of some other areas of the coimtry. In 
my opinion, he has done an outstanding 
job. As we move into the next millen- 
nium, with trade pacts that will directly 
affect our industry, I think it is inherent 
upon us to look very strongly to the 



leadership of our Farm Bureau in Loui- 
siana. 

In light of the fact that there are many 
members of the American Sugar Cane 
League that belong to Farm Bureau (in- 
cluding me), I feel that it is in the best 
interest of sugarcane, and of Louisiana 
agriculture in general, to keep Ronnie 
Anderson as President of the organiza- 
tion. It is not for me to get involved in 
other's politics, but, it is in the purview 
of my responsibilities to you, the cane 
farmers and processors of Louisiana, to 
let you know that he has stood tall for us 
on the National Board of Directors of 
Farm Bureau on issues that could have 
harmed our industry tremendously. In 
this day and time, there is not rooni for 
leadership that would attempt to divide 
the agriculture community for personal 
gain. At a time when southern row crops 
have severe problems and concerns, and 
the need for the National Federation to 
imderstand our problem and work with 



us toward resolution, is no time to look 
to someone unproven. Therefore, I ask 
of every sugarcane grower or processor 
who may also be a voting delegate to the 
Louisiana Farm Bureau convention to 
support Ronnie Anderson. It is in your 
best interest, the interest of the Louisiana 
sugarcane industry, and the entire agri- 
cultural community in the state of Loui- 
siana that we have positive leadership. 
I would venture to guess that there 
may be some who think that I should not 
be writing or saying anything that ap- 
pertains to the election of the President 
of the Farm Bureau. However, when our 
industry, or agriculture in general, has 
someone who has worked tirelessly for 
all of the agricultural community, then I 
feel it is necessary for me to speak up. 
Therefore, I am! A unified agricultural 
community that supports one another is 
of extreme importance at this juncture in 
history - Probably more so than ever be- 
fore! 



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WASHINGTON UPDATE 



BY Don Wallace 



March Import Tranche Cancelled 



The latest import tranche of raw 
sugar, scheduled for March un- 
der the FY 1999 Tariff-Rate Quota 
(TRQ), has been cancelled, due to an 
estimated stocks-to-use ratio for March 
above the 15.5% trigger. The cancellation 
was expected, following the release by 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture 
(USDA) of the monthly World Agricul- 
tural Supply and Demand Estimates 
(WASDE), which calculated the March 
throughput to be 15.9%. It is the second 
consecutive tranche to be cancelled. As a 
result, total imports for FY 1999 under 
the TRQ are reduced to no more than 
1,449,470 tons. 

The cancellation came amid several 
significant changes to domestic projec- 
tions, as reported by the WASDE. Esti- 
mates of domestic beet production were 
lowered by 175,000 tons, to a total of 
4.225 million tons, due to low sugar con- 
tent in the 1998 crop. Estimates of do- 
mestic cane production were increased 
by 55,000 tons, to a record total of 3.812 
million tons. The increase was attributed 
to higher forecast tonnage in Florida, 
end-of-season mill reporting in Louisi- 
ana and Texas, and improved conditions 
in Hawaii. Individually, each cane-pro- 
ducing state enjoyed a marked increase 
in expected production. Florida saw a 
25,000 ton raise to 2.100 million tons. 
Louisiana is expected to produce 1.260 
million tons, up 10,000 tons from last 
month's projections. Hawaii and Texas 



are also expected to see an extra 10,000 
tons in production, to totals of 350,000 
tons and 95,000 tons, respectively. 

Expected total domestic deliveries 
fell to 9.975 million tons, down 50,000 
tons from last month, due to lower-than- 
expected deliveries from November to 
January. Also, the projected shortfall of 
imports already allocated under the 
TRQ was decreased to 65,000 tons, down 
10,000 tons from last month, a fall attrib- 
uted to the relative strength of domestic 
versus world prices. 

The changing projections for produc- 
tion and consumption resulted in a drop 
in the domestic supply to a total of ap- 
proximately 11.8 million tons, about 1% 
less than forecast last month. The 
changes were also reflected in a five- 
point drop in the stocks-to-use ratio, 
down from last month's calculation of 
16.4%. 

Under the TRQ, three tranches were 
originally scheduled for January, March, 
and May. Each tranche consists of 
165,347 tons, to be allocated by the U.S. 
Trade Representative. If the stocks-to- 
use ratio, as reported the WASDE, is 
above 15.5% in any of these months, 
then the scheduled tranche for that 
month would be cancelled, lowering the 
total TRQ by an amount equal to the 
cancelled tranche. 

Thus, the next scheduled import 
tranche in May will be allocated, unless 
the stocks-to-use ratio again rises above 



15.5%. However, the decreased supply 
projections, coupled with the cancella- 
tion of the March tranche, should trans- 
late into a throughput well below the 
15.5% trigger. 

Congress Continues Discussions of 
Crop Insurance Reform 

The move toward reform of the crop 
insurance program continues in both the 
House and Senate Agriculture Commit- 
tees, as discussions to rebuild the pro- 
gram and expand its useful availability 
to all commodities has intensified. In 
recent hearings held by both chambers, 
legislators received testimony from a 
range of industry spokespersons, in- 
cluding both farmers and insurance ex- 
perts from across the country. More 
hearings are expected as leaders on both 
sides of the aisle, and from different re- 
gions, attempt to hammer out a new 
program far more accessible and effec- 
tive than the current system. 



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Discussion of crop insurance reform 
began to surface last fall, as Congress 
passed a disaster relief package aimed at 
alleviating weather and price-related 
losses. 

Prices for many commodities remain 
below profitable levels, and are not ex- 
pected to improve in the near-term. This 
pessimistic outlook has sparked increas- 
ing concern on Capitol Hill, particularly 
among farm state legislators. 

Seattle To Host Next WTO Round 

Seattle has been named as the site for 
the next Ministerial of the World Trade 
Organization (WTO), to be held Novem- 
ber 30 - December 3. The agenda for the 
meeting will focus on building a frame- 
work for future discussions, aiming to 
figure out which sectors (e.g. agricul- 
ture, financial services, etc.) to include, 
as well as setting the parameters for 
each, for the next major round of trade 
negotiation. 



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10 



Roundup-Ready 
Soybeans 
on Fallow 

Ground. 



Why Not? 







11 



Soybeans for harvest Soybeans as cover crop 




BENEFITS: 

• Possible income gain off fallow ground 

• Great v^eed control (Roundup and 
shading of the soybeans) 

• May increase organic matter in soil 

• Less erosion 

• More environmentally friendly 



BENEFITS: 

• Great v^eed control (Roundup and 
shading of the soybeans) 

• May increase organic matter in soil 

• Less erosion 

• More environmentally friendly 

• Less labor 



NEGATIVES: 

• In dry years it can reduce soil moisture 

• Requires more management 

• In some cases, it can delay planting 
sugarcane 

• More equipment needs (planter) 



NEGATIVES: 

• Must plow under soybeans 3-4 weeks 
before planting sugarcane 

• More equipment needs (planter) 



EXPENSES 


$/ACRE 


$/ACRE 




(Harvest) 


(Cover Crop) 


Roundup 


$19/acre (2 qts.) 


$19/acre (2 qts.) 


Sprayer Cost 


$3.68/acre (2 sprayings) 


$3.68 /acre (2 sprayings) 


Plantir\g Cost 


$4.57/acre 


$4.57/acre 


Seed Cost 


$28/bag 


$28/bag 


Fungicide 


$10/acre 




Insecticide 


$10/acre 




Contracted Harvest 






($1.25/bu,45bu/acre) 


$56.25/acre 




Gross Income 






($6.50/bu, 45 bu/acre) 


$292.50 




Net 


$161.00 


-$55.25 



12 



Conventional system 

with Roundup applied 

2 weeks before planting 



Conventional system 
with no Roundup 



*^-^i^^ 













'J0 



&^. :^^Mii 









BENEFITS: 

• Possibly more soil moisture at planting 

• May allow for earlier planting 

• Less erosion vs. tillage 



BENEFITS: 

• Less chemical usage 

• Labor usage at slow times 



4-^ 

• Better weed control vs 

NEGATIVES: 


,. straight tillage NEGATIVES: 

• Rain dependent 

• Can reduce soil moisture 


• Possible erosion from 


tillage • More labor 




• Equipment wear and tear • More erosion 

• Equipment wear and tear 


EXPENSES 


$/ACRE 


$/ACRE 




(Roundup) 


(no Roundup) 


Roundup 
Sprayer Cost 
Tillage 


$19/acre (2 qts.) 
$1.84/acre 
$15.63 (3 passes) 


$26.05-$31.25 (5-6 passes 


Net 


-$36.47 


-$26.05 to -$31.25 



Selected estimate taken from LAES publication #148-155 

Cost estimates based on $6.50/bushel selling price and 45 bushels per acre yield 

Data provided by: Blaine Viator, Department of Plant Pathology at LSU 

Dr. Jim Griffin, Department of Plant Pathology at LSU 

Dr. Ed Richard, USDA 



13 



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\4 



FARM NOTES 



BY Dr. Charley Richard 



Crop Report -- Unusually Dry Conditions 
Record Keeping -- A Funny Rut Sad Commentary 



As of this writing, March 16, 1999, 
the crop can be characterized as 
being in very good condition. 
While cold temperatures (mid to low 
30s) were experienced the past two 
mornings, the crop thus far has been 
tillering and growing quite well. Stands 
in most fields are above average, which 
is in part due to the extrem.ely mild win- 
ter experienced thus far and to the exten- 
sive acreage of LCP 85-384. In addition 
to the mild temperatures experienced 
this winter, conditions have also been 
dryer than normal which has probably 
reduced the amount of damage from soil 
organisms. Even fields of the other vari- 
eties look fairly good at this time. Many 
fields have already been cultivated and 
herbicide applications have gone out on 
schedule. With the good stands, some 
growers are having a problem deciding 
which stubble fields to plow out in order 
to have a normal amount of fallow acres 
this fall. If this situation continues, this 
year may find a smaller than normal 
acreage for planting. Although there are 
still a lot of things that can go wrong 
during 1999, the potential for another 
large crop is certainly good at this time. 

Unusually Dry Conditions 

Weather records for the past year in- 
dicate some very unusual rainfall pat- 



terns. As most will recall, January 1998 
was one of the wettest months on record 
throughout much of the industry. Febru- 
ary, March and April were all near nor- 
mal in rainfall but stayed wet due to the 
accumulation over the four months. 
May, June, July and August were all con- 
siderably below normal in rainfall and 
produced some of the driest field condi- 
tions seen in the modem history of this 
industry. September brought tropical 
systems through the state and rainfall 
totals that were similar to the record set- 
ting high levels of January. October was 
extremely dry, November was near nor- 
mal and December was below normal. 
As a yearly total, 1998 rainfall for the 
industry was above normal while the 
worse summer drought in many years 
was also experienced. Of the twelve 
months, two were much above normal, 
six were below normal while only four 
were close to average. 

Quite a year of rainfall contrasts. 

Record Keeping 

Every so often, this article contains a 
suggestion to industry members about 
the importance of keeping good records. 
In the last issue of the Bulletin, industry 
yields were presented. While data on 
tons of cane ground and tons of sugar 
made come directly from factory mea- 



15 



surements, the acreage from which that 
cane and sugar was produced is based 
upon records provided by individual 
growers. The accuracy of your indi- 
vidual records determine just how accu- 
rate the industry's state records are. In 
addition, it is important for you to have 
accurate records if you are to determine 
how efficient your farming efforts are. 
The same is true for raw sugar proces- 
sors. Nothing can replace an effective 
record keeping system. As the industry 
moves closer to global competitiveness, 
good record keeping will become even 
more important. Not only can it help 
your economic efficiency, but also your 
productivity. 

There are many ways to keep good 
records. Some growers utilize hand 
written notes they store and refer to in 
order to measure their productivity. 
Other growers have computer software 
they utilize to provide them with lots of 
reports on their efforts at efficiency. If 
you are still uncertain how you should 
most efficiently keep good records, the 
League has a Computer User's Group 
which has attempted to provide indus- 
try members with assistance in comput- 
erization and available software. 
Herman Waguespack, Jr. and Windell 
Jackson are responsible for planning the 
activities of this group. They want to 
help you with record keeping and are 
planning a meeting of this group prob- 
ably this summer. If you have needs 
with regard to record keeping, please let 
them know so they can provide you 
with information that can possibly im- 
prove your efficiency. 

A Funny But Sad Commentary 

While this article normally doesn't 
use valuable space for cute stories, with 
all the time we spend trying to undo or 
correct the regulations that countless 
government agencies try to impose on 



this industry, it was thought that this ? 
story is somewhat appropriate. While j 
many agencies provide valuable pro- 
grams, there are an ever increasing num- 
ber of regulations that, at tiines, seem 
more than the industry can handle. The 
following story addresses that issue. It 
was sent over the internet and so the 
author is unknown; however, we wish 
to give that person credit. 

The story is titled, "Noah And 
Today's Ark." 

The Lord spoke to Noah and said, 
"Noah, in six months I am going to make 
it rain until the whole world is covered 
with water and all the evil things are 
destroyed. But, I want to save a few 
good people and two of every living 
thing on the planet. I am ordering you to 
build an ark." And, in a flash of light- 
ning, he delivered the specifications for 
the ark. "OK," Noah said, trembling 
with fear and fumbling with the blue- 
prints, "I'm your man." "Six months and 
it starts to rain," thundered the Lord. 
"You better have my ark completed or 
learn to swim for a long, long time!" 

Six months passed, the sky began to 
cloud up, and the rain began to fall in 
torrents. The Lord looked down and 
saw Noah sitting in his yard, weeping, 
and there was no ark. "Noah!" shouted 
the Lord, "where is My ark?" A light- 
ning bolt crashed into the ground right 
beside Noah. "Lord, please forgive me!" 
begged Noah. "I did my best, but there 
were some big problems." 

"First, I had to get a building permit 
for the ark's construction, but your plans 
did not meet their code. So, I had to hire 
an engineer to redo the plans, only to get 
into a long argument with him about 
whether to include a fire-sprinkler sys- 
tem." 

"My neighbors objected, claiming 
that I was violating zoning ordinances 
by building the ark in my front yard, so 



16 



I had to get a variance from the city plan- 
ning board." 

"Then, I had a big problem getting 
enough wood for the ark, because there 
was a ban on cutting trees to save the 
spotted owl. I tried to convince the envi- 
ronmentalists and the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service that I needed the wood 
to save the owls, but they wouldn't let 
me catch them, so no owls." 

"Next, I started gathering up the 
animals but got sued by an animal rights 
group that objected to me taking along 
only two of each kind." "Just when the 
suit got dismissed, the EPA notified me 
that I couldn't complete the ark without 
filing an environmental impact state- 
ment on your proposed flood. They 
didn't take kindly to the idea that they 
had no jurisdiction over the conduct of a 
Supreme Being." 

"Then, the Corps of Engineers 



wanted a map of the proposed flood 
plan. I sent them a globe!" 

"Right now, Fm still trying to resolve 
a complaint with the Occupational 
Safety and Health Administration over 
the cramped conditions inside the ark." 
"The Department of Environmental 
Quality has some concerns about air 
quality and waste disposal issues." 

"The IRS has seized all my assets 
claiming that I am trying to leave the 
country, and I just got a notice from the 
state that I owe some kind of use tax. 

Really, I don't think I can finish the 
ark in less than five years." With that, the 
sky cleared, the sun began to shine, and 
a rainbow arched across the sky. Noah 
looked up and smiled. "You mean you 
are not going to destroy the world?" he 
asked hopefully. 

"No," said the Lord, "the govern- 
ment already has." 




Ask your Land Bank 
Association about... 
financing to buy land or 
improve your farm. 



Most Louisiana farmers today are looking at ways to increase their 
productivity... buy or improve land... build new facilities. 

Whatever specific needs you have, your Land Bank Association 

can provide long-term credit to help. 

If you've got plans that need financing, see the people at the Land 
Bank Association to discuss our various loan options. 



LAND BANK 



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of South Louisiana 
Opelousas Port Allen 

(318) 942-1461 (225) 344-2691 



EQUAL HOUSING 

LENDER 



\1 



Last year many farmers switched over to the billet cane system. 1999 will 
probably be a repeat of 1998. 

Alot of those customers waited so late to put in their orders on cane wagons 
and highway trailers that it hindered the time of delivery. 

PLEASE DON'T WAIT! HELP US TO HELP YOU! 

We need your orders in EARLY to properly schedule production and early 
deliveries. 




"For Proven Performance & Durability'' 

FOLLOW THE LEADER! 





Tony CoUinson 



cvp^/ieciated! 

(504) 447-4021 
(800) 447-8403 
(504) 447-4028 -Fax 




'idoUUf^ 



INDUSTRIES, INC. 



P.O. Box 406 
Thibodaux, LA 70302 
118 West Main Street 



18 



THE BATON ROUGE 



BY Tom Spradley 
Spradley & Spradley 



Volatile Legislative Session Gearing Up 



As we gear up for what is ex- 
pected to be a volatile legisla- 
tive session, the League's fears 
are materializing. Weight limit bills are 
our biggest concern so far, but there are 
over 30 pre-filed bills the Sugar team 
will have to analyze to determine pro/ 
con positions and lobby. 

Some of these bills are harmless to 
mills and growers, but they must be 
watched. Often, after killing an offensive 
legislative proposal, you find the same 
bad idea being amended to an innocent 
bill further along in the legislative pro- 
cess. Bad ideas die hard. 

Agri Bills 

With the new system of alternating 
legislative agendas where fiscal issues 
are acted upon in even numbered years 
and everything else considered in odd- 
numbered years, this is the best chance 
for Senators and Representatives to ful- 
fill campaign promises. Only getting 
two bites at the apple per term means 
this year most of the legislators are going 
dunking for apples in a big way. Add to 
that the fact that this is an election year 
and you get lots of consumer oriented 



bills. To wit: we have several bills pro- 
posed which would repeal our special 
weight permit, several which require 
putting covers on the load, prohibit cane 
from ''sticking out the truck'', several 
more to lower the speed limit. There are 
lots of others including sales taxes, 
scales and safety devices. As these bills 
begin to look real they will be described 
in more detail in the Sugar Bulletin. 

Statewide 

The race to replace Rep. Bob 
Livingston is heating up with half a 
dozen candidates stepping up to the 
plate. A Southern Media and Opinion 
Research Poll commissioned by Dr. 
Monica Monica showed Dave Treen at 
32%, followed by Representative David 
Vitter at 18% and Dr. Monica at 17%, a 
statistical tie. David Duke and New Or- 
leans baseball team owner Rob Couhig 
registered in the single digits. Most of 
those folks are Republican, and the poll 
does not measure the effect of Demo- 
cratic Representative Bill Strain who is 
very popular in the north shore of 
Livingston's district who just an- 
nounced his candidacy. 



19 







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20 



ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPEC 



BY James F. Coerver, P.E. 
G.E.C.. Inc. 



1998: A Look At Air Quality 



NOW that the 1998 sugar cane 
crop is history, it is time to 
both, look back and look ahead 
at the environmental situation. One is- 
sue that was addressed in 1998 to the 
best of the industry's capability had to 
do with new rules by USEPA covering 
toxic emissions from bagasse boilers. All 
that could be done in 1998 has been 
done, which includes boiler testing and 
the laboratory work on those test 
samples which have not as yet (3/16/ 
98) been reported. However, the effect of 
any rules that USEPA does develop will 
not have any significant affect on ba- 
gasse boilers until year 2001 or possibly 
much later. Revised boiler rules cannot 
be dealt with directly until they are offi- 
cially proposed, so there is not much else 
that can be done about them immedi- 
ately. 

One immediate problem that must 
be dealt with is smoke, incidental to cur- 
rent cane harvesting practices in Louisi- 
ana. In looking back, 1998 was not a year 
with clear indications of progress in 
solving the problem. 

When mechanical harvesting and 
associated burning of cane leaves in the 
fields became standard practice shortly 
after World War II, the only persons or- 
dinarily affected by any associated 
smoke were rural residents, nearly all of 
whom were associated in some way 
with the sugar cane industry The liveli- 



hood of those affected by smoke de- 
pended on agriculture and a temporary 
smoke situation was not an important 
consideration. Urban centers were com- 
pact in those days before urban sprawl, 
and agricultural smoke was not a prob- 
lem for urban residents. However, major 
demographic changes have occurred 
since 1950 in most of the Parishes in 
which sugar cane is cultivated, as indi- 
cated in the chart below. 

Population of Parishes 

Parish 1950 1970 1996 est. 



Ascension 


22,387 


37,086 


68,106 


Iberia 


40,059 


57,397 


71,292 


Lafayette 


57,743 


117,745 


180,222 


Lafourche 


42,209 


68,941 


87,852 


St. James 


15,334 


19,733 


21,652 


St. John 


14,861 


23,813 


41,916 


St. Martin 


26,353 


32,453 


46,262 


St. Mary 


35,848 


60,752 


S7J?>b 


Terrebonne 


42,328 


76,049 


101,760 


West B. R. 


11,738 


16,864 


20A12 



Since 1950, many of the big time 
sugar cane parishes have doubled or 
tripled in population. Much of that 
population growth is spread along for- 
merly rural roads and byways amongst 
sugar cane farms rather than in compact 
towns and cities; and, most of these 
nouveau '"rural" residents have no direct 



interest in agriculture, have television 
sets and consider themselves well in- 
formed on environmental issues, espe- 
cially air pollution. These residents con- 
sider smoke a threat to their health and 
do not want their health threatened. 

In 1998, the smoke problem grew 
from a local problem in some rural areas 
to an urban concern. Smoke clouds and 
soot deposits in the City of Baton Rouge, 
reportedly originating from burning of 
standing cane in fields across the Missis- 
sippi River from the city, received exten- 
sive television news coverage. Offend- 
ing a large population of voters with 
little, or no direct interest in agriculture 
is not a wise thing to do. 

Until now, the Louisiana cane sugar 
industry has been the beneficiary of a 
tacit and benevolent policy of the State 
regulatory agencies that ignores cane 
burning so long as it does not cause any 
complaints. Unfortunately, there were 
many complaints during the 1998 cane 
harvest. Furthermore, the recent change 
in National Ambient Air Quality Stan- 
dards (NAAQS) from suspended par- 
ticles, in general, to a much more strin- 
gent 'TM-10'' standard will inevitably 
compel a crackdown on fugitive smoke. 
The only thing delaying PM-10 enforce- 
ment is the extremely high cost of tool- 
ing up in order to measure these fine 
particles in the ambient air in order to 
prove NAAQS violations. 



Cane farmers have been given prac- 
tical guidelines which, if followed, can 
greatly reduce and, in most cases, elimi- 
nate smoke complaints. The problem is 
that following the guidelines means that 
at certain times and locations, burning 
cannot occur, and some growers are 
unwilling to abstain when abstinence is 
called for. Legitimate complaints gener- 
ated in these circumstances will surely 
bring on early enforcement of anti- 
smoke regulations. 

While compliance with anti-smoke 
guidelines can delay the inevitable, and 
compliance is really a moral and legal 
obligation, it is prudent to plan now, and 
tool up quickly for the capability to op- 
erate this industry in a burning ban situ- 
ation. Obviously that will be very costly, 
but necessary if cane is to continue to be 
cultivated in the urbanized areas of 
Louisiana. 



TRI-SXATS 


Delta Chemicals 


Thibodaux, La. 
(504)447-4081 


Jeanerette, La. 
(318)276-5051 


New Roads, La. 
(225)638-8343 


Lemann's Farm Supply 
Donaldsonville, La. 
(225) 473-7927 
Satellite Plant 




CALL 
504-447-4021 



INDUSTRIES, INC. 
THIBODAUX 



11 



SfiNDBLfiSTING fiND PAINTING 



MM 



22 



CLASSIFIEDS 



FOR SALE 



• 1985 2-row Broussard Cutter, cab & 

air- $60,000. WILL TRADE FOR 
SINGLE ROW CUTTER. Trailer for 
transporting Cane Combine - $6,000. 
Call (318) 346-7385. 

• 1988 Broussard Single-row 
Harvester, new style front end, JD 
engine, Dynex System, New tires, 
power rear wheel - $25,000. Call 
(225)383-1628. 

• 3 Tandem Transloader Wagons, 

homemade with Davis running gear - 
$1,500 each. Call (225) 383-1628. 

• WANTED: Cane Trailers and Tandum 
Wholestalk Wagons. Please contact 
Russell Judice at Iberia Sugar 
Cooperative at (31 8) 369-2505 
(beeper). You may fax the informa- 
tion to us at (318) 365-0030. 

• 1991 Broussrd 2-row Harvester, JD 

engine, newly overhauled - $60,000. 
1991 Broussard Loader, JD engine, 
newly overhauled - $50,000. Call 
(318)364-0545. 

• 2 Vanguard side tipping wagons, 

Will dump over 13' 6" road trailers - 
$12,000 for both or $7,500 for one. 
Call Kim at (318) 893-8873 - 7 a.m. - 
12 noon or 1 p.m.- 4 p.m. 

• 1998 Hearne Cane Planter; planted 
only 35 acres - $16,000. Call (225) 
627-4053 (day) or (225) 627-5687 
(night) ask for Robert. 

• 1997 - 2-row LaCane Harvester (last 
2 row built), 375 hp, 4-wheel drive; 
1998 - 3-High Dump Billet Wagons, 

built by Quality Industries (used to 
move 15,000 tons). Call Gonsoulin 
Farms at (318) 364-5885. 



• 1991 Case/lnt'l 7130, with front 
wheel drive, PTO, heavy duty steel 
bumper with box, 3640 hrs. - 
$35,000. 1972 Thompson Cane 
Cutter with large JD engine and 
front wheel assist - $5,000; 3-row 
Bottom Plow with 3 pt. hitch and 
gauge wheels - $400; 6' Case End 
Row Flat Chopper (parts only) - 
$100; 1990 Case/lnt'l 5120 
Maxum, 3490 hrs. - $22,500. Call 
Randy Gonsoulin at (31 8) 365- 
0014. 

• 832 Cameco Harvester with cab & 
air, big tires, split system gates, 
master control, new torque hubs on 
rear. Comes from 600-700 acre 
farm - $75,000. Call (504) 526- 
8890. 

• 3 Drum Planters - $3,000 each; Hi- 
Crop JD 4430, stand, tram - 
$8,000; Hi-Crop JD 4430, quad 
tram - $9,000; Mudder JD 2750 
MFWD - $10,000. Call Gerald or 
Mark Naquin at (504) 526-4249. 

« 8 - New 20x42 R-2 Firestone tires - 
$800 each 2-1995 Peerless Chip 
Trailer 42' - $15,500 each; 2-1988 
Peerless Chip Trailer 42' - $8,500 
each. Call (318) 879-7932 (W)- 
leave message. 

• MAKE OFFER (will consider 
package deal) -1989 Cameco 2- 
row; 1989 Cameco 4x4 Field 
Loader; 1980 Thompson Single 
Row; 1996 Rotobec Excavator 
Grab; (2) 1985 Mechanical 
Planters; 1996 3 pt. Hitch Spray 
Rig (used 1 time). Call Golden 
Ranch Plantation at (504) 532- 
5221. 

CLASSIFIEDS, continued on page 24 



23 



CLASSIFIEDS 


FOR SALE 




• 1983 Single-row Broussard 


continued from page 23 




Harvester, double ends & scroll, 




GAT 3208 engine. New 18-4-38 




tires, with pulling wheel, shredder 


• JD 4455 MFWD - 4,842 hours - 


topper - $20,000; John Deere 4840 


$35,000; JD 4850 MFWD - 7,680 


with new trans. & engine over- 


hours - $35,000; JD 7400 Hi-Crop 


hauled in '97 - $14,000; 856 Hi- 


MFD w/low profile tank & rack - 


Clearance Int'l - $2,500; 3-Row 


4,900 hours - $35,000; Int'l 1086 


Bottom Type Plow Int'l, heavy duty 


Hi-Crop w/tank & rack - $6,000; 


and gauge wheels - $3,500; 4-Row 


1394 Case MFWD - $6,000; 93 


JD style with gauge wheels and 


Cameco CHT 2500 Chopper 


cyclers - $3,500; JD 4240, Hi- 


Harvester; Broussard Single Row 


Clearance, 1981; 1 front mount 


Harvester -$17,500; 1981 


spray rig with 200-gal. tank - $100; 


Thompson Single Row Harvester 


JD disk plow, heavy duty 17-ft. - 


- $1 ,000; Int'l 856 w/ Broussard 


$2,000; Rolling Cultivator, 


Loader - $3,500; Case 880 


Lilliston, 4-row - $250; Rolling 


Excavator - $10,000; (3) Quality 


Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row - $75; 


Hi-Dump Wagons - $22,000 each; 


Int'l 3-row chopper - $1 ,000; 3 


(1) Cameco Hi-Dump Wagon - 


one-row shavers - best offer. Call 


$21,000; (2) Tandem Axle 


Damian Pierre at (318)229-6932. 


Transloader Wagons - $1 ,000 




each; (1) Tandem Axle Planters 




Aide 8" X 20' -$3,500; 14' 
Bushhog - $3,000; T Bushhog - 
$1 ,500; 42' Spray Boom w/tank & 
hydraulic punfip - $1,200; 1,000 
Gal. Water Wagon w/ pump & 
motor - $1,000; Int'l 501 Breaking 
Disk - $1 ,500; Midland 21 ' Disk w/ 


• Broussard Single-row Cutter JD 

engine - $20,000; Cameco 2-row 
Cutter with gates, JD engine - 
$40,000 - will trade on Cane 
Combine or Tractor. Call Erne 
Plessela, Jr. at (318) 229-8409. 


hydraulic fold wings - $1,200; 3- 




row - shop made covering tool - 




$3,000; 3-row Opener -$500; V 


• 1466 Int'l with cab with quick hitch; 


Plow w/2 hydraulic cylinders - 


1066 Int'l with cab "Hi-Clearance"; 


$1 ,200; Prime 3-row w/off bars - 


Broussard Loader with chain piler 


$4,000. Call (225) 937-0846 (day) 


and backhoe; (3) Tandum Whole 


or (225)627-9577 (evenings - 6pm- 


Stalk Wagons with extra hubs, 


9pm) Ask for David Jarreau. 


tires and wheels. Call Russell 




Judice at (318) 394-4727. 


• Cameco 2-row Harvester, cab & 




air. split system; 250 HP Cat 




engine, real good condition, field 


• 1993 Cameco S3n 4-wheel drive 


ready Call (318) 276-3423 or (318) 


Cane Cutter, cab and air, excellent 


276-3173. 


condition - $45,000; J & L 4-wheel 




drive Field Loader, cab and air - 


• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2-row 


$10,000; Drott 40 Excavator, 


Harvester. Call Roland Bourgeois, 


rubber tires, 4-wheel drive, cane 


Vacherie at (225) 265-4452 (leave 


grab and bucket - $20,000. Call 


a message). 


Jimmy Jarreau at (225) 637-4873. 



24 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369, White Castle, LA 70788 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard^ Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

R O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

441 E. Magnolia St., Eunice, LA 70535 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
P O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified Public Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

P O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

P O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
P O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

P O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
P O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibemia National Bank 

PO. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
P O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

P O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy. 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



Material Resources, Inc. 

PO. Box 1183, Port Allen, LA 70767 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy. 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

P. O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, PO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Regions Bank 

PO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Rohm & Haas 

503 S. Michot Dr., Lafayette, LA 70508 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

P O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

P O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

P O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

P O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Yoimgsville, LA 70592 




^ — S- o >-, 



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t^ t<5 > C/3 

CT3 Oi -J • 

"^ CJ^ en 
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-a 4^ *^ 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaux,LA 70301 

Address Correction Requested 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
PERMIT NO. 43 



SERIALS DEPT 

3L0UISIANA STATE UNIV 

LIBRARY 

BATON ROUGE LA 70803 



Volume 11, No. 8 



May 1999 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



S ISSUE 



Up Front With the League 3 

hy Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 7 

by Don Wallace 

Farm Notes 12 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Baton Rouge Line 19 

by Tom Spradley with Spradley & Spradley 

Environmental Perspective 21 

by Eddy Carter, RE., with G.E.C., Inc. 

Classifieds 23 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit 

organization. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year. 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 

The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those 

of the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of 

the advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



The Sugar Bulletin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon/Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson /Senior Agronomist 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist 

John Constant /Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens /Secretary 

Paul G. Borron HI /Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
1156 15th St., N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Jackie Theriot, St. Martinville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles J. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David Allain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Grady Bubenzer, Bunkie, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

John F. Gay, Plaquemine, La. 

Ronald Gonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 

Dean Gravois, Vacherie, La. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Gramercy, La. 

Jackie Judice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, Franklin, La. 

Buckley Kessler, White Castle, La. 

Wilson LeBlanc, Jeanerette, La. 

A. J. "Brother" LeBourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

Lawrence "Boo" Levert ni, St. Martinville, La. 

Chris Mattingly, Paincourtville, La. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 



Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 
Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Patout, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Tommy Thibodeaux, New Iberia, La. 
Carlton Townsend, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 




Last year many farmers switched over to the billet cane system. 1999 will 
probably be a repeat of 1998. 

Alot of those customers waited so late to put in their orders on cane wagons 
and highway trailers that it hindered the time of delivery. 

PLEASE DON'T WAIT! HELP US TO HELP YOU! 

We need your orders in EARLY to properly schedule production and early 
deliveries. 




'Tor Proven Performance & Durability'' 

FOLLOW THE LEADER! 





Tony CoUinson 



ap^jieciated! 

(504) 447-4021 
(800) 447-8403 
(504) 447-4028 -Fax 




INDUSTRIES, INC. 



P.O. Box 406 
Thibodaux, LA 70302 
118 West Main Street 



M.J. NAQUIN INC. 



AJ WHITE 



AQCOl 



AND 



mL 


AGCO 
ALLIS 


lAOCOl 




White 6144 High Clearance 

Features include a 165 H.R Cummings engine, with 32 forward, 
32 reverse power shift transmission. Tire sizes are 20.8 x 42 R2 rear 
and 12.9 x 56 front, which gives a 34'' inch clearance under the 
drawbar. Available in two and four wheel drive, with an electric 
controlled 3 point hitch that has a lift capacity of 12,000 lbs. 

Shown with the 6144 is a High Clearance 3 Row Cultivator with 
22'' blades, off-bar attachments, dirt shields, middle busters and 
adjustable furrow moldboards, which is built in-house. In stock. 

COME BY AND SEE! 

205 ARMS STREET • THIBODAUX, LA 70301 



(504) 447-3296 



FAX: (504) 446-3401 



UP F R O N 



LEAGUE 



BY Charlie Melancon 



Some Issues Just Never Seem To Go Away 



For some reason it seems to get 
harder each month to decide, or to 
figure out, what I should write 
about. On the average day, I have at least 
ten different issues to manage, discuss 
with contemporaries, or to assign to 
someone to accomplish. Yet, when it is 
time to sit down to write Up Front, I 
seem to draw a blank. Part of the reason 
is that much of what I do on a day to day 
basis is quite often too complicated to 
condense into several paragraphs. 
Sometimes I feel that I don't want to be 
repetitive, but the issue may be ongoing 
(as is most of them) and at times it hangs 
out there with no changes . . . but, then 
people want to know if anything new 
has occurred on an issue; or, has the is- 
sue been advanced; or, is it dead or fin- 
ished. The best I can say for almost all 
issues is that they never seem to die or 
go away. 

Houma USDA 

The League recently received a sev- 
enteen-page document from USDA in 
Beltsville, Maryland. The document 
held a cover letter asking us, the League, 
to review, sign and return it at our earli- 
est convenience. Well, the transfer of the 



station to the League began some three 
years ago. Legislatively, it was the only 
way to secure the property, as well as the 
staff, for continued sugar cane research. 
Through the process, the federal govern- 
ment has requested input from historical 
societies, environmental groups, etc., 
etc., etc. . . . Well, low and behold, we 
finally receive the paperwork and there 
are several items included in the agree- 
ment that cause me much concern (not 
to mention items that had not been pre- 
viously discussed), as does it cause con- 
cern for the League's attorney, Paul 
Borron and our environmental consult- 
ant. So, in short, let me suggest that we 
may secure the transfer of the Houma 
and Bull Run Road properties sometime 
in my lifetime! I hope! Regardless, the 
work at Houma continues as it has for 
years without much notice that the bu- 
reaucrats continue to drag their "prover- 
bial feet" on this transfer. It is just an- 
other one of those files that are on my 
credenza that don't seem to want to go 
away. 

Excess Weight Permits 

Jackie Theriot and I continue to serve 
on the Governor's task force on excess 



and overweight permits. The Louisiana 
Department of Transportation originally 
intended to bring a report to the Gover- 
nor and the Legislature prior to or at the 
beginning of this year's legislative ses- 
sion. Because of the concerns voiced by 
many on the committee, the Task Force 
has agreed to regroup after the legisla- 
tive session to resume the task of study- 
ing and making recormnendations to the 
Governor. As a former legislator, my 
first question about the task force was, 
"what is our purpose?'' After much elo- 
quent waxing by representatives of the 
DOTD, it became apparent that they 
were looking for money. As those of you 
who know me, I have always said that if 
you look for and follow the money 
youTl understand the issue. Well, the 
issue appears to be that the DOTD is 
looking for additional money for road 
construction under the guise of looking 
for money to fix the roads being dam- 
aged. Well, the money DOTD is actually 
looking for will allow the department to 
secure federal monies at the end of each 
fiscal year when other states, who do not 
have extra money, release funds back to 
the feds and states that do have the 
money snatch this money up. DOTD 
has, first, not recognized that it doesn't 
have extra money because of the slow- 
down in our economy and so it is now 



looking to hit someone up for what the 
state presently doesn't have . . . EXTRA 
MONEY! Even if we would have the 
money they are looking for, it wouldn't 
be used to fix "our" highways. Rather, it 
would be used to complete new projects 
that have been designated for areas of 
the state, and not necessarily any of our 
area (sugar belt). Additionally, it was 
never my impression as a legislator that 
fees for permits were to be used for any- 
thing more than paying for the permit- 
ting process. Taxes are what one passes 
to fund projects (such as fuel taxes). 
Someone at DOTD is trying to find 
money to make the department look 
good without having to go to the people 
or the legislature for a vote that would 
levy a tax on the people of the state. And 
needless to say, a vote that could not 
win! 

On another note. I run into friends 
here and there whoni I haven't seen in a 
while and inevitably they ask how's the 
new job? 

Well, I realized the other day that I 
have been with the League for more 
than six years. I think the newness wore 
off about the second or third week. 
Nothing like being thrown into the lion's 
den when you first start . . . But, it has 
been anything but dull! Until next 
month . . . 



Wanted: p & I-H Tractors 
for parts, any age or condition 

New, used and rebuilt hi crop and row crop tractor parts 

Tires • Rebuilt clutches • Crank shafts • Injector pumps and more 

Also any hard-to-find parts. We buy farm equipment and salvage tractors 



Cane 

Tractor 

Parts 




Toll Free 
1-800-259-3453 
(318)276-3453 
(318)276-6230 




Hwy. 90, Jeanerette, La. 



THE DIFFERENCE 
IS NOW 

CRYSTAL ^MC^ 

CLEAN 




Cane Harvesting x\ Equipment 



LEMANN*S 

Farm Supply, inc. 

Doficilcisonville Thibodaux 

(225) 473-7927 (504) 447-3776 



Ask about i 

Case CP6iUt^ ^^^M ejkSEcmEmr 

(mancing 



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WASHINGTON UPDATE 



BY Don Wallace 



Stocks Drop for April WASDE 



The United States Department of 
Agriculture (USDA) has released 
the World Agricultural Supply 
and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for 
April, lowering projected domestic sup- 
ply by 140,000 short tons, raw value, 
largely to reflect the cancellation in 
March of a scheduled import tranche. 
The drop in estimated stocks translates 
to a stocks-to-use ratio of 14.5%. The 
next import tranche of 165,347 tons is 
scheduled for allocation in May, unless 
throughput rises above 15.5% by the 
time the May WASDE report is issued. 

The loss to domestic supply resulting 
from cancellation of the March tranche 
was offset somewhat by an increase of 
25,000 tons in projected imports under 
the re-export program, attributable to 
strong demand from the manufacturing 
sector. Accordingly, expected deliveries 
for re-export, as sugar-containing prod- 
ucts, were also increased by 25,000 tons. 
Together with the deletion of 165,347 
tons that would have been imported in 
a March tranche, the increased deliver- 
ies for re-export resulted in total pro- 
jected domestic supplies of 11.623 mil- 
lion tons. 

No changes were reported to ex- 
pected production in Louisiana, which 



remains at 1.260 million tons, only 2,000 
tons below the final estimates for last 
year's production. Projected production 
in Florida remains at 2.1 million tons, 
while Hawaii and Texas should produce 
350,000 tons and 95,000 tons, respec- 
tively. 

Legislators Work Toward Budget 
Resolution 

House and Senate conferees are 
meeting, as The Sugar Bulletin goes to 
press, to hammer out details for the FY 
2000 budget resolution. The House ver- 
sion includes $6 billion in agriculture 
funding authority, to be spent from 
2000-2004, to enact permanent changes 
to the safety net for farmers. The Senate 
version includes similar language. 

Observers anticipate the conferees to 
complete work on the budget resolution 
quickly, since the major sticking points 
have already been resolved, paving the 
way for final passage. A full report on 
the budget resolution will be included in 
next month's ''Washington Update." 

U.S.-China Ink Agriculture Deal 

Negotiations between the United 
States and China over the potential ac- 
cession of China to the WTO has pro- 



duced an agreement that will allow ex- 
ports of U.S. citrus, grain, beef, and 
poultry products to China. USTR also 
expects the bilateral agreement to 
strengthen cooperation between the two 
countries in biotechnology, aquaculture, 
and other areas of technical assistance. 
The agriculture deal is part of a broader 
commitment to improve access to Chi- 
nese markets for U.S. goods and ser- 
vices, and which involves general issues 
such as technology transfer and offsets, 
subsidies, product safeguards, and state 
enterprises. 

China's bid to join the WTO contin- 
ues to cause a furor among many ob- 
servers who are skeptical that the Chi- 
nese would reduce the high levels of 
direct and indirect support they provide 
to their heavily protected industries. 

U.S. Wins Challenge to Canadian 
Dairy Practices 

The U.S. dairy industry is celebrating 
a recent WTO decision that Canada's 
involvement in its dairy programs con- 
stitutes a system of export subsidies, in 
violation of its WTO commitments. 
USTR lauded the decision, hoping it will 
help deter other countries from attempt- 
ing to evade rules against export subsi- 
dies. 

Canada had sought to support its 
dairy industry by instituting a permit 
system through which Canadian milk 
processors could purchase low-priced 
milk for export to other countries. In 
addition, Canada tried to inhibit dairy 
imports by refusing commercial ship- 
ments of fluid milk from the U.S., argu- 
ing that its WTO commitments allowed 
the importation of U.S. fluid milk for 
personal purposes only. After negotia- 
tions to resolve the dispute proved fruit- 
less, the U.S. filed a challenge with the 
WTO, which led to the decision against 



Canada. 

While U.S. milk exporters savor the 
victory, USTR is busy trying to resolve 
ongoing problems with the European 
Union (EU) over bananas and beef. 
WTO arbitrators have confirmed the 
judgments of four previous dispute pan- 
els that the EU banana regime violates 
its WTO commitments. The U.S. filed 
the challenge, arguing that the EU policy 
damaged the U.S. economy by nearly 
$200 miUion. Accordingly, The U.S. is 
now entitled to impose 100% ad valorem 
duties worth an equal amount against 
EU products. Among the mostly indus- 
trial products listed by the U.S. as sub- 
ject to the duties, unless the EU banana 
regime is reformed, are certain types of 
textiles used as bed linens. 

USTR has also published a list of 
products to be dutied if the EU does not 
implement a WTO ruling regarding hor- 
mone-treated beef exports from the U.S. 
For several years the EU has refused to 
accept shipments from the U.S. of beef 
that had been treated with certain hor- 
mones, on the grounds that they did not 
meet certain scientific standards. The 
U.S. objected to the EU bans, arguing 
that the beef was perfectly safe and that 
the EU bans were not based on sound 
science. The WTO agreed with the U.S., 
and gave the EU until May 13, 1999 to 
comply with the ruling and implement 
WTO recommendations. Last month, 
the EU indicated at a meeting of the 
WTO Dispute Settlement Body that it 
did not believe it would be able to meet 
the deadline. If it does not, the U.S. may 
retaliate by imposing duties against EU 
products, just as it may in response to 
the EU banana case. The U.S. has listed 
a host of meat and other agriculture 
products, including some chocolate and 
cocoa goods, as subject to high duties as 
retaliation. 



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Thimet 20G for Wireworms at Planting 

Now is the time to ciiecl< for wireworms! 

In hot weather, wireworms bore down in the soil 
and are hard to find, even in heavily infested 
fields. 

Planting is the most critical time in your 
sugarcane operation. This stand of cane will be 
with you for the next 3-5 years! 

Check for wireworms and use Thimet 20G soil 
Insecticide as a wlreworm preventative because 
once you have a problem there is no cure! 

American Cyanamid will put wireworm traps out 
for you (with tlie assistance of LSli cooperative 
Extension Service sample analysis). 



THIMET 



® Contact: 

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American Cyanamid 

soil and systemic iosecticide (225) 927-9331 



10 



WIREWORMS FOUND 
THROUGHOUT THE 
SUGAR BELT 





WEST 

David Degeyter , 
3-D Chemicals, scouts and 
finds wireworms in Iberia 
Parish sugarcane 
operations. 



■^^■ 



EAST 

Neal Poche, 
Terra Distribution, 
scouts and finds 
wireworms in St. ]ames 
Parish sugarcane 
operations. 






, \v#*"*" 



LOCKteLOAD' 

CLOSED HANDLING 
SYSTEM 



.* 







li 



FARM N 



BY Dr. Charley Richard 



Continued Dry Weather - Projected 1999 Crop and Mill Capacity 
Education - Computer Users Group 



Much of the cane belt has contin- 
ued to experience drier than 
normal weather conditions 
this year. Several cold fronts have 
moved across the area this spring, but 
rain has generally stayed to the north of 
the majority of the cane belt. The Bunkie 
area has received a normal amount of 
rain compared to other areas of the cane 
belt while the most southern areas have 
stayed dry. Despite the dry conditions, 
cane has not suffered and tillering is well 
initiated. As a result, cane stands 
throughout the cane belt tend to be well 
advanced for April 15. Most fields of 
LCP 85-384 are good to excellent with 
only a few plant cane blocks showing 
light stands. Stands of other varieties are 
generally good but tend to be less excit- 
ing. Of particular concern are fields of 
HoCP 85-845 which in several instances 
are showing gappy stands and stools 
which are not stubbling from last year. 
In some of these fields there are some in- 
dications of leaf scald, although this has 
not yet been confirmed. Another variety 
which growers are having some diffi- 
culty with is LCP 82-89. Its susceptibility 
to almost every disease that comes along 
has seriously affected its good yielding 
ability. Some growers have indicated 
they are moving away from both LCP 
82-89 and HoCP 85-845. Stands of CP 70- 



321 and CP 72-370 look adequate in the 
southern portion of the belt but are not 
as encouraging in the northern areas. 
LHo 83-153 and CP 79-318, while very 
limited in acreage, are showing good 
stands although yield reports from last 
year indicate lower sugar per acre than 
expected. Unfortunately, none of the 
other varieties have been able to consis- 
tently duplicate the sugar per acre of 
LCP 85-384. Due to this contrast in yield- 
ing ability between varieties, the indus- 
try is quickly moving closer to monocul- 
ture. Some consider this to be bad and 
from a disease and insect standpoint, 
there are concerns. However, some 
growers consider that as long as 20% of 
the acreage is planted to some other 
variety (ies), they could plant out of LCP 
85-384 in only one year (given a planting 
ratio of 5 to 1). The statement that grow- 
ers should not put all their eggs in one 
basket is certainly true. However, one 
should consider the size of the basket 
and many feel that 80% seems to be the 
largest basket size that most growers 
should have. 

Projected 1999 Crop and Mill 
Capacity 

With the excellent stands showing 
this spring, the industry is poised to 
once again reach new records in yields 



12 



of cane and sugar. Certainly there are 
numerous factors that can still nega- 
tively affect yields and as the saying 
goes, "the crop isn't made until it's in the 
bag/' However, factories and growers 
should certainly be planning on what 
may be about to happen. 

Last year the industry produced 
more than 13,300,000 gross tons of cane. 
While this figure certainly contains a 
number of tons of things other than sug- 
arcane stalks (leaves, tops and mud) the 
fact is the industry still had an outstand- 
ing yield during 1998. This production 
came in a year when the growing season 
can be considered "terrible." Last year's 
yield was produced as a result of a good 
population of cane stalks and a late 
growing season. With good stands now 
showing, even with a fair growing sea- 
son there is the possibility of once again 
producing record yields. In addition to 
the potential for outstanding tonnage, is 
the fact that nearly all growers are keep- 
ing more older stubble than they were 
accustomed to. Many growers have in- 
dicated that they may keep as much as 
10% more of their land in cane as com- 
pared to fallow seasons of the past. 

The point of this whole paragraph is 
that with the potential for high yields 
and additional acres for the mill, the 
1999 harvest campaign may be quite 
lengthy. If one calculates the grinding 
rate for the 18 factories operating in 
1998, an average of about 8,000 tons of 
cane per day were ground. This does not 
represent the potential grinding rate of 
the factories but the actual average 
grinding rate taking down time and 
wash outs into account. At an average of 
8,000 tons cane per day, a 93-day season 
is required to grind 13,300,000 tons de- 
livered to the 18 factories. Last year, 
seven factories ground for less than 93 
days while the other 11 ground for a 
longer time. If one were to assume that 



there were one milHon additional tons of 
cane in the field during 1999, at the 1998 
grinding rate, approximately seven 
more days would be required to com- 
plete the crop by all 18 factories and 
would bring the average length of the 
season to 100 days. This would mean 
starting at least by October 1 and grind- 
ing through the first week in January. 
Again, the point in this discussion is to 
point out the seriousness of crop predic- 
tions during this coming year. It is im- 
perative that growers report acreage to 
their FSA office and to their factory if 
effective crop estimates are to be made. 
Factories are encouraged to use acreage 
along with grower production levels in 
estimating factory production and daily 
quotas. Should any error be made in 
crop prediction and /or should any fac- 
tory have any serious problems, this in- 
dustry could have serious concerns 
about the aspect of losing cane as a result 
of freezing weather. The average date of 
the first freeze (light freeze normally of 
little or no consequence) is in late No- 
vember. The average date of the first 
killing freeze is in mid-December in the 
mid-portion of the cane belt. Given two 
weeks of sugar crystallization following 
a freeze means that the industry must be 
nearing completion by the end of De- 
cember. With a 100-day season, the in- 
dustry could be risking a great deal. 

What can you as growers and pro- 
cessors do to prepare for this crop, 
should it turn out to be as large as its 
potential? Growers should do all they 
can to avoid delaying maturity. Com- 
pleting fertilizer applications early 
enough to avoid late cane growth and 
the extensive use of ripeners to promote 
early sugar would be in order. Growers 
should also plan on having to plant and 
harvest at the same time since the two 
seasons will undoubtedly overlap. Fac- 
tories should make maintenance a top 



13 



priority, even more so than normal. 
Breakdowns will be of severe conse- 
quence should the crop measure up to 
its potential. While these are serious 
challenges they are not necessarily prob- 
lems, having a large crop with at least 
normal sugar could be just what this 
industry needs for economic survival. 

Education 

This author doesn't want to sound 
overly pessimistic, but another issue 
which this industry should address is 
education. While there are certainly 
problems in many of the school districts 
around the state in elementary and sec- 
ondary education, college education in 
the field of sugarcane is a concern. There 
used to be sugarcane courses taught at 
most of the universities within the cane 
belt that dealt specifically with sugar- 
cane production. In terms of educating 
students to enter the field of agricultural 
production, business and computer 
courses are certainly a must. However, 
sugarcane production and other 
agronomy courses were also of great 
value in educating potential growers on 
the history and culture of sugarcane. 
These, where available are very limited 
and are scarcely taught. What can be 
done to remedy this situation is uncer- 
tain but is certainly something the in- 
dustry should be concerned about. 

On the processor side, the situation 
in even more bleak! Only short courses 
on processing are readily offered and a 
complete degree in processing technol- 
ogy is not currently available in Louisi- 
ana. Training in factory management is 
also lacking and is evidenced by the 
number of individuals from outside the 
industry who have been brought in to 
lead various factories around the indus- 
try. The industry is currently working 
with LSU to remedy this situation. 

On the research side, there is cur- 



rently very little that is available to assist 
in training new scientists to work in the 
sugar industry. While there are general 
courses that new scientists must take, 
courses offered in prior years that dealt 
with sugarcane breeding and other spe- 
cialty courses are not readily available. 
This is now becoming apparent as the 
industry attempts to hire new breeders 
at LSU and USDA in Houma. Just re- 
cently, the Texas and Florida industries 
hired individuals to work in sugarcane 
breeding and selection. Those hired had 
little to no sugarcane experience and 
were from outside the sugarcane world. 
What can be done to remedy this situa- 
tion is also unclear, but attempts are be- 
ing made with LSU to reestablish a posi- 
tion which would offer some training in 
sugarcane breeding and selection. 

All three of these educational con- 
cerns should be corrected in order to 
provide for the best trained individuals 
to develop, and then implement, new 
technologies to make the Louisiana 
sugar industry as efficient as possible. 

Computer Users Group 

The next meeting of the League's 
Computer Users Group is being 
planned for June 29, 1999 in Room 214 of 
Efferson Hall on the LSU Campus. A 
cooperative program is being developed 
with the Cooperative Extension Service 
to develop this program. The meeting 
will focus on a specific brand of soft- 
ware, "Farm Works," which is a map 
based field management type of pro- 
gram. It can handle all field oriented 
record keeping including a cost break- 
down of various farming practices. 
While this is not the only type of soft- 
ware that can assist you, this company 
has an economical package that has al- 
ready performed well for growers in the 
sugar industry. This free seminar is be- 
ing planned as a service to the growers. 



14 



consultants and extension agents in the 
area. Additional seminars, planned for 
later in July, will provide additional de- 
tail on software usage. 

Registration information will be 
made available in the next issue of the 
Sugar Bulletin. Further information 
about the seminar or the software can be 
obtained from either Herman 
Waguespack, Jr. or Windell Jackson. 



ENTERPRISES 

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Most Louisiana farmers today are 
looking at ways to increase their 
productivity... buy or improve 
land... build new facilities. 

Whatever specific needs you have, 
your Land Bank Association can 

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If you've got plans that need 
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various loan options. 

Federal Land Bank Association 
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(225) 344-2691 



t=) 



Mailing List Update 

O Address change: Please attach the address label from the 

front cover. 

D I no longer wish to receive The Sugar Bulletin. Please 
remove my name from your mailing list. 

Name 



Address 



City 

Mail to: 



State 



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The Sugar Bulletin 
PO. Drawer 938 
Thibodaux, LA 70302-0938 



15 



NOW 

$4.00/Galloii 

REBATE on 

PROWL 

Herbicide 

through Harvest Partners 
1/1/99-8/31/99 

See your local Agrtceiuer forOeulls 





Layby Sugarcane Update 
from American Cyanamid 

Where do you need the most chemical weed control? 
Within the block of cane 

Prow! 3,3 EC 2qt./acre offers: 

• A higher percentage of weed control within your 
block of cane vs trifluralins because they need 
incorporation. 

• Prowl is labeled for a light incorporation if needed. 
Fits chopper harvester operations. 

• Tankmix flexibility with broadleaf chemicals. 



Weed Control Rating Scale: 

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16 



Use PROWL for your base grass chemical 
for your Layby Herbicide program! 

Application News: 

Growers are using Double Swivel Nozzles 




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with Visiflo Floodjet TK3 Spray Tips 




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bloclc of cane with less drift. 



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American Cyanamid 
(225)927-9331 

Always Read and Follow Label Directions 



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\7 



r 



La Cane 

LOUISIANA CANE MANUFACTURING, INC. 

P.O. Box 71 • Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 447-3771 • Fax: (504) 447-8404 

TIGER — 2 Row Chopper Harvester 




Available for the 1998 Harvest 

Season 

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Video Presentation or For 

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• 2-Row Cutting at Pour Rates of 200 to 300 Tons Per Hour 

• Topping, Stripping and Extracting Leaves Before Chopping and Loading 

• 4 Wheel Drive (Rubber Tires) 

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While Cutting in Wet Conditions 

• Excellent Weight Distribution, Balance and Low Ground Baring Pressure 

• Green Cane Cutting in All Conditions 



INCREASE PROFITS BY: 

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• Increased Cutting Sc Loading Rates 

• Reduced Labor 8c Fuel Costs 

• Reduced Trash Sc Mud in Cane 

• Reduced Maintenance 

(Less Equipment 8c NO TRACKS) 

• Higher C.R.S. 8c Higher Tonnage 




18 



BATON ROUG 



BY Tom Spradley 
Spradley & Spradley 



Legislature Moving Quiclciy 



No one is quite sure why, but the 
Legislature is setting speed 
records this year. At the end of 
this week, the third week of an 85-day 
session, the House and Senate have 
acted on 1/3 more bills than they ever 
have. 

Maybe they are anxious to get home 
and start campaigning or maybe they 
just want to get home. 

Agricultural issues are beginning to 
take shape. Early indications are that the 
good or favorable bills will pass and the 
bad or ugly bills will fail. That is not a 
promise, just a prediction. 

Most legislators are being coopera- 
tive with each other. Coalitions are im- 
portant if you need to pass your legisla- 
tion to fulfill promises to constituents 
and the focus on passing these bills 
makes rural and urban legislators "get 
along" a little better this year. Positive 
attitudes clearly are prevailing over 
negative ones. 

Sugar Choo Choo 

Thanks to Ag Commissioner Bob 
Odom and Governor Foster, $ 3 million 
has been tagged to get the facilities built 
to begin moving cane on railroads. This 
is not enough to do everything that 
needs to be done, but it is a good start on 
something that is very important to the 
future of cane growers. 



Rural Lands Preservation -- SB 695/ 
HB 1994 

This will provide that parish-govern- 
ing authorities cannot adopt zoning, 
building or use regulations for unincor- 
porated areas without a vote of the 
people. This is important for agriculture 
and was heard in Senate committee this 
week. The bill will probably pass but be 
shoved down to fix some language 
problems. There are no real opponents 
to this idea and the slow down was due 
to legitimate concerns. 

Truck Weights/Speed Limits 

There are several authors of propos- 
als to reduce weight limits but they are 
being put aside for this year as we await 
the finding of a special task force to re- 
port on this subject. Charlie Melancon 
and Jackie Theriot serve on this task 
force. Bills that would reduce speed lim- 
its for trucks are also being considered in 
the election year session. 

Permit Fees 

Representative Buddy Shaw (R-6) 
has filed bills, which increase the fees for 
overweight permits. HB 23 and HB 24 
would dramatically increase fees. As 
they pass out of committee, the bills 
would mandate increases to $2,000 per 
permit, per year. The League is obvi- 
ously in opposition to these bills. 



19 



XRI- 


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(504) 447-4081 


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(225) 638-8343 


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Donaldsonville, La. 
(225)473-7927 
Satellite Plant 



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20 



R. O N M E N T A L P EH S P E C T IV E 



BY Eddy Carter. P.E. 
G.E.C. Inc. 



Wastewater Limits Being Set Upon Mass Loading 



Recent wastewater discharge per- 
mits issued by the Louisiana De- 
partment of Environmental 
Quality (LDEQ) to sugar processing fa- 
cilities have increasingly established dis- 
charge limits based upon mass loading 
(lbs. /day) in addition too, or instead of, 
quality limitations (mg/1). Limits are 
based upon standards which have ex- 
isted on the state level for several years, 
but have come to the forefront since 
LDEQ was delegated authority from 
both the state and federal programs by 
the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA). 

Mass loading limits are based upon 
the receiving waterbody ability to as- 
similate the wastewater discharge. In 
large waterbodies, such as the Missis- 
sippi River, the established discharge 
limits are higher than those of smaller 
rivers and streams. The facility's daily 
processing rate of gross tons of cane is 
used to establish the mass loading lim- 
its. The direct impact upon sugar pro- 
cessing facilities is the need to minimize 
the quality of wastewater discharge. 
With the increase in cane processed each 
year by sugar manufacturing facilities, 
increased discharge limits can be 
achieved only by increasing the facility's 
daily grinding rate. An increase in the 
number of days a facility operates does 



not allow for an increase in the daily 
wastewater discharge rate under LDEQ 
regulations. 

Therefore, sugar cane processors 
must strive to recycle /reuse wastewater 
and process water to the fullest extent 
possible to minimize the total volume of 
wastewater for discharge. When dis- 
charging, facilities must balance the 
quantity and quality of wastewater to 
achieve allowable permit limits. 

Another condition of most LDEQ 
wastewater discharge permits at facili- 
ties which have regulated quantities of 
petroleum products is a current spill 
prevention control and countermeasure 
(SPCC) plan. 

This plan must be certified by a li- 
censed professional engineer and main- 
tained at the facility available for 
LDEQ's review upon request during fa- 
cility inspections. SPCC plans are re- 
quired by LDEQ regulations to be up- 
dated every three years, or more fre- 
quently as conditions warrant. With re- 
cent regulatory charges regarding un- 
derground storage tanks (USTs) many 
facilities have replaced USTs with above 
ground storage tanks (ASTs). If a facility 
has added new ASTs that are regulated 
by LDEQ, it is prudent to review exist- 
ing SPCC plans and update them ac- 
cordingly. 



21 



•orSais fwSals FerSals Fi-- 

•irSais ¥m$f'^ PorSate Fir Sate FsrSate 

'or Sals ¥mSum rorSals For Sals -For Sate 



For Sale .. ^.... ^v^S?'- 



. . . ..,. j Fir Sale 

trSaia ForSals For Sate FirSali For Sate 
trSala FirSali FsrSate Fir Sals Fir Sate 

Standout. 

Sell your equipment 
in The Sugar Bulletin 

Call (504) 448-3707 
to place your ad today 



22 



CLASSIFIEDS 


-FOR. SALE 


• JD 4455 MFWD, 4,842 hours - 


• 1972 Thompson Cane Cutter with 


$35,000; JD 7400 Hi-Crop MFWD w/ 


large JD engine and front wheel 


low profile tank & rack, 4,900 hours - 


assist - $5,000; 3-row Bottom 


$35,000; Int'l 1086 Hi-Crop w/tank & 


Plow with 3 pt. hitch and gauge 


rack - $6,000; 1394 Case MFWD - 


wheels - $400; 6' Case End Row 


$6,000; 1993 Cameco CHT 2500 


Flat Chopper (parts only) - $100; 


Chopper Harvester; Broussard 


1990 Case/lnt'l. 5120 Maxum, 


Single Row Harvester - $17,500; 


3490 hrs. - $22,500. Call Randy 


1981 Thompson Single Row 


Gonsoulin at (318) 365-0014. 


Harvester - $1 ,000; Case 880 




Excavator - $10,000; (1) Quality Hi- 
Dump Wagon - $22,000; (1) 
Cameco Hi-Dump Wagon - $21,000; 
(2) Tandem Axle Transloader 
Wagons - $1,000 each; Midland 21' 
Disk w/hydraulic fold wings - $1 ,200. 
Call (225) 937-0846 (day) or (225) 


• 1997 2-row LaCane Harvester (last 
2-row built), 375 hp, 4-wheel drive; 
1998 3-High Dump Billet Wagons, 

built by Quality Industries (used to 
moveonly 15,000 tons). Call 
Gonsoulin Farms at (318) 364- 
5885. 


627-9577 (evenings - 6pm-9pm), ask 




for David Jarreau. 


• 1983 Single-row Broussard 


• 2 Vanguard side tipping wagons. 

Will dump over 13' 6" road trailers. 
$12,000 for both or $7,500 for one. 
Call Kim at (318) 893-8873 (7am - 12 


Harvester, double ends & scroll, 
CAT 3208 engine. New 18-4-38 
tires, with pulling wheel, shredder 
topper - $20,000; JD 4840 with new 
trans & engine overhauled in '97 - 


noon or 1pm -4pm). 


$14,000; 856 Hi-Ciearance Int'l - 




$2,500; 3-row Bottom Type Plow 


• 1993 Cameco S30 4-wheel drive 


Int'l, heavy duty and gauge wheels 


cane cutter, cab & air, excellent 


- $3,500; 4-row JD style with 


condition - $45,000; J & L 4-wheel 


gauge wheels and cyclers - $3,500; 


Drive Field Loader, cab & air - 


JD4240, Hi-clearance 1981; 1 


$10,000; Drott 40 Excavator, rubber 


front mount spray rig with 200- 


tires, 4-wheel drive, cane grab & 


gal. tank - $100; JD Disk Plow, 


bucket - $20,000. Call Jimmy Jarreau 


heavy duty, 17' - $2,000; Rolling 


at (225) 637-4873. 


Cultivator, Lilliston, 4-row - $250; 




Rolling Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row 


• 1991 Broussard 2-row Harvester, 

JD engine, newly overhauled - 
$60,000; 1991 Broussard Loader, 

JD engine, newly overhauled - 


- $75; Int'l 3-row Chopper - 
$1 ,000; 3 one-row shavers - best 
offer. Call Damiam Pierre at (318) 
229-6932. 


$50,000. Call (318) 364-0545. 


CLASSIFIEDS, continued on page 24 



23 



CLASSIFIEDS 


FOR SALE 






continued from page 23 


• 1985 2-row Broussard Cutter, cab 

& air - $60,000. WILL TRADE FOR 
SINGLE-ROW CUTTER. Trailer 
for transporting cane combine - 

$6,000. Call (318) 346-7385. 


MAKE OFFER: 

(will consider package deal) - 1989 
Cameco 2-row; 1989 Cameco 4x4 
Field Loader; 1980 Thompson 
Single Row; 1996 Rotobec 


• 8 - New 20x42 R-2 Firestone tires 


Excavator Grab; (2) 1985 Mechani- 
cal Planters; 1996 3 pt. Hitch 


- $800 each. 


Spray Rig (used 1 time). Call 


2-1995 Peerless Chip Trailer 42' 


Golden Ranch Plantation at (504) 


-$15,500 each. 


532-5221. 


2-1988 Peerless Chip Trailer 42' 




- $8,500 each. Call (318) 879-7932 


WANTED: 


(W) leave message. 


Cane Trailers and Tandum 




Wholestalk Wagons. Please contact 


• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2-row 


Russell Judice at Iberia Sugar 


Harvester. Call Roland Bourgeois, 


Cooperative at (318) 369-2505 


Vacherie at (225) 265-4452 (leave 


(beeper). You may fax the informa- 


a message). 


tion to us at (318) 365-0030. 



Your Numbers Are Important To Us 

Sugarcane farmers manage large amounts of money - some years with minimal 
return on investment. Our staff at PCA is knowledgeable, qualified and experienced 

in dealing with your numbers. We see them everyday. We hope that our financial 
assistance results in maximum returns - and that's a number that's important to YOU! 



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New Iberia 
(318)364-0217 



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Give us a call! 




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Thibodaux 
(504) 446-9450 



24 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369, White Castle, LA 70788 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard, Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

R O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

441 E. Magnolia St., Eunice, LA 70535 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
R O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified Public Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

R O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

R O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
R O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

R O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
R O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibemia National Bank 

P.O. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
R O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

(Specializing in Workman's Comp 
and other Commercial Insurance) 
1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

R O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



Material Resources, Inc. 

P.O. Box 1183, Port Allen, LA 70767 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

R O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, RO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Regions Bank 

RO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Rohm & Haas 

503 S. Michot Dr., Lafayette, LA 70508 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

R O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

R O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

R O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

R O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Youngsville, LA 70592 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaux,LA 70301 

:iEUlMS DEPT 
Address C LOUISIANA STATE UnIV 

LIBRARY 

RATON ROUGE LA 70803 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
=»ERMIT NO. 43 



Volume 77, No. 9 



June 1999 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



Announcing the 
ANNUAL CONTACT COMMITTEE MEETING 

of the 

AMERICAN SUGAR CANE LEAGUE 
OF THE U.S.A. INC. 



Wednesday, July 14, 1999 

9:00 a.m. 
Howard Johnson Lodge 

201 Canal Blvd. 
Thibodaux, Louisiana 

(see page 13 for details) 



The Sugar Bulletin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon/ Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson /Senior Agronomist 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist i 

John Constant /Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens /Secretary 

Paul G. Borron Ill/Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
1156 15th St., N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Jackie Theriot, St. Martinville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles J. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David AUain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Ronald filanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Grady Bubenzer, Bunkie, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

John F. Gay, Plaquemine, La. 

Ronald Gonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 

Dean Gravois, Vacherie, La. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Gramercy, La. 

Jackie Judice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, Franklin, La. 

Buckley Kessler, White Castle, La. 

Wilson LeBlanc, Jeanerette, La. 

A. J. "Brother" LeBourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

Lawrence "Boo" Invert HI, St. Martinville, La. 

Chris Mattingly, Paincourtvillc, La. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 



Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 
Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Patout, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosed ale. La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Tommy Thibodeaux, New Iberia, La. 
Carlton Townscnd, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 



kn 



S S U E 



Up Front With the League 3 

by Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 7 

by DonWallace 

Farm Notes 11 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Environmental Perspective 15 

by Eddy Carter, P.E., with G.E.C., Inc. 

A Report on the 1998 Outfield Variety Tests 19 

by Donnie D. Garrison, Daniel P. Guillot, Winaell R. Jackson and Herman L. Waguespack, Jr. 

Update on Sugarcane Soil Insecticide Research 25 

by T.E. Reagan/t.A. Ostheimer and H.P. Schexnayder, Jr. 

Billet Planting Research Results from 1998 29 

by J.W. Hoy, Zr{in, C.A. Richard, ^N.R. Jackson and H. Waguespack, Jr. 

Classifieds 35 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit 

organization. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year. 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 

The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those 

of the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of 

the advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



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1' FRONT WITH THE LEAGUE 



BY Charlie Melancon 



A New Duo of Anti-Sugar Lawmakers 



Well, it's like lumbago. You 
never know when they will 
show up; and, this time we 
have a new member who has taken Rep- 
resentative Charles Schumer's place (of 
the old Miller-Schumer anti-sugar 
types). Now, we have Representative 
Dan Miller (R-FL) and Representative 
George Miller (D-C A) who appears will 
be the anointed members of Congress 
who wish to dismantle domestic sugar 
production in favor of foreign producers 
who meet none of the workers' safety 
standards required in our country, envi- 
ronmental standards required in our 
country, nor share any of the same con- 
cerns of the American people. 

In the first Congressional race we 
had Monica Monica, also known as 
Monical So I guess we can refer to these 
guys as Miller^. Or better yet, maybe we 
should have a contest to find them an 
appropriate moniker! 

Burning 

I guess many of you growers are 
wondering why I have a section of Up 
Front With the League that has the head- 



ing of "burning." Well, I just decided 
that it is never too early to bring atten- 
tion to the need for growers to begin 
communicating with their neighbors, 
and yes, even your friends, about the 
burning of cane (particularly standing 
cane) in your fields this fall. If you wish 
to be able to continue to burn your 
cane, as we all know is necessary, than 
it is imminently important that you 
make and take every precaution pos- 
sible to avoid potential problems be- 
fore, during and after your burns. 
Don't think that public pressure won't 
mount against you if you continue to 
ignore what should be common sense. 
Fire is just like any other tool that you 
use to help keep you profitable. Just as 
government has restricted the use of 
certain herbicides and pesticides, if we 
are not totally cognizant of our sur- 
roundings and neighbors affected by the 
burning of cane at harvest time, we will 
find ourselves without this tool, as we 
have without some of our chemicals that 
were very beneficial and cost effective. 
I cannot over emphasize the need for 
each and every grower in this state to 



begin communicating with your neigh- 
bors, now! Set up a mechanism by 
which you will advise them prior to 
burns in your field, next to their homes 
and businesses. Just remember, it won't 
do any good to call me or your legisla- 
tors once we, as an industry, have man- 
aged to drum up public opposition 
against our industry using the burn as a 
management and productivity tool. If 
it's not important to you, then don't 
worry! But, I believe it to be extremely 
important to all and I repeat. Begin com- 
municating with your neighbors, now! 

NAFTA- Mexico 

For quite a while now the Mexican 
sugar industry, through its government, 
has been putting pressure on the United 
States government by attempting to re- 
voke the side letter agreement in the 
NAFTA for sugar. The pressure comes 
because high fructose com syrup is gain- 



ing access in the Mexican sweetener 
market. The substitution of fructose in 
cold drinks occurred in the United States 
a number of years ago. The Mexican 
sugar industry would wish for the 
United States sugar industry to absorb 
this "hit" to their industry. The domestic 
sugar industry continues to work with 
the United States Trade Representative 
on this issue and we are hopeful that 
some resolution can be found, short of 
giving up the U.S. sugar market to the 
Mexican sugar farmers because high 
fructose com syrup was injected into the 
Mexican cold drink industry. There are 
no easy solutions in this matter; and be- 
cause of high fructose corn syrup being 
injected into the equation, there are 
more complications than can be easily 
discussed in a short article. However, I 
just felt it necessary that you know, and 
that your leadership and Washington 
reps are staying close to the matters. 



^^ 



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I 



WASHINGTON UPDATE 



BY Don Wallace 



May Import Tranche Canceled 



Rising domestic production and 
higher high-tier tariff imports 
from abroad against stable deliv- 
eries have resulted in throughput of 
16.0%, triggering cancellation of the 
May import tranche of 165,347 short 
tons, raw value, according to the 
monthly World Agricultural Supply and 
Demand Estimates (WASDE). Two ear- 
lier tranches scheduled for January and 
March were also canceled due to high 
domestic throughput. As a result, im- 
ports under the fiscal year (FY) 1999 tar- 
iff-rate quota (TRQ) for refined, spe- 
cialty, and raw cane sugar is projected to 
be about 1.247 million tons, which 
equals the initial import allocation last 
October minus shortfalls of about 65,000 
tons. 

Overall, domestic production for the 
current year is estimated to be 8.073 
million tons, an increase of 36,000 tons 
over last month, with the increase attrib- 
uted to higher output in Florida and 
Texas. Beet sugar output is calculated at 
4.225 million tons, with cane sugar out- 
put at 3.848 million tons. Expected high- 
tier tariff imports for 1998/99 are in- 
creased by 120,000 tons over last 
month's estimate. Non-quota imports, 
which include sugar for reexport. 



polyhydric alcohol, syrup known as 
stuffed molasses, and high-tier tariff 
imports, should total 615,000 tons. 

Higher yields and expanded acreage 
in Louisiana are expected to push do- 
mestic cane sugar production for 1999/ 
2000 to 3.87 million tons. Louisiana 
should produce 1.4 million tons, while 
Florida should produce 2.025 million 
tons, down 102,000 tons from earlier es- 
timates. Beet sugar production for next 
year should also be higher, up 7% to 4.53 
million tons. Overall, domestic produc- 
tion next year should be 8.4 million tons, 
a 4% increase from the current year. Do- 
mestic deliveries are projected to reach 
10.15 million tons, about 175,000 tons 
above the current year. 

Yet, due to the growing differential 
between world and domestic prices, 
coupled with the declining high-tier tar- 
iff for imports from Mexico, non-quota 
imports are projected to be 725,000 tons, 
including 260,000 tons of high-tier tariff 
sugar and 100,000 tons of stuffed molas- 
ses. 

Conferees Approve Supplemental 
Spending Package 

House and Senate conferees have 
agreed on a $14.5 billion emergency 



supplemental appropriations bill to 
fund the military action in Kosovo, aid 
victims of storms in the United States 
and Central America, and to assist farm- 
ers still suffering from last year's 
weather and price-related disasters. Full 
consideration by both chambers is ex- 
pected before the Memorial Day recess. 

American farmers would receive 
$574 million worth of assistance in the 
wake of last year's disasters. The agri- 
culture funding is nearly four times the 
amount requested by President Clinton, 
and includes money for a variety of pro- 
grams: $145 million for the purchases of 
surplus commodities for school lunches 
and the like; $109 million for the Farm 
Service Agency to administer various 
ownership, operating and emergency 
loans; $95 million for watershed /flood 
prevention; and $70 million for livestock 
disaster assistance. The remaining funds 
would be spent on conservation pro- 
grams, rural housing and community 
assistance, and emergency grants for 
seasonal workers. 

The bulk of the spending, approxi- 
mately $12 billion, is devoted to the ef- 
fort in the Balkans, for items ranging 
from military readiness and the mainte- 
nance of military equipment to humani- 
tarian assistance. The funding level is 
more than twice the amount requested 
by the President, and provides spending 
for many items not included in his re- 
quest. 

Another $2 billion would offer relief 
to people coping with devastating 
storms in the United States and Central 
America. It would also provide military 
and economic aid to Jordan and add 
funding for border enforcement for the 
Immigration and Naturalization Ser- 
vice. 

Budget Resolution Approved 

The House and Senate have both 



approved the FY 1999 congressional 
budget resolution, which establishes the 
budget for FY 2000 and sets forth appro- 
priate budgetary levels for FY 2001- 
2009. 

Agreement on the resolution fol- 
lowed weeks of wrangling between the 
parties over general issues such as social 
security and tax cuts. It includes ap- 
proximately $6 billion in agriculture 
funding authority to be spent during FY 
2000-2004 for risk management or in- 
come assistance to farmers. It also seeks 
to protect the social security surplus, 
which is projected to be around $1.8 tril- 
lion for the next ten years, and includes 
$15 biUion in tax cuts for FY 2000 and 
almost $800 billion over the next decade. 

The resolution was approved by the 
House by a 220-208 vote, and by the Sen- 
ate by a 54-44 vote. It will not require a 
presidential signature. 



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To place your order call 

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8 



Last year many farmers switched over to the billet cane system. 1999 will 
probably be a repeat of 1998. 

Alot of those customers waited so late to put in their orders on cane wagons 
and highway trailers that it hindered the time of delivery. 

PLEASE DON'T WAIT! HELP US TO HELP YOU! 

We need your orders in EARLY to properly schedule production and early 
deliveries. 




"For Proven Performance & Durability'' 

FOLLOW THE LEADER! 





Tony Collinson 



ap^Jteciated! 

(504) 447-4021 
(800) 447-8403 
(504) 447-4028 -Fax 




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P.O. Box 406 
Thibodaux, LA 70302 
118 West Main Street 




Equipment for Sale 

J.D. 2550 65-HP Tractor 

CI-H 1594 75-HP Tractor 

JD 2030 65-HP with Front Loader 

I-H 684 65-HP Tractor 

JD 1020 45-HP Tractor 

JD 2750 4 Wheel Drive (Mudder) 

I-H 886 90-HP Tractor 

I-H 884 67-HP Tractor 

David Brown 990 65-HP Tractor 

JD 4630 150-HP Tractor 

Kubota L-245 25-HP 

Kubota L-185 18-HP 

I-H Mod 710 Heavy Duty 4 Bottom Plow 

M-F 3 Bottom Flip Plow 

Heavy Duty 3 Shank Subsoiler 

JD 2 Bottom Plow- 3 PT 

I-H 4 Bottom Plow- 3 PT 

JD 1610 Chisel Plow -19 FT 

JD 1610 Chisel Plow -13 FT 

2 - Reynolds 5-yd. Dirt Buggies 

Rhino 1400 H.D. 3 PT Hydraulic Blade 

Midland Hydraulic Blade on Wheels 

JD 1630 Disc Harrow -17 FT 

JD 1640 Disc Harrow -17 FT 

AMCO F21 Hydro Fold 21 FT Disc 

Sidewinder FW-180 Batwing Mower - 15 FT 

I-H 501 Disc Harrow -16 FT 

JD 900 "V Ripper -18 FT 

AMCO 3 PT Ditcher 

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10 



FARM NOTES 



BY Dr. Charley Richard 



HoCP 91-555 Released To Industry - 

Dedicated Research Projects for 1999 - 

Hot and Dry April - Contact Committee 



On May 4, 1999, the American 
Sugar Cane League's Variety 
Release Committee met to dis- 
cuss the variety HoCP 91-555. After care- 
ful deliberation by the numerous scien- 
tists present, representatives of the three 
agencies voted unanimously to release 
the variety to the Louisiana sugar indus- 
try. Official release statements and appli- 
cations for the purchase of seed cane of 
this variety will be printed in the July 
issue of the Sugar Bulletin. 

This variety has been developed 
through the Three- Way Agreement with 
the cooperation of the American Sugar 
Cane League, the Louisiana State Uni- 
versity Agricultural Experiment Station 
and the USD A- Agriculture Research 
Service. It has been tested for the last 
three years in outfield tests around the 
state and has shown plant cane yields of 
tonnage and sugar per ton that are com- 
parable or at least close to LCP 85-384. 
However, stubble yields tend to be 
somewhat less. Like all varieties, it has 
shown susceptibility to RSD. Stubble 
yields of HoCP 91-555 are impacted by 
RSD more so than with other varieties. It 
will be especially important to utilize the 
healthiest seed possible and then work 
hard to keep it free of RSD. 

Its most outstanding aspect to go 
along with its good tonnage is its good 
harvestability. It stands fairly well and 
should be acceptable for soldier harvest- 
ing. 



The good tonnage of this variety 
comes from its high population. It has a 
very small barrel and consistently pro- 
duces light stalk weights, especially in 
second stubble. Its sugar per ton is simi- 
lar to most of the currently grown vari- 
eties and is early maturing. One good 
thing is that it looks like it will continue 
to increase in sugar throughout the har- 
vest season without peaking like some 
other varieties. Little is known about its 
cold tolerance. 

Already mentioned is its susceptibil- 
ity and intolerance to RSD. It does show 
leaf scald, but so far infection appears to 
be in the moderate category and shows 
some field tolerance. It is susceptible to 
the sugarcane borer but is said to be 
manageable. It is resistant to smut and 
mosaic. 

Because of its high population, its 
planting ratio should be excellent. While 
lower in sugar per acre than LCP 85-384 
in total crop cycle yield, it could prove to 
be useful as part of the variety census or 
as a backup variety to LCP 85-384. 

Dedicated Funding Research Projects 
for 1999 

The League's Dedicated Research 
Funding Committee met in February of 
1999 and considered 51 projects for 
funding during the coming year. These 
projects are supported by the portion of 
your League dues that are dedicated 
toward funding of specific research 



11 



projects. The total amount requested 
from these 51 projects was $1,161,641. 
After hearing the individual researchers 
describe their proposals, the committee 
voted to recommend 30 of these projects 
totaling $487,582 for funding during 
1999. The League's Board of Directors 
approved this action at its April meet- 
ing. The following is a listing of these 30 
projects and the lead author for each of 
them. This work is expected to be car- 
ried out during the coming year and re- 
sults presented following the comple- 
tion of this work. All researchers have 
been urged to present their conclusions 
in articles in the Sugar Bulletin. Some of 
these articles have been presented in the 
past and more will be printed in future 
issues. 

Five projects were in the general sec- 
tion of the crop improvement category. 
Base support for sugarcane breeding in 
the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment 
Station by Kenneth Gravois; Weigh 
wagon for combine harvested plots by 
Kenneth Gravois; Request for supple- 
mental funding in support of the re- 
search programs of the USDA-ARS Sug- 
arcane Research Unit in Houma by Ben- 
jamin Legendre; On-the-go quantitation 
of gross cane yields in small plots har- 
vested with a combine by Edward Rich- 
ard; and. Support of sugarcane research 
at the Iberia Research Station by 
Howard Viator. 

Three projects were in the breeding 
and selection section of the crop im- 
provement category. Sugarcane cultivar 
development through basic breeding by 
David Burner; Meeting the challenges of 
increasing sugar yields through variety 
testing at off-station nurseries, infield 
and outfield locations and specialty 
studies on harvestability and date of 
planting by Edwis Dufrene; and. Evalu- 
ating on sugarcane parental clones for 
leaf scald resistance by Jimmy Miller. 



Eight projects were funded in the 
biotechnology section of the crop im- 
provement category. Transformation of 
sugarcane to permit expression of 
pesticidal proteins that control sugar- 
cane pests by Tim Beary; Funding for 
four projects in the International Con- 
sortium of Sugarcane Biotechnology 
(Gene tagging by Angelique D'hont; 
Expressed sequence TAGs by Andy 
Paterson; Microsatellites by Robert 
Henry; and Yellow Leaf Syndrome by 
Erik Mirkov); Effects of transgenic sug- 
arcane on parasites of the sugarcane 
borer by Jesusa Legaspi; Embryogenesis 
in sugarcane tissue cultures by Sarah 
Lingle; Species-specific DNA markers 
for sugarcane variety development by 
Yong-Bao Pan; Marker assisted selection 
for identification of sugarcane borer re- 
sistant progeny in segregating popula- 
tions: I. Development of a reference 
population by William White; and. Pro- 
cessing transgenic sugarcane for the re- 
covery of high value proteins by Erik 
Mirkov. 

One project was funded in the ag 
economic section of the crop production 
category. Economic analysis of sugar- 
cane production in Louisiana by 
Michael Salassi. 

One project was in the cultural prac- 
tices section of the crop improvement 
category. Effect of incorporating harvest 
trash into sugarcane rows on nitrogen 
fertilizer requirements and sugarcane 
yields by William Hallmark. 

Three projects were funded in the 
plant pathology section of the crop pro- 
tection category. Screening breeding 
clones for resistance to Ratoon Stunting 
Disease by Michael Grisham; Sugarcane 
pathology research by Jeff Hoy; and Bil- 
let planting research by Jeff Hoy. 

One project was funded in the ento- 
mology section of the crop protection 
category. Comparison of two soil insec- 



12 



ticides on wireworm control and sugar- 
cane borer impact-residue and toxicity 
to beneficial insects by Gene Reagan. 

Two projects were in the weed con- 
trol section of the crop protection cat- 
egory. Weed control research in sugar- 
cane by James Griffin; and. Developing 
integrated weed management systems 
for efficient and sustainable sugarcane 
production by Edward Richard. 

Two projects were funded in the al- 
ternative products section of the pro- 
cessing category. Designing a better 
matrix for solidification /stabilization of 
hazardous waste with the aid of bagasse 
as a polymer additive by Michael 
Janusa; and. Improvement of juice re- 
covery from mayhaw (Crataegus sp.) 
fruit pulp using sugarcane bagasse fiber 
by Ramu Rao. 

Five projects were funded in the fac- 
tory losses and processes section of the 
processing category Determination of 
lactic acid and ethanol to measure sugar 
loss in combine vs. whole stalk har- 
vested sugarcane by Linda Andrews; 
Mill yard sugar losses by Harold Birkett; 
Effect of chopped cane on the recovery 
of sugar by Chung Chou; Electro-coagu- 
lation to minimize evaporator scaling by 
Willem Kampen; and. Use of alternative 
equipment to measure moisture content 
in core laboratories by Charley Richard. 

Hot and Dry April 

It is currently raining during this sec- 
ond week of May although the dry con- 
ditions that were experienced during the 
last six months persisted through the 
month of April. Very little cane appears 
to have suffered from the lack of rainfall, 
but new weather records were set. While 
weather in the northern portions of the 
cane belt was close to normal, hot and 
dry was the rule in the more southern 
portions. April was the second driest 
month on record in the New Orleans 



weather area with only 0.3 inches of 
rainfall as compared to the normal 
quantity of 4.5 inches. This was second 
only to 1976 when 0.28 inches were re- 
corded. Also, the average temperature 
for April was 77°F which was consider- 
ably higher than the normal average of 
68.5°R The previous record was re- 
corded in 1963 and was 72.6°R Not only 
did most people feel the heat and the 
dry, but weather records proved it to be 
so. 

While there was little evidence of 
any cane suffering, certainly any herbi- 
cidal activity was reduced from that 
which is normally expected. Very sel- 
dom do herbicides work well in ex- 
tremely dry conditions, but this year, 
conditions were so dry that even the 
grass did not grow. However, Asulox 
worked extremely well this year on the 
johnsongrass that did germinate and 
there is plenty of evidence of dead or 
dying johnsongrass. Besides that, cane 
stands in most fields are excellent and a 
good stand of cane is said to be the best 
weed control possible. It is expected that 
with an effective lay-by, a fairly clean 
crop can be produced. 

Although cane stands are excellent 
in most areas of the belt, there are some 
fields that are of concern. Stands are 
somewhat erratic in some fields in the 
northern area and there have been some 
fields which have been affected by 
beetles and army worms. As a percent of 
the total acreage, this amount is still 
minimal, but is of concern to those grow- 
ers who have experienced these prob- 
lems. 

Contact Committee 

The Agricultural Contact Committee 
of the American Sugar Cane League will 
hold its annual meeting at 9:00 am, on 
July 14, 1999, at the Howard Johnson 
Motor Lodge in Thibodaux. The theme 



13 



of the meeting will once again center on 
cane quality but this year discussion will 
focus on cultural practices that might 
lead to higher delivered yields of sugar 
per acre. Much has been said about im- 
proving cane quality over the last few 
years at the Contact Committee meet- 
ings and numerous other meetings. 
With the importance of cane quality 
when it comes to industry efficiency, 
finding the best way to set up rows, 
plant, cultivate, fertilize, protect from 
pests, bum, harvest, and deliver cane in 
a timely manner is most important. The 
Contact Committee meeting on July 14 
will attempt to answer some of the ques- 
tions on these issues and should provide 
for informative discussion on these top- 
ics. Make plans to be there and inform 
your neighbors about the meeting. More 
information will be available in the July 
issue of the Sugar Bulletin. 



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(225) 638-8343 


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Donaldsonville, La. 
(225) 473-7927 
Satellite Plant 



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variety of loan options for your long-term 
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14 



ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE 



BY Eddy Carter. P.E. 
G.E.C. Inc. 



Process Safety Management/Risk Management Plans 



Many processor members have 
received reminders from 
regulatory agencies and so- 
licitations from private consultants per- 
taining to a June 21, 1999 "RMP dead- 
line/' ''RMP" refers to a Risk Manage- 
ment Plan that must be fully completed 
and in effect by the deadline at all indus- 
trial establishments that are required to 
have RMPs by USEPA's Risk Manage- 
ment Program enforced in Louisiana by 
the Department of Environmental Qual- 
ity (LDEQ) Chemical Accident Preven- 
tion Program (LAC 33:111 Chapter 59). 
This program was most recently de- 
scribed in the January 1998 issue of The 
Sugar Bulletin. 

The above Risk Management- 
Chemical Accident Prevention Program 
is quite similar to an earlier program, 
known as Process Safety Management 
(PSM), administered by the U.S. Occu- 
pational Safety and Health Administra- 
tion (OSHA), and which requires af- 
fected plants to have a Process Safety 
Management Plan in effect. Manage- 
ment Plans required by either program 
do not supplant or supersede the other, 
and thus there is more than a little 



''double jeopardy'' involved. The essen- 
tial difference between the two regula- 
tory initiatives is the EPA-LDEQ pro- 
gram purports to protect individuals 
and property outside plant boundaries 
while the OSHA program is intended to 
protect plant workers that may be occu- 
pationally exposed to hazardous and 
flammable substances inside plant 
boundaries. 

Industries that have more than what 
is designated as a "threshold quantity," 
i.e. a dangerous amount, of a long list of 
toxic and flammable substances present 
on premises are affected by both pro- 
grams. If a plant is affected, very elabo- 
rate and costly reconstruction, personnel 
training, new or modified equipment, 
inspections, monitoring and reporting 
associated with "Management Plans" 
are required. If sugar mills do not have 
regulated substances in excess of 
"threshold" quantities, no "Plans" are 
required. Sugar mills do not have most 
of the regulated substances on premises, 
but must take certain precautions to 
avoid program liability. 

Common chemicals and their thresh- 
old quantity which appear on both lists 



15 



and are used at Louisiana sugar mills 
include: 

•hydrochloric acid (cone. 37% or 
greater), 15,000 lbs; 

• chlorine, 2,500 lbs; 
•anhydrous ammonia, 10,000 lbs; 

and 

• butane/propane (flammables un- 

der permit), 10,000 lbs. 
The best way for sugar mills to avoid 
any program liability is to reduce quan- 
tities of any regulated substance or flam- 
mable material to below threshold quan- 
tities. Fortunately, most Louisiana sugar 
mills can qualify for an exempt status 
and are therefore not subject to the June 
21, 1999 deadline. Any processor mem- 
bers who have not and cannot reduce or 
eliminate use of the regulated sub- 
stances or flammables to below thresh- 
old quantities must comply with all ap- 
plicable reporting and planning require- 
ments and deadlines. 



Although facilities that store regu- 
lated chemicals below the threshold 
quantities are not required to develop a 
RMP, they must comply with the general 
duty clause. This clause requires facili- 
ties to: 1) identify and evaluate hazards, 
2) to design and maintain safe facilities, 
and 3) to minimize the consequences of 
a release. 

Every sugar mill, regardless of their 
compliance status, should report every 
significant spill or release of pollutants 
promptly as required by law, and do 
everything within reason to minimize 
hazards, maintain and operate safe fa- 
cilities, and protect public health and the 
environment. 

Any processor member that is con- 
cerned about other chemicals handled 
or stored at a sugar mill may obtain a list 
of the regulated substances and thresh- 
old quantities through the American 
Sugar Cane League office. 



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Michele Simoneaux 

Thibodaux 



Donna Booty 

Thibodaux 




Computer 
User's Group 

Meeting 

June 2% 1999 

214 Efferson Hall 

(Ag Center Bldg.) 

L.S.U. Campus 

9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m, 



All growers and their wives, consultants, county agents, 
accountants and industry advisors who have an interest 
in farm record keeping are invited to attend this seminar. 

Software from Farm Works^^ will be presented. Don't 
miss this opportunity to see how this map-based computer 
program can help you effectively manage your farm 
records. Horace Austin, from Pineville, Tarrel BoUich, 
from Gonzales, and Ronald Woods, sugarcane grower 
from Paincourtville have planned an informative 
program for all in attendance. 

This free seminar is co-sponsored by the Louisiana 
Cooperative Extension Service and the American Sugar 
Cane League. 

The Ag Center Building is located on the corner of 
Highland Rd. and E. Parker Boulevard on the LSU 
Campus. 



17 



IT'S TIME TO CHECK 
FOR WIREWORMS 



Don't Get Caught Off Guard! 







-m 



*^"f%>; ^ 




"About 5 years ago, I started using a soil insecticide at planting when I noticed 
some skips in my fields caused by wireworms. Using a soil insecticide stopped the 
skips and gave me more stalks per acre which helped my yields. Last year, I 
decided not to use Thimet 20-G because I thought I might be spending too much 
money that could be better spent on other things; I noticed some of my neighbors 
getting good stands without using a soil insecticide. I have put wireworm traps 
out before and not found wireworms. Wireworms showed up and hurt my stands. 
But, worse of all, they messed up my LCP 85-384 that I bought from Thermo 
Trilogy Corporation. I am going to use this cane to plant with this year 
I definitely recommend checking for wireworms and treating with 
Thimet 20-G if you have a history of wireworms." 

Robert Morris 
Port Allen, LA 



American Cyanamid will check for 
wireworms for you! 

Contact: 

Marc A. Grabert - Sales Representative 
(225) 927-9331 




18 



A Report on the 
1998 Outfield Variety Tests 



DoNNiE D. Garrison 
USDA'ARS, SRRC. Agronomist 

Daniel P. Guillot .,. 
LAES'Research Associate 

WiNDELL R. Jackson 
ASCL Agronomist 

Herman L. Waguespack. Jr. 
ASCL Agronomist 

This report has been written to in- 
form the Louisiana sugarcane in- 
dustry of the agronomic perfor- 
mance of varieties harvested in outfield 
variety tests during 1998. Outfield vari- 
ety tests are conducted during the final 
3 years of the 12-year multistage Louisi- 
ana sugarcane variety program. 

Outfield tests are planted, managed, 
harvested and evaluated cooperatively 
by the Agricultural Research Service of 
the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Louisiana Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station of the Louisiana State Uni- 
versity Agricultural Center, and the 
American Sugar Cane Leagued 

In 1998, 22 outfield tests located 
throughout the Louisiana sugarcane belt 
(10 locations) were mechanically har- 
vested with conventional whole-stalk 
harvesters (1- and 2-row models) to ob- 
tain yield and harvestibility data. Efforts 
are underway to measure yield using 
the combine harvester system in future 
years. These tests were on sugarcane 
farms with typical soils for that region. 
The soil type, region, planting date and 
harvest date for each outfield test loca- 



tion are presented in Table 1. Additional 
information on the procedures used for 
data collection and preparation is given 
in the publications listed at the end of 
this article (1,2,3). 

Figure 1 summarizes the 
harvestability data by showing scrap 
ratings and the percent of plots where 
scrap was observed in the plant-cane 
crop. The scrap ratings which depict the 
amount of scrap for each variety are cat- 
egorized as "None to Very Little," "Little 
to Much" and "Very Much." Yield data 
for all locations within a soil type and 
crop are reported in Tables 2 and 3. In 
1998, plant-cane through third-stubble 
tests on light soil and plant-cane 
through second-stubble crops on heavy 
soil are reported. These tables show data 
for sugar per acre, tons of cane per acre, 
sugar per ton of cane, stalk weight, and 
stalk population; however, only sugar 
per acre is discussed in this report. In 
1998, LCP 85-384 became the leading 
variety in Louisiana and will now be 
used as the standard check variety re- 
placing CP 70-321 and will be high- 
lighted in each yield table for compari- 
son. It should be noted that although the 
results are presented by soil type, statis- 
tical analysis of past outfield data sug- 
gests that the relative yields of current 
varieties are not affected by soil type. 

Of the unreleased varieties tested on 
light and heavy soil in 1998, three variet- 
ies yielded significantly less sugar per 
acre than LCP 85-384. They were HoCP 
93-754 in the plant-cane on heavy soil, 
HoCP 92-624 in first-stubble on light soil 
and HoCP 91-555 in second-stubble on 
light and heavy soil. All other 



^ Researchers who conduct outfield tests would like to express their appreciation to growers for participating in 
the many different stages of the variety program. 

19 



unreleased varieties were not signifi- 
cantly different from LCP 85-384 in 
sugar per acre. HoCP 93-754 and HoCP 
92-624 have other undesirable traits be- 
sides sugar per acre yields. HoCP 93-754 
is very brittle and HoCP 92-624 lodges 
early and severely which can negatively 
effect their harvestability under the 
whole-stalk or the combine harvesting 
systems (Figure 1). HoCP 91-555 is an 
erect variety and is well suited for 
whole-stalk and combine harvesting 
systems. HoCP 91-555 is scheduled to 
be released in 1999 for commercial pro- 
duction. 

Of the recommended commercial 
varieties, CP 70-321 yielded significantly 
less sugar per acre than LCP 85-384 in 
first, second and third-stubble crops on 
light soil and first and second-stubble 
crops on heavy soil. CP 72-370 and LCP 
82-89 both yielded significantly less 



sugar per acre than LCP 85-384 in first 
and second-stubble crops on light soils 
and second-stubble on heavy soils. Fur- 
ther, two commercial varieties yielded 
significantly less sugar per acre than 
LCP 85-384 in second stubble crops; LHo 
83-153 on light soils and HoCP 85-845 on 
heavy soils. y 

References 

1. Fanguy H.P. and D.D. Garrison. 1982. 
Sugarcane variety testing in Louisiana. 
Proc. Inter- American Sugar Cane Semi- 
nar 111:135-138. 

2. Legendre, B.L. and M.T. Henderson. 
1972. History and development of sugar 
yield calculations. Proc. ASSCT 
2(NS):10-18. 

3. Quebedeaux, K.L, W.R Jackson, H.L. 
Waguespack, and D.D. Garrison. 1998. A 
report on the 1997 Outfield Variety Test. 
Sugar Bull. 76(9):23-26. 



Table 1 

Dates of planting, dates of harvest, soil types and regions for 10 outfield locations 
during 1998 in the plant-cane, first-stubble, second-stubble and third-stubble crops. 











Crop Year 








Location 


Plant 


-cane 


First-stubble 


Second-stubble 


Third-stubble 




Planted 


Harvested 


Planted 


Harvested 


Planted 


Harvested 


Planted 


Harvested 




1997 


1998 


1996 


1998 


1995 


1998 


1994 


1998 


Light Soil 


















B.Secour^ 


9/15 


12/3 


9/24 


12/3 


9/20 


11/6 


9/13 


11/6 


Georgia^ 


9/25 


12/21 


10/24 


12/21 


*** 


*** 


*** 


x-x-x- 


Glenwood^ 


9/9 


**♦ 


9/18 


11/10 


9/19 


11/10 


=(■=(■* 


x-x-x- 


Lanaux^ 


9/18 


12/1 


10/1 


12/2 


9/22 


11/4 


*** 


x-x-x- 


Raceland^ 


♦*♦ 


**♦ 


*** 


*** 


*** 


+** 


10/4 


10/20 


R.Hebere 


9/16 


11/20 


9/20 


11/20 


9/13 


11/5 


9/26 


11/5 


Stjohn' 


9/5 


11/19 


M-** 


♦♦* 


**♦ 


*** 


**♦ 


x-x-x- 


Heavy Soil 


















Allain^ 


9/12 


11/12 


*** 


*** 


9/14 


11/12 


*** 


x-x-x- 


Magnolia^ 


9/23 


11/24 


10/16 


11/24 


*** 


*** 


x-x-x- 


x-x-x- 


Palo Alto' 


*♦♦ 


♦♦♦ 


9/26 


11/23 


*** 


♦♦* 


*** 


*** 


Regions 


















' = Mississippi 


River area 
















^ = Bayou Lafourche area 
















^ = Bayou Teche area 

















20 



Table 2 












Combined analysis 


of outfield tests on light 


soil locations during 1998 






Plant- 


cane crop at 5 locations 






Variety 


Sugar /A 


Tons /A 


Sugar/T 


Population 


St. Wt. 


CP 70-321 


7396 


27.1 


274 


19619- 


2.79+ 


LCP 85-384 


8209 : 


29.7 


278 


26306 


2.33 


HoCP 85-845 


7322 


29.3 


249- 


24020 


2.46 


HoCP 91-555 


7836 -, 


29.1 


270 


26137 


2.29 


HoCP 92-624 


7787 


29.4 


264- 


21974- 


2.76+ 


HoCP 93-754 


7543 


27.5 


275 


21302- 


2.62+ 


L 94-426 


8240 


30.3 


271 


24218 


2.59+ 


L 94-428 


8883 


32.1 


278 


21884- 


2.99+ 


L 94-432 


7749 


28.1 


275 


24849 


2.29 


HoCP 94-806 


7914 


29.4 


269 


21747- 


2.77+ 


MSD,,3 


1218 


4.4 


11 


3439 


0.2 




First-stubble crop at 5 locations 






CP 70-321 


8894- 


32.4- 


275 


26152- 


2.54+ 


CP 72-370 


8627- 


31.9- 


270 


27240- 


2.34+ 


CP 79-318 


9354 


33.7 


279 


27452- 


2.50+ 


LCP 82-89 


7760- 


28.1- 


276 


24964- 


2.24 


LCP 83-153 


9382 


35.3 


267 


32358- 


2.19 


LCP 85-384 


10654 


37.5 


285 


36458 


2.09 


HoCP 85-845 


9719 


36.6 


266 


31803- 


2.32+ 


HoCP 91-555 


10154 


36.4 


278 


35126 


2.10 


HoCP 92-624 


9160- 


34.4 


270 


34761 


2.01 


MSD,,3 


1440 


4.7 


23 


3677 


0.16 




Second-stubble crop 


at 4 locations 






CP 65-357 


8197- 


28.4- 


290 


25259- 


2.27+ 


CP 70-321 


7400- 


27.2- 


273 


23748- 


2.30+ 


CP 72-370 


6947- 


25.2- 


276 


25153- 


2.03+ 


LCP 82-89 


6679- 


24.0- 


280 


24745- 


1.96+ 


HoCP 83-153 


8215- 


31.5 


261- 


33642- 


L93+ 


LCP 85-384 


9614 


33.8 


285 


40083 


1.72 


HoCP 85-845 


8841 


32.9 


269- 


32270- 


2.07+ 


HoCP 91-555 


8221- 


29.2- 


282 


38184 


1.53- 


MSD^.os 


830 


3.4 


15 


3215 


0.13 




Third-stubble crop 


at 3 locations 






CP 65-357 


6177- 


24.0- 


262 


25327- 


1.95+ 


CP 70-321 


6401- 


25.8 


251- 


26647- 


1.94+ 


CP 72-370 


6509- 


25.3- 


258 


28525- 


1.79 


HoCP 83-153 


7192 


29.0 


250- 


33690- 


1.77 


LCP 85-384 


8464 


30.8 


275 


40082 


1.56 


HoCP 85-845 


8840 


34.4 


257 


34281- 


2.02+ 


MSD... 


1280 


5.0 


21 


5278 


0.23 



(+) or (-) denotes yields which are statistically higher or lower than LCP 85-384. 



21 



Table 3 

Combined analysis of outfield tests on heavy soil locations during 1998 



Variety 



Plant-cane crop at 2 locations 

Sugar/A Tons/A Sugar/T Population St. Wt 



CP 70-321 


8198 


30.2 


271 


23068 


2.63 


LCP 85-384 


8536 


32.8 


260 


27941 


2.37 


HoCP 85-845 


7334 


28.7 


253 


24044 


2.43 


HoCP 91-555 


9244 


33.9 


272 


31062 


2.20 


HoCP 92-624 


7945 


29.2 


271 


24923 


2.40 


HoCP 93-754 


5980- 


23.6- 


255 


17598- 


2.68+ 


L 94-426 


7239 


27.3 


265 


20347- 


2.68+ 


L 94-428 


7672 


27.8 


279 


21642- 


2.65 


L 94-432 


7712 


26.8 


288+ 


26375 


2.10 


HoCP 94-806 


8554 


30.7 


278 


22323- 


2.75+ 


MSD,o3 


2323 


in 


17 


5568 


0.29 




First-stubble crop at 2 locations 






CP 70-321 


7867- 


175 


1^7 


21918- 


2.53+ 


CP 72-370 


9326 


32.5 


1S7 


27792 


2.37+ 


CP 79-318 


8261 


29.1 


283 


24152- 


2.45+ 


LCP 82-89 


8903 


30.8 


288 


26711- 


2.35 


LCP 83-153 


8048 


31.2 


258 


33153 


1.88 


LCP 85-384 


9946 


34.0 


292 


36309 


1.92 


HoCP 85-845 


9721 


34.5 


282 


30079 


2.37+ 


HoCP 91-555 


10501 


34.3 


306 


35834 


1.92 


HoCP 92-624 


9801 


34.2 


285 


32693 


2.08 


MSD,,3 


1983 


7.2 


35 


9193 


0.44 




Second-stubble crop at 1 location 






CP 65-357 


6915- 


25.6- 


270 


26290- 


1.93+ 


CP 70-321 


6814- 


26.7- 


255 


25862- 


2.10+ 


CP 72-370 


6266- 


23.6- 


265 


26729- 


1.77 


LCP 82-89 


6905- 


25.8- 


267 


31353- 


1.67 


LCP 83-153 


7570- 


29.6- 


256 


32404- 


1.87 


LCP 85-384 


9360 


34.6 


271 


42916 


1.63 


HoCP 85-845 


7589- 


28.0- 


271 


32239- 


1.70 


HoCP 91-555 


6010- 


21.8- 


276 


34111- 


1.30- 


MSD,, 


1074 


4 


19 


4644 


0.25 



(+j or (-) denotes yields which are statistically higher or lower than LCP 85-384. 



22 



1998 Scrap Ratings for Plant-Cane Outfield Tests 



HoCP 94^06 






nil 
il!l 


ff 












L 94-432 


















L 94-428 














L 94-426 










HoCP 93-754 










HoCP 92-624 






\„XxUXmMk\Kk^S$$>\^X\§v 








HoCP 91-555 




« 






HoCP 85-845 












LCP 85-384 


' 


m^^m^m^^mm^^^' '■ 


iiJlllL,!.. . 








CP 70-321 






a 


1 



0% 



20% 



40% 60% 

% of plots in each category 



80% 



100% 



Figure 1. 



Scrap Categories 
□ None-Little ^Some-Much DUV.Much 



23 



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to place your ad today 



24 



Update on Sugarcane 
Soil Insecticide Research 



T.E. Reagan. E. A. Ostheimer. and 

H. P. SCHEXNAYDER. h. 

Since the initiation of Cooperative 
Federal-State programs to eradi- 
cate the red imported fire ant dur- 
ing the late 1950's, Louisiana sugarcane 
farmers have been aware of the valuable 
natural control of the sugarcane borer 
(SCB), Diatraea saccharalis (R), that ants 
and other arthropods provide their in- 
dustry. Wide-area buildup of sugarcane 
borer populations following broadcast 
applications of the soil insecticide hep- 
tachlor (Long et al. 1958) and the conse- 
quent increased use of the insecticide 
endrin for SCB control contributed sub- 
stantially to environmental pollution 
and a reduction in populations of non- 
target organisms from. 1958 to 1964. 
Later evaluation of a more narrow range 
soil insecticide, mirex, to control ants 
also showed a substantial buildup of 
sugarcane borer infestations (Reagan et 
al. 1972). In comprehensive studies 
evaluating the multi-disciplinary impact 
of the soil insecticide/nematicide 
aldicarb (Temik) applied to sugarcane in 
the spring, a reduction in predator den- 
sities also was accompanied by signifi- 
cant increases in the percentage of inter- 
nodes injured by the sugarcane borer 
(Showier and Reagan 1991). 

The research reported in this paper is 
part of a long-term study to assess the 
impact of sugarcane wireworm insecti- 



cides on non-target arthropods and 
management of sugarcane borer infesta- 
tions. 

Methods 

The results of two experiments are 
provided in this report. The first study 
involved a 16 plot (4 replication) study 
in a 6-acre field of the commercial vari- 
ety 'LCP85-384' sugarcane planted in 
Calcasieu parish during the fall of 1997. 
The soil was a Crowley silt loam which 
had been an unimproved pasture for 
several years, the type of field most 
likely to have a wireworm problem. The 
treatments applied in a randomized 
block design were: A (phorate in the 
fall), B (phorate in the spring), C (un- 
treated check), and D (phorate in the fall 
and spring). Thimet20G (1.51bs. ai/A) 
formulation of phorate was banded in 
the open planting furrow in the fall or in 
the off-bar furrow in the spring. No 
chemical was applied in the second year 
fields. Insecticide effects on non- target 
insects were evaluated using pit-fall 
traps (2 traps /plot) at 2-3 week intervals 
repeated three times during the sum- 
mer. Crickets as well as numerous other 
insects sampled are food for fire ants 
(Ali et al. 1984). In 1997, SCB injury was 
assessed by determining the percentage 
of bored internodes of randomly se- 
lected stalks of sugarcane (75 stalks/ 
plot) in each treatment. When shoots 
were 12 in. tall, stand counts (number of 



25 



shoots per acre) were determined after 
fall planting, spring re-growth, and re- 
growth after harvest on ten, 60-ft sec- 
tions of rows in each plot. Four research 
locations were planted with this experi- 
mental design for evaluation in 1997 and 
1998. Due to weather stress, only one of 
two locations in 1997 was followed 
throughout the growing season (North 
Ward Line Road study in Calcasieu par- 
ish). 

The second type of study, also in- 
volving silt loam soils, in the 
Youngsville area, was a soil insecticide 
(phorate) - sugarcane borer impact sur- 
vey conducted to assess SCB injury(% 
bored intemodes) and SCB management 
in selected plant and first ratoon sugar- 
cane fields at the end of the 1998 season. 
Forty stalk samples (10 stalks from 4 
quadrants) from closely located (adja- 
cent, across the road, etc.) phorate and 
non-phorate paired fields of plant cane 
'LCP85-384' were examined for bored 
internodes (Table 3). These plant cane 
fields followed fallow sugarcane in sev- 
eral cycles of continuous production. 

Results and Discussion 

Results (1997) from the Calcasieu 



parish location (North Ward Line Road) 
indicated that treatment D (phorate fall 
and spring) had a significant increase (2 
.5-fold) in SCB bored internodes and a 
significant decrease (8.4%) in yield com- 
pared to C (untreated check); also that 
crickets and predatory fire ants were sig- 
nificantly reduced where phorate was 
used in the fall or the fall and spring 
(treatments A and D) (Table 1). In 1998, 
differences in bored internodes, yield, 
densities of non-target arthropods and 
SCB infestations were not detected. Dif- 
ferences in stand counts were not de- 
tected when comparing treated and un- 
treated plots at the Welsh (Walker Field) 
location (Table 2). In Calcasieu parish, 
differences were detected among treat- 
ments in spring plant cane stand counts. 
Differences also were detected in spring 
counts at the Martin Ridge field and 
between fall counts in the Oxford field in 
St. Mary parish (1997-98). Wireworm 
infestations in all fields averaged ap- 
proximately 1-2 larvae (Conoderus and 
Melanotus spp.) per bait sample. All 
fields studied had a history of, or poten- 
tial for, high wireworm population den- 
sities because of previous use, soil type, 
or vegetative cover. 



Table 1 

Effects of soil insecticide on sugarcane borer injury and crop yield, four replication 
factorial experiment, plant cane through 1st ratoon crop seasons. North Ward Road 
Line Field, Calcasieu parish, Louisiana, 1996-98. 

Non-target insects 
■- 1997 Bored Internodes Yield 

(Mean/Trap/2wks) (% Bored) (Tons/Acre) 



Treatment 



Crickets Fireants 1997 1998 



1997 



1998 



A (Phorate Fall) 1.67b 21.88b 3.12a 0.74a 

B (Phorate Spring) 2.25ab 41.67a 3.24a 1.40a 

C (Check) 3.00a 39.67a 3.02a 0.93a 

D (Phorate Fall & Sp) 1.38b 18.08b 7.26b 1.08a 



37.06a 30.62a 

34.88ab 25.97a 

36.49a 27.07a 

33.57b 28.16a 



Significant differences were not observed among means (in the same column) follozued by the same letter. 



26 



Table 2 

Phorate- wire worm test showing stand counts in Thimet treated /untreated field 
plots, 1996-98. Ward Line Rd field, Calcasieu Parish; Walker field, Jeff Davis Parish; 
Martin Ridge, St. Mary Parish; and Oxford field, St. Mary Parish. 



Field / Year 



Fall Stand Counts 

(Shoots/Acre) 
Treated Untreated 



Spring Stand Counts 

(Shoots /Acre) 
Treated Untreated 



Wireworms/ 
Sample 
Field Ave. 



Ward Line Rd 96-97 20853a 

Walker Field 96-97 19156a 

Martin Ridge 97-98 31778a 

Oxford Field 97-98 54344a 



18271a 


25372a 


22892b 


1 


19327a 


27909a 


26953a 


1 


32171a 


51142a 


43953b 


1 


43863b 


66172a 


57626a 


1-2 



Means within each field followed by the same letter were not significantly different. Throughout the 
season, SCB infestations in the areas of the latter three were unusually low with internode injury less 
than 3% bored internodes. Pitfall trapping data is still being assessed from the St. Mary locations. 



Results of the survey (six replications 
in plant cane and two reps of first ra- 
toon) indicated that phorate-treated 
fields had significantly more bored in- 
ternodes (SCB injury) in the plant cane 
and that these fields required more in- 



secticide applications for SCB control 
(Table 3). 

Differences in SCB caused injury and 
needed number of SCB control applica- 
tions were not detected in the first ra- 
toon crop. 



Table 3 

Sugarcane borer (SCB)-bored internode survey of phorate treated and untreated 
TCP85-384' sugarcane fields, near Youngs ville, LA; cooperative with Calvin Viator 
Agricultural Consultants, September, 1998. 





Rep 






Paired Fields 






Phorate 


Non-Phorate 


Parish 


% Bored 
Internodes 


SCB Control % Bored 
Applications Internodes 


SCB Control 
Applications 










Plant Cane 




Lafayette 

Lafayette 

Lafayette 

Iberia 

Iberia 

Vermilion 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


20.6 
6.1 
10.5 
44.1* 
15.9 
9.5 




3 2 
3 1.6 
3 1.5 
0* 5 
3 1.3 
2 3.9 


1 

1 

1 
1 


Mean (LSD:13.5, ex =0.05) 


17.8a 




2.33 2.6b 


0.67 










1st Ratoon 




Lafayette 
Lafayette 
Mean 


1 
2 


3.7 
1.4 
2.6 




1 0.9 
1 1.4 
1 1.2 


1 
1 
1 



*Field not under consulting contract: additionally, there is some question that the grower 
may have used a rate slightly higher than 1.5 lb ail A, hut still within the label. 



27 



This research provides additional in- 
formation needed to formulate recom- 
mendations involving soil insects con- 
trol in Louisiana sugarcane. Especially 
in fields of light soils placed into sugar- 
cane production following pasture or 
turf, wireworm and other soil insects 
control is likely to be necessary. Fal- 
lowed sugarcane fields in similar soils 
which have been grass infested may also 
need preventative controls. However, a 
soil insecticide application may not be 
required with the second plant cane crop 
if the field has been kept reasonably free 
of grass during the ratoon crops (Faw 
1998). Growers with fields of light or 
mixed soils similar to those described 
should consider control measures for 
soil insects at planting time and base 
chemical control on verification of soil 
insect pest infestations (with fermented 
corn baits). Research data indicate that 
the economic threshold for wireworms 
is slightly above 1 wireworm per bait 
sample before planting. Soil insecticides 
have had a suppressive effect on benefi- 
cial predators in sugarcane studies, and 
this resulted in an increased potential for 
higher infestations of the sugarcane 
borer and a greater need for SCB man- 
agement with insecticides. 

References Cited 

Ali, A. D., T. E. Reagan, and J.L. Flynn. 
1984. Influence of selected weedy and 
wefed-free sugarcane habitats on diet 
composition and foraging activity of the 
imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: 
Formicidae). Environmental Entomol- 
ogy 13: 1037-1041. 

Faw, W. F. 1998. Sugarcane planting 
recommendations and suggestions for 
sugarcane producers. Louisiana Coop- 
erative Extension Service, LSU Agricul- 
tural Center Pub. 2469 (6/98) 20 pp. 



Long, W. H., E. A. Cancienne, E. J. 
Cancienne, R. N. Dobson, and L. D. 
Newsom. 1958. Fire ant eradication 
program increases damage by the sugar- 
cane borer. Sugar Bulletin 37: 62-63. 

Reagan, T. E., G. Coburn, and S. D. 
Hensley. 1972. Effects of mirex on the 
arthropod fauna of a Louisiana sugar- 
cane field. Environmental Entomology 
1(5): 588-591. 

Showier, A. T. and T. E. Reagan. 1991. 
Effects of sugarcane borer, weed, and 
nematode control strategies in Louisiana 
sugarcane. Environmental Entomology 
20 (1): 358-370. 

Acknowledgement 

In addition to the cooperation and 
participation of agricultural consultant 
Blaine Viator in the survey and growers 
Willie Danos, Calcasieu parish; Stacy 
Judice, Jeff Davis parish and Clint, 
Chad, and Jackie Judice, St. Mary parish; 
we appreciate the cooperation of the 
additional producers whose fields were 
included in the survey. 

Appreciation is expressed to Daniel, 
Terry, Wilson, George and Jack Viator, 
Nicholas Melancon, and Ronald 
Gonsoulin. 

Appreciation is also expressed to the 
American Sugar Cane League for partial 
funding of this research. 



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28 



Billet Planting 
Research Results from 1998 



J. W. Hoy AND Z.Yin 

Department of Plant Pathology 

AND Crop Physiology 

LSU Agricultural Center 

C. A. RjCHARD. W. H. Jackson 

AND H. Waguespack Jr. 

The American Sugar Cane League 

During 1998, yield results were 
obtained from field experi- 
ments comparing billet and 
whole stalk planting for two experi- 
ments in second ratoon, three in first 
ratoon, and one in plant cane. Millable 
stalk counts were obtained from an ad- 
ditional five experiments in first stubble 
and one in plant cane. These experi- 
ments were conducted in cooperation 
with commercial growers or at the Sugar 
Research Station at St. Gabriel. Variables 
tested for possible effects on billet plant- 
ing performance in these experiments 
included: varieties, planting date, starter 
fertilizer, fungicides, antitranspirants, 
biological control, and billet damage. 

Across all experiments, the highest 
yield was obtained from whole stalk 
planting. However, severe stand prob- 
lems and yield reductions have only 
occurred in plantings with short billets 
(6-9 inches) and light planting rates. The 
first experiment conducted on-farm 



with machine-cut billets (completed last 
year) revealed that varieties vary in their 
tolerance of billet planting. CP 70-321 
has shown the most erratic performance, 
whereas yields of LCP 82-89 from billet 
and whole stalk plantings have been 
comparable in experiments conducted 
to date. At this time, LCP 85-384 is the 
variety of greatest interest for billet 
planting. In five commercial farm ex- 
periments with yield results, whole stalk 
yields were higher in plant cane (Tables 
1-5). However, the yield differences be- 
tween whole stalk and billet plantings of 
LCP 85-384 in two experiments com- 
pleted through second ratoon decreased 
in the ratoon crops (Tables 1 and 2). To- 
tal sugar per acre yields for a three-year 
crop cycle were 3% and 6% lower for 
billet plantings in Pointe Coupee and St. 
Mary Parishes. In the same experiments, 
CP 70-321 yields from billet plantings 
were 8% higher and 9% lower than the 
whole stalk plantings in Pointe Coupee 
and St. Mary, respectively. Application 
of fertilizer at planting increased the 
yield of CP 70-321 but not LCP 85-384 
billets to the level of whole stalks in 
plant cane, but all yields were the same 
in first ratoon (Table 3). Starter fertilizer 
did increase the estimated yield of LCP 
85-384 billets in an experiment in plant 
cane during 1998 (Table 4). In an experi- 
ment in Rapides Parish, first ratoon 
yields of LCP 85-384 were reduced by 



29 



drought conditions, and billet and 
whole stalk yields were the same (Table 
5). Millable stalk populations in first ra- 
toon were the same for billet and whole 
stalk plantings of CP 70-321, LCP 82-89 
and LCP 85-384 in two experiments 
each. 

Several experiments were conducted 
at the Sugar Research Station. In an ex- 
periment established last year, the differ- 
ence between billet and whole stalk 
yields in first ratoon were less than in 
plant cane for CP 70-321 and LCP 85-384 
(Table 6), and the analysis indicated the 
differences were not statistically signifi- 
cant. In a small scale experiment, 
antitranspirants, fungicides, and bio- 
logical control did not increase spring 
shoot or fall millable stalk populations, 
but there appeared to be a possible trend 
for increased shoot populations result- 
ing from antitranspirant treatments and 
one biocontrol agent. Therefore, a larger 
experiment was planted during Fall, 
1998, and antitranspirants were in- 
cluded in three experiments established 
on commercial farms. In another small 
scale experiment, plantings of billets 
without physical damage were com- 
pared to billets with impact or flex 
wounds that penetrated the rind or com- 
plete splitting. In this experiment, stalk 
populations from billets with two types 
of wounds were reduced approximately 
30% each, and the population from split 
billets was reduced 70% compared to the 
undamaged billets. 

An experiment was conducted on 
the Cameco research farm to determine 
the effect of different chopper harvester 
settings on the amount and type of billet 
damage. The speed of travel down the 
row affected billet damage. High and 
low speed resulted in more damage. 
High speed creates an excessive flow of 
cane through the machine that can result 
in mashing of the cane. Low speed re- 



sults in excess damage from the initial 
fin roller. Primary extractor fan speed 
did not affect damage, but engaging the 
secondary extractor fan increased billet 
damage. 

Research to develop methods to suc- 
cessfully plant billets will be continued. 
During Fall, 1998, field experiments 
were initiated on six farms and the 
Sugar Research Station. Treatments to be 
compared include: planting rate, billet 
length, billet damage, antitranspirants, 
propiconazole (Tilt), a disease resistance 
inducer, and plant growth hormones. 

Conclusions 

The research results continue to indi- 
cate that the maximum yield will be 
obtained from whole stalk planting. This 
will probably always be the case. Variet- 
ies have shown variability in tolerance 
of billet planting, so breeding and selec- 
tion may eventually provide a long-term 
improvement in variety performance. 
However, what needs to be determined 
now is whether practices can be deter- 
mined that will provide consistent, ac- 
ceptable performance from billet plant- 
ing. Considering the savings that could 
result from billet planting, it may not be 
necessary to match the yield from whole 
stalk planting. What is needed is confi- 
dence that a plant cane stand failure will 
not occur. 

Yields of LCP 85-384 have usually 
been lower in billet plantings in plant 
cane. However, the difference between 
billet and whole stalk plantings has di- 
minished or disappeared in the stubble 
crops, so that the total crop cycle yields 
have been comparable. 

Reduced stand establishment in bil- 
let plantings is due to greater damage 
from a disease-stalk rot. However, fun- 
gicides and biological control agents 
have not been effective in decreasing 
disease severity and increasing yield. 



30 



Wounds are initiation sites for stalk rot, 
so minimizing damage to billets should 
reduce disease severity. Comparisons of 
billet damage with different harvester 
settings indicate that damage to billets 
can be minimized. The potential of 
antitranspirants to form a film that will 
provide a physical barrier to infection is 
currently under investigation. 

Cultural practices is another area of 
investigation to determine methods that 
will improve success with billet plant- 
ing. Early planting has not proven to be 
advantageous. Planting rate is a factor. 
The greatest stand reductions have oc- 
curred in experiments with light plant- 
ing rates. It appears that a planting rate 
of around 4-6 running billets will be 
needed. Results with starter fertilizer 
applied at planting have been mixed, so 
research on this practice will continue. 
Observational evidence also suggests 
that billet plantings may be more sensi- 
tive to herbicide injury. At the same 
time, billet plantings may not shade the 
row as rapidly in the spring. This means 
that care will have to be taken in herbi- 
cide control of weeds. 

Billets are more sensitive to any 



planting problem. At the present time, 
the greatest chances of success will re- 
sult from planting longer billets (20-24 
inches) with the least amount of damage 
at an adequate rate and using the best 
possible planting practices. Further- 
more, it will be important to provide the 
best possible drainage. When these con- 
ditions have been met, the yields from 
billet plantings have been comparable to 
whole stalk plantings. 

Acknowledgments 

Thanks to all the cooperators who in 
various ways made this research pos- 
sible. Field experiments were conducted 
in cooperation with Corley Farms, Joe 
Beaud and Sugarland Plantation, Hebert 
Brothers Farms, McManor Plantation, 
Northside Planting Company, Palo Alto 
Plantation, Sotile Farms, and Steen's Inc. 
Experiments to determine the effects of 
harvester settings on billet damage were 
conducted in cooperation with Cameco 
Inc. 

Financial support was provided by 
the LSU Agricultural Center, the Ameri- 
can Sugar Cane League, and William S. 
Patout, III. 



Table 1 

Results from a three-year crop cycle comparing billet and whole stalk planting in 
an experiment conducted in Pointe Coupee Parish. 



Tons cane per acre 



Sugar per acre (lbs.) 



Variety Planting 1996 1997 1998 Total 1996 1997 1998 Total 

CP 70-321 Billet 41.4* 41.5* 33.0 115.9 9170* 9837* 6460 25,467 

Whole 37.9 35.6 34.2 107.7 8426 8462 6586 23,474 

LCP 85-384 Billet 45.5 48.8 47.7 142.0 10017 11045 9516 30,578 

Whole 50.5 49.3 44.3 144.1 11284* 11293 8938 31,515 

An asterisk (*) indicates a yield that is significantly higher than the corresponding billet or 
whole stalk treatment within a variety. 



31 



Table 2 

Results from a three-year crop cycle comparing billet and whole stalk planting in 
an experiment conducted in St. Mary Parish. 





Planting 


Tons cane per acre 


Sugar per 
1996 1997 


acre (lbs.) 


Variety 


1996 1997 


1998 


Total 


1998 Total 


CP 70-321 
LCP 85-384 


Billet 
Whole 

Billet 
Whole 


31.9 16.8 
36.4* 19.5* 
44.7 35.8 
49.3* 39.4* 


22.1 
21.5 
30.2 
30.7 


70.8 

77.4 

110.7 

119.4 


7245 3795 
8204* 4798* 
10449 7461 
11064 8572 


4584 15,624 
4184 17,186 
7354 25,264 
7119 26,755 



An asterisk (*) indicates a yield that is significantly higher than the corresponding billet or whole stalk 
treatment within a variety and experiment. 

Table 3 

Results from plant cane and first ratoon of an experiment comparing billet and 
whole stalk planting with and without fertilization at planting. 









Tons cane 


per acre 


Sugar per 


acre (lbs.) 






Starter 




















Variety 


Planting 


fertilizer 


1997 


1998 


1997 


1998 


CP 70-321 


Billet 


No 


41.4 b 


42.6 a 


9194 c 


10231 a 




Whole 


No 


52.4 a 


44.6 a 


11679 a 


10445 a 




Billet 


Yes 


48.8 a 


44.3 a 


10590 b 


11103 a 




Whole 


Yes 


51.1a 


41.5 a 


10989 ab 


10070 a 


LCP 85-384 


Billet 


No 


50.8 b 


48.0 a 


11236 b 


11415 a 




Whole 


No 


60.8 a 


49.7 a 


13508 a 


12034 a 




Billet 


Yes 


52.6 b 


46.6 a 


11758 b 


10627 a 




Whole 


Yes 


63.2 a 


53.2 a 


14181 a 


12488 a 



yield values within the same column and variety followed by the same letter were not significantly different. 

Table 4 

Plant cane results from an experiment comparing billet and whole stalk planting of 
LGP 85-384 with and without two rates of fertilizer applied at planting. 







Estimated yields 


Weigh w< 


^gon yields 




Tons cane 


Sugar per 


Tons cane 


Sugar per 


Planting 


Fertilizer 


per acre 


acre (lbs.) 


per acre 


acre (lbs.) 


Billet 


None 


44.1 c 


9487 c 


56.2 a 


12133 b 


Billet 


45-45-45 


53.0 ab 


11204 abc 


58.5 a 


12286 ab 


Billet 


90-90-90 


51.6 ab 


11391 abc 


60.2 a 


13254 ab 


Whole 


None 


46.3 be 


10068 be 


57.6 a 


12501 ab 


Whole 


45-45-45 


56.0 a 


12719 a 


59.2 a 


13423 a 


Whole 


90-90-90 


54.0 a 


11893 ab 


59.4 a 


12904 ab 



Yield values within the same column followed by the same letter were not significantly different. 



32 



Table 5 

Results from plant cane and first ratoon comparing billet and whole stalk planting 
of LCP 85-384 with and without a Tilt fungicide treatment in an experiment con- 
ducted in Rapides Parish. 





Treatment 


Tons 


per 


acre 


Sugar per 


acre (lbs.) 


Planting date 


1997 




1998 


1997 


1998 


Aug 13 


Whole 
Billet + Tilt 
Billet 


57.1a 
50.2 ab 
42.6 b 




30.3 a 

28.4 a 
33.0 a 


10601 a 
9302 ab 
7594 b 


6237 ab 
5507 b 
7052 a 



Yield values within a column followed by the same letter were not significantly different. 



Table 6 

Results from plant cane and first ratoon comparing billet and whole stalk planting 
with and without fungicide treatment of billets in an experiment conducted at the 
Sugar Research Station. 





Tons per 


acre 


Sugar per 


acre (lbs.) 


Variety / treatment 


1997 


1998 


1997 


1998 


CP 70-321 










Whole 


60.8 a 


62.5a 


11902 a 


13572a 


Billet + Tilt 


46.2 b 


52.5a 


8685 b 


11189a 


Billet + Ridomil 


44.5 b 


48.2a 


8406 b 


9801a 


Billet + Tilt + Ridomil 


45.6 b 


50.2a 


8286 b 


10880a 


Billet 


49.2 b 


49.2a 


7509 b 


10432a 


LCP 85-384 










Whole 


61.1a 


56.0a 


12774 a 


12592a 


Billet + Tilt 


57.1 ab 


56.3a 


11508 ab 


11863a 


Billet + Ridomil 


53.7 b 


52.0a 


10907 be 


11526a 


Billet + Tilt + Ridomil 


56.2 ab 


52.7a 


11120 be 


11177a 


Billet 


51.8 b 


48.1a 


10006 c 


9935a 



Yield values within the same column and variety followed by the same letter were not sig- 
nificantly different. 



33 



Mailing List Update 

□ Address change: Please attach the address label 
from the front cover. 

□ I no longer wish to receive The Sugar Bulletin. 
Please remove my name from your mailing list. 

Name 

Address 



City 



State 



Zip. 



Mail to: The Sugar Bulletin 
P.O. Drawer 938 
Thibodaux, LA 70302-0938 



34 



CLASSIFIEDS 



OR. SALE 



• Family Farm equipment: 1997 2- 
row Broussard Harvester, cab/ 
air, extended front end, ex- 
tended piling gate, JD power. 
1993 2-row Broussard Har- 
vester, cab/air, extended front 
end, extended piling gate, JD 
power. Both ready and repaired. 
6 sets Direct Haul Chain Net 
Wagons, 13.6 x 24 grader tires. 
Call (318) 365-5036 night or day 
or (318) 373-7791 and ask for 
Thomas. 

• 1997 Cameco Combine, 1200 
hrs., new tracks & undercar- 
riage. All repairs made, ready to 
cut. Call Northside PItg. at (318) 
828-2188. 

• 1992 S-30 Cane Cutter, excel- 
lent condition - $30,000. Call 
(318)365-3453. 

• 1985 2-row Broussard Cutter, 

cab & air - $60,000. WILL 
TRADE FOR SINGLE-ROW 
CUTTER. Trailer for transport- 
ing cane combine - $6,000. Call 
(318)346-7385. 

• 1986 2-row Broussard Cane 
Cutter w/cab & air - $59,000. 3 
Whole Stalk Row Trailers - 

$3,500 each. Call Paul 
Gremillion, Bunkie, LA at (318) 
346-6406 



• 2 Hearne Automatic Cane 
Planters. Call Kent Soileau at 
(318) 838-2459 (day) or (318) 
838-2265 (night). 

• 1972 Thompson Cane Cutter 

with large JD engine and front 
wheel assist - $5,000; 3-row 
Bottom Plow with 3 pt. hitch 
and gauge wheels - $400; 6' 
Case End Row Flat Chopper 
(parts only) - $100; 1990 Case/ 
Int'l 5120 Maxum, 3490 hrs. ■ 
$22,500. Call Randy Gonsoulin 
at (318) 365-0014. 

• JD 4455 MFWD, 4,842 hours - 
$35,000; JD 7400 Hi-Crop 
MFWD w/low profile tank & 
rack, 4,900 hours - $35,000; 
Int'l 1086 Hi-Crop w/tank& 
rack -$6,000; 1394 Case 
MFWD - $6,000; 1993 Cameco 
CHT 2500 Chopper Harvester; 
Broussard Single Row Har- 
vester - $17,500; 1981 Thomp- 
son Single Row Harvester - 
$1 ,000; Case 880 Excavator - 
$10,000; (1) Quality Hi-Dump 
Wagon - $22,000; (1) Cameco 
Hi-Dump Wagon - $21 ,000; (2) 
Tandem Axle Transloader 
Wagons - $1 ,000 each; Mid- 
land 21' Disk w/hydraulic fold 
wings -$1,200. Call (225) 937- 
0846 (day) or (225) 627-9577 
(evenings - 6pm-9pm), ask for 
David Jarreau. 

CLASSIFIED, continue on page 36 



35 



CLASSIFIEDS 


FOR SALE 






continued from page 35 


• 1993 Cameco S30 4-wheel 


• 1983 Single-row Broussard 


drive cane cutter, cab & air, 


Harvester, double ends & 


excellent condition - $45,000; 


scroll, CAT 3208 engine. New 


J & L 4-wheel Drive Field 


18-4-38 tires, with pulling 


Loader, cab & air -$10,000; 


wheel, shredder topper - 


Drott 40 Excavator, rubber 


$20,000; JD 4840 with new 


tires, 4-wheel drive, cane grab 


trans & engine overhauled in 


& bucket - $20,000. Call 


'97 -$14,000; 856 Hi-Clear- 


Jimmy Jarreau at (225) 637- 


ance Int'l - $2,500; 3-row 


4873. 


Bottom Type Plow Int'l, heavy 




duty and gauge wheels - 


• 8 - New 20x42 R-2 Firestone 

tires - $800 each 
2-1995 Peerless Chip Trailer 

42' -$15,500 each 
2-1988 Peerless Chip Trailer 

42' - $8,500 each 
Call (318) 879-7932 (W) leave 


$3,500; 4-row JD style with 
gauge wheels and cyclers - 
$3,500; JD 4240, Hi-clearance 
1981; 1 front mount spray rig 
with 200-gal. tank -$100; JD 
Disk Plow, heavy duty, 17' - 
$2,000; Rolling Cultivator, 
Lilliston, 4-row - $250; Rolling 


message. 


Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row - 




$75; Int'l 3-row Chopper - 


• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2- 


$1 ,000; 3 one-row shavers - 


row Harvester. Call Roland 


best offer. Call Damiam Pierre 


Bourgeois, Vacherie at (225) 


at (318) 229-6932. 


265-4452 (leave a message). 






• Broussard Cane Loader with 


• 1997 2-row LaCane Har- 


chain pilar and backhoe; 3 


vester (last 2-row built), 375 


Tandum Cane Wagons with 60 


hp, 4-wheel drive; 1998 3- 


ton Army Hitches, extra wheels 


High Dump Billet Wagons, 


and hubs; 18-Wheeler quick 


built by Quality Industries 


hitch on rear end with tongue 


(used to move only 15,000 


used to pull trailers. Call Russell 


tons). Call Gonsoulin Farms at 


Judice at (318) 394-4727. 


(318)364-5885. 





36 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369, White Castle, LA 70788 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard, Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

R O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

441 E. Magnolia St., Eunice, LA 70535 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
R O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified Public Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

R O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

R O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
R O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

R O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
R O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibernia National Bank 

RO. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
R O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

(Specializing in Workman's Comp 
and other Commercial Insurance) 
1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

R O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



Material Resources, Inc. 

RO. Box 1183, Port Allen, LA 70767 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

R O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, RO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Regions Bank 

RO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Rohm & Haas 

503 S. Michot Dr., Lafayette, LA 70508 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

R O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

R O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

R O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

R O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Youngsville, LA 70592 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodau- t a 70301 



Volume / / , 



SERIALS DrpT 

BATON ROUGE LA 70803 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
PERMIT NO. 43 



July 1999 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



N THIS ISSUE 



Up Front With the League 1 

by Charlie Melancon 

Notice of Release of Sugarcane Variety HoCP 91-555 4 

List of Stations Where HoCP 91-555 is Available 6 

Application for Seed Cane of HoCP 91-555 9 

Washington Update 11 

by Don Wallace 

Farm Notes 13 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Baton Rouge Line 17 

by Tom Spradley, with Spradley and Spradley 

Environmental Perspective 19 

by James F. Coerver, P.E., with G.E.C., Inc. 

Biological Control of the Sugarcane Borer 21 

by W.H. White and T.E. Reagan 

Ratoon Stunting Disease Testing 29 

by J.W. Hoy, L.B. Grelen and J.Q. Paccamonti 

The Changing Face of Sugarcane IPM 33 

by Dr. Dale K. Pollet 

Classifieds 35 

The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit 

organization. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year. 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 

The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those 

of the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of 

the advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



The Sugar Bulletin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon/Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson/Senior Agronomist 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist 

John Constant/ Business Manager 

Narmette B. Nickens /Secretary 

Paul G. Borron Hi/Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates fric. 
1156 15th St, N.W. 
Suite 1103 

Washington, D.C. 20005 
Phone: (202) 331-1331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone:(504)448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) %9-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy, Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Jackie Theriot, St. Martinville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles J. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre ]r., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David Allain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Braritin B. "Bert" Bey t, Jeanerette, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Grady Bubenzer, Bunkie, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

John F. Gay, Plaquemine, La. 

Ronald Gonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 

Dean Cravois, Vacherie, La. 

Cicorge "Scrap" Hymel, Gramercy, La. 

Jackie Judice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, Franklin, La. 

Buckley Kcssler, White Castle, La. 

Wilson LcBIanc, Jeanerette, La. 

A. J. "Brother" I^Bourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

Lawrence "Boo" I^evert III, St. Martinville, La. 

Chris Mattingly, Paincourtville, La. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 



Daniel Naqiiin, Thibodaux, La. 
Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Patout, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Tommy Thibodeaux, New Iberia, La. 
Carlton Townsend, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 



R.ONT WITH THE LEAGUE 



BY Charlie Melancon 



Bringing Everyone Togetlier 



AMI 
5^^ 



During the six years that I have 
been with the League, begin- 
ning at the first meeting that I 
ever attended, I expressed that I wanted 
to assure that the League was as respon- 
sive as possible to its entire membership. 
In my mind, as well as my actions, I have 
not differentiated between growers and 
processors. I and the League represent 
the entire industry and my and the 
League's concern is keeping every sugar 
producer and every sugar processor in 
business. This is also the feeling of the 
entire staff. Over the past month, your 
new Chairman, Warren Harang, III, has 
made a concerted effort to visit with 
people within our industry. To invite 
members to participate on the commit- 
tees, to give the staff and me input or 
thoughts, and also to invite those mem- 
bers to attend the regular meetings of 
the Board and participate to whatever 
extent you should feel comfortable. I 
myself have tried to encourage those, 
particularly growers who are not mem- 
bers of the Board, to come to the meet- 
ing. Any and all dues paying members 
have the right and are invited to be in- 
volved in the League to whatever extent 
he or she wishes to involve him or her- 
self. 

There are some growers who have 
expressed a concern that the League is 
focused only on the processor side and 
that nothing gets done for the growers. 
This is not a valid statement. Ironically, 
some of the mills feel that the bulk of the 
League's money is spent on the agricul- 
tural side because there are three em- 
ployees whose direct responsibility is to 



respond to growers needs and concerns. 

Those that have come to know me, I 
feel, know that I am here for the entire 
industry. There is no room, in this day 
and time, for anything less than unity. 
Those that have come to know me know 
that I am sincere in my desire to bring 
this entire industry, healthy, into the 
next millennium. 

Some people have discussed chang- 
ing the structure or representation on 
the Board of the League. That is not for 
me to change. It is the charter and by- 
laws which provides for each mill to 
have one representative on the Board 
and an equal number of grower repre- 
sentatives who represent the entire geo- 
graphic area of our industry rather than 
grower representatives by mills. When 
areas of expansion developed, the Board 
saw fit to expand its grower member- 
ship to be inclusive of grower represen- 
tation from those expanding areas. Con- 
sequently, as it expanded to encompass 
these new developing areas, equal rep- 
resentation by the processors was man- 
dated by the charter and by-laws. But, 
all areas of the cane belt have grower 
representation. 

Once again, I reiterate what I have 
said since the day I began working for 
you as General Manger. It is not neces- 
sary for you to be on the Board of Direc- 
tors in order to attend nor participate in 
the League's activities. I, along with the 
Chairman and the Board of Directors of 
the American Sugar Cane League, invite 
each and every dues paying grower to 

UP FRONT, continue on page 12 



DOES IT REfiLLY MfiTTER? 




Some farmers may not think it matters where they buy their Hi-Dump Wagons. 

YES, it really does make a difference for those who plan to stay in business here in 
Louisiana. When you choose to purchase Hi-Dump wagons from QUALITY INDUSTRIES, you 
are choosing to KEEP EQUIPMENT PRICES DOWN. Quality Industries is a competitive company 
that has been involved in the sugarcane industry for over 50 years. 

Our recent focus on billet cane transportation needs resulted in the production of equipment 
exceeding the industry's standards, while keeping prices reasonable. 

As we continue to strive towards excellence, we hope that the increased PERFORMANCE, 
EFFICIENCY AND DURABILITY in our products will continue to help both the mill and 
individual farmers better their bottom line profits. 

We want to sincerely thank all of you who have been supporting Quality and those who 
continue to place their trust and confidence in us. It is greatly appreciated. 






''For Proven Performance & Durability 
FOLLOW THE LEADER! 



Tony Collinson 



%fMCU4Zu INDUSTRIES, INC. 
(504) 447-4021 • (800) 447-8403 • (504) 447-4028 - Fax 






An Invitation from the Chairman 



As the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the 
American Sugar Cane League, and more importantly a 
Louisiana sugarcane farmer, I want to extend to every 
grower in this industry an invitation to attend the monthly 
meetings of the directors who represent your interests. 
Consider this an opportunity to share first-hand the 
challenges that our industry must confront, and the 
action that is taken by the Board, 

Meetings are normally held on the last Wednesday of the 
month at 1:30 p.m. in a meeting room at the Howard 
Johnson Hotel in Thibodaux. Any changes to 
schedule will be posted in The Sugar Bulletin if tii|p_^ ^^^^^ 
or a notice will be sent to you. You may call the L^^H * " ^^^"^ "^ 
office at 1-800-883-2875 or call a sugar proca^^ldSi 
confirm meeting dates and times. 



.^;? 



I hope that I have made it clear to you, as a grower, that 
you are welcome to attend, offer suggestions, and be a 
part of the decision making process of the American 
Sugar Cane League Board of Directors. I expect to see 
you! 

Sincerely, 

Wci^uie^ ^. tMoAo^iXf., Ill 



\. 



Notice of Release of Sugarcane 
Variety HoCP 91-555 



United States Department of 

Agriculture 

Agricultural Hesearch Service 

Washington. D.C. 20250 

AND 

Louisiana Agricultural 

Experiment Station 

Louisiana State University 

Agricultural Center 

Baton Rouge. Louisiana 70803 

AND 

American Sugar Cane League 

OF THE U.S.A.. Inc. 
Thibodaux. Louisiana 7030 1 

The Agricultural Research Service 
of the United States Department 
of Agriculture, the Louisiana Ag- 
ricultural Experiment Station of the 
Louisiana State University Agricultural 
Center, and the American Sugar Cane 
League of the U.S.A., Inc., working co- 
operatively to improve sugarcane vari- 
eties, have jointly developed and hereby 
announce the release of a nev\/ variety, 
HoCP 91-555, for commercial planting 
in the fall of 1999. 

HoCP 91-555 is a product of the cross 
CP 83-644 X LCP 82-94 made at Canal 
Point (CP), Florida in 1986 and selected 
at HcHima (Ho), Louisiana, in 1988. The 



variety has a high population of small- 
sized, green stalks that turn maroon 
when exposed to sunlight. Its stalk 
weight, averaged over the plant-cane 
and two ratoon crops, was 2.00 lbs. 
HoCP 91-555 is erect in growth habit and 
suited to mechanical harvesting. Yield 
data from a total of 44 mechanically-har- 
vested, replicated trials on both light- 
and heavy-textured soils indicate that 
HoCP 91-555 was comparable to LCP 
85-384, the commercial check and prin- 
cipal variety grown in Louisiana, in 
yields of total recoverable sugar per acre 
and tons of cane per acre in the first-ra- 
toon crop but significantly lower than 
LCP 85-384 in the plant-cane and sec- 
ond-ratoon crops. HoCP 91-555 ex- 
ceeded all commercial checks other than 
LCP 85-384 in yields per acre of both 
total recoverable sugar and cane in the 
plant-cane crop. HoCP 91-555 was com- 
parable to CP 70-321, another commer- 
cial check and the second principal vari- 
ety grown in Louisiana, in yields per 
acre of both recoverable sugar and cane 
in the second-ratoon crop. HoCP 91-555 
is an early maturing, high sucrose vari- 
ety which produces levels of recoverable 
sugar per ton of cane that are similar to 
CP 70-321 at the start of the harvest sea- 
son. Unlike CP 70-321, the levels of re- 
coverable sugar per ton of cane continue 
to increase throughout the harvest sea- 
son or until the occurrence of a freeze (at 
or below 28'C). Desirable attributes of 
this variety are: moderate fiber content 
(13.6%); good milling factor (1.009); and 
lack of brittleness. Yield losses (scrap) 



associated with mechanical harvesting 
are lower than LCP 85-384 and compa- 
rable to CP 70-321. 

HoCP 91-555 is resistant to sugar- 
cane mosaic virus (strains A, B and D) 
and sorghum mosaic virus (strains H, I 
and M). The variety is resistant to smut 
(Ustilago scitaminea Sydow) and is re- 
sistant to rust (Puccinia melanocephala 
H. and P. Syd.) under field conditions. 
The variety is susceptible to leaf scald 
[Xanthomonas albilineans (Ashby) 
Dowson] by artificial inoculation, but 
has shown resistance to natural infec- 
tion. Ratoon stunting disease 
(Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli) has caused 
significant reductions in yields per acre 
of total recoverable sugar and cane in 
the ratoon crops. For HoCP 91-555 to 
yield to its full potential, it is essential 
that seed cane be free or nearly free of 
this disease. HoCP 91-555 is considered 
susceptible to the sugarcane borer 
[Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius)] and 
should not be grown in areas where in- 
secticides cannot be applied. 



Seed cane of HoCP 91-555 will be 
distributed by the American Sugar Cane 
League in accordance with procedures 
to be announced to all sugarcane grow- 
ers in Louisiana on or after July 1, 1999. 
Inquires concerning seed cane should be 
directed to the American Sugar Cane 
League, P.O. Drawer 938, Thibodaux, 
Louisiana 70302. The U.S. Department 
of Agriculture and the Louisiana Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station do not have 
seed cane available for distribution. 

Each agency will make such news 
releases as considered appropriate. 

Dr. Floyd Horn 

Administrator, Agricultural Research 

Service 

Dr. Larry Rogers 

Director, Louisiana Agricultural 

Experiment Station 

Mr. Warren J. Harang, III 

Chairman of the Board, American Sugar 

Cane League of the U.S.A., Inc. 



Summary of results comparing 
In 44 mechanically-harvested, 


the yield of HoCP 91-555 with CP 70-321 and LCP 85-384 
replicated trials on light- and heavy-textured soils 1996-98. 




Cane/A Sugar/ton 
(tons) (lb) 


Sugar/A 
(lb) 




Plant-cane crop (23)^ 




HoCP 91-555 
CP 70-321 
LCP 85-384 


33.1 264 

30.3 261 

34.8 267 

1.3 4 

First-ratoon crop (16) 


8,748 

7,911 

9,255 

352 


HoCP 91-555 
CP 70-321 
LCP 85-384 


33.6 277 

29.2 274 

35.3 275 
1.8 6 

Second-ratoon crop (5) 


9,334 

7,982 

9,711 

534 


HoCP 91-555 
CP 70-321 
LCP 85-384 
MSD„3 


27.7 281 

27.1 269 

33.9 282 

3.0 12 


7,779 

7,282 

9,563 

741 



^ Number in parenthesis represents total number of trials. 



LIST OF STATIONS WHERE HoCP 91-555 IS AVAILABLE 

The American Sugar Cane League has been directed by the Louisiana Agricultural 
Experiment Station and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to undertake a fair and impartial 
distribution of the newly released variety of cane known as HoCP 91-555. 

It has been grown with the understanding that those growing HoCP 91-555 will be 
paid the price of mill cane plus a bonus, and the League is authorized by the Louisiana 
Agricultural Experiment Station and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to charge a 
distribution fee of $1.00 per ton. 

If you wish to order seed cane of this new variety, please fill out the application 
form found in this issue of THE SUGAR BULLETIN. NO OTHER FORM OF 
APPLICATION WILL BE ACCEPTED AND IT MUST BE RECEIVED AT THE 
OFFICE OF THE AMERICAN SUGAR CANE LEAGUE, P. O. DRAWER 938, 
THIBODAUX, LA 70302, NO LATER THAN FRIDAY, AUGUST 6, 1999. 

The price of this seed cane is $36.00 per ton, cut and loaded on your vehicle at the 
secondary station. The cane will be cut with a mechanical harvester. There is no guarantee, 
expressed or implied, that the seed offered is free of mixtures, diseases, insects, weeds or 
weed seeds. 

For the convenience of delivering and handling HoCP 91-555, the League is 
requesting purchasers to name three secondary stations from which they are willing to 
receive cane. The League will attempt to fill all orders from one of the three selected 
secondary stations. If this is not possible, the order will be filled from the nearest secondary 
station. If only one secondary station is named and the order cannot be filled from that 
station, then the order will be filled from a secondary station selected by the League. 

On August 6, 1999, all seed will be allocated and there will be no switching of 
secondary stations. 

The secondary stations possessing HoCP 91-555 are: 



Parish 



Station 



Operator 



Ascension 



Evan Hall 
New Hope 



Churchill & Thibaut 
Triple M Farms 



Assumption 



Belle Alliance 

Cedar Grove 

Glenwood 

Little Texas 

Lula 

Goldmine 

Westfield 



Cavalier Farms 
E.G. Robichaux 
Robert Falcon Farms 
Tex-Emma 
Landry Bros. 
Thibodeaux Bros. 
Landry Farms 



Avoyelles 
Jefferson Davis 



Newton Cane Co. Inc. 
Northside Venture 



Blake Newton 

Jackie, Clint & Chad 
Judice 



Parish 



Station 



Operator 



Iberia 


Caroline 


Herman Walet 




Enterprise 


M.A. Patout & Son 




Lawrence Dugas Farms 


Lawrence Dugas 




Ronald Hebert Farms 


Ronald Hebert, Sr. 




Ulysee Gonsoulin 


Ronald Gonsoulin 


Iberville 


Cannonburg 


Cannonburg Plantation 




Frank Pearce & Sons 


Frank Pearce & Sons 




Laurel Ridge 


Alton Landry Farms 




St. Louis 


St. Louis Planting 


Lafayette 


Triple V Farm 


Daniel Viator 


Lafourche 


Leighton 


Godfrey Knight 




Raceland 


Ellender Farms 




McLeod 


Valentine Sugars 


Pointe Coupee 


Ahna 


Alma Planting Co. 


St. James 


Blackberry 


Blackberry Farms 




Graugnard Farms 


Graugnard Farms 




Martin & Poche 


Martin & Poche 


St. John 


Glendale 


T. Lanaux & Sons 


St. Martin 


B & T Farms 


Dane Berard 




Huey Dugas Farms 


Huey Dugas 




Levert St. John 


Levert St. John 


St. Mary 


AUain 


Adeline Planting 




Bayou Cane Co., Inc. 


Jessie Breaux 




Breaux Bros, 


Herbert Breaux 




Champagne Farms 


Mike Champagne 




Frank Martin Farms 


Robert Judice 




Northside Planting Co. 


Jackie, Clint, & Chad 
Judice 




Freyou Farms 


Glenn & Wayne 
Freyou 


Vermillion 


Edward Zenon Farm 


Edward Zenon 




Sam Duplantis 


Sam Duplantis 


West Baton Rouge 


Robert Morris Farms 


Robert Morris Farms 



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THE LAST DAY ON WHICH APPLICATIONS FOR 

SEED CANE OF HoCP 91-555 CAN BE 

ACCEPTED IS AUGUST 6, 1999 

The cane will cost $36.00 per ton. The League will keep $ 1 .00 per ton and give the 
rest to the Secondary Stations. The League will make every effort to fill orders at locations 
selected by applicants. It is important that you fill out the application completely (first, 
second, and third choices) so that we might provide you with the best service. 

Tear Off Application Below and Mail 
APPLICATION FOR HoCP 91-555 SEED CANE 

Date 



TO: American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A., Inc. 
P. O. Drawer 938, Thibodaux, LA 70302-0938 

Gentlemen: 

I hereby apply for tons of HoCP 91-555 seed cane. I agree to pay 

when an allocation is assigned to me, and I am to be notified concerning this and supplied 
with the name and address of the grower from whom I am to get the cane, which I will send 
for on a specified delivery date. I understand that this cane will not be trash free. 

If for any reason this order cannot be filled, it is understood that my money will be 
refunded to me. 

My 1999 total acreage in cane for sugar and seed is acres. 

The locations I wish to receive my allocation from are: 

1 ^^ choice 

2"** choice 

3'^* choice 

This application is made with the full understanding on my part that it may not be 
possible to get as much as I apply for, and that there is no guarantee expressed or implied 
that this seed is free of mixtures, diseases, insects, weeds or weed seeds. 

My farm is located between these two towns: 

and 



PLEASE PRINT 

Name 



Mailing Address 

City Zip 

Phone # (Day) (Evening) 



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10 



WASHINGTON UPDATE 



BY Don Wallace 



House Passes Agriculture Appropriations Bill 



House lawmakers have ap- 
proved the FY 2000 agriculture 
spending bill, appropriating 
$60.7 billion to fund the Department of 
Agriculture (USDA), Food and Drug 
Administration, rural development, and 
various nutrition programs. No amend- 
ments regarding the sugar program 
were offered on the floor. Representative 
Mark Sanford (R-SC) had filed an 
amendment, indicating his intention to 
offer it during floor debate on the bill. If 
it had been approved, his amendment 
would have effectively prohibited the 
USDA from administering loans to 
sugar processors. However, Rep. 
Sanford failed to offer his amendment, 
so it was never considered. 

Passage of the spending bill did not 
come easily for the House leadership. 
Intra-party dissent between Republi- 
cans concerning the discretionary 
spending cap threatened to derail the 
agriculture bill, and to devolve into a 
battle over the entire appropriations 
process. Representative Tom Cobum (R- 
OK) led a group of conservatives dissat- 
isfied by what they perceived to be a 
lack of a cohesive leadership strategy 
regarding the discretionary spending 
cap and the ability of the House to pass 
each of its thirteen spending bills. Con- 
gress imposed the spending cap on itself 
two years ago, in the 1997 balanced bud- 
get agreement. 

Rep. Coburn filed dozens of amend- 
ments to the agriculture appropriations 
bill in an attempt to force the leadership 
to reexamine its spending priorities. Due 
to the sheer volume of amendments be- 
ing offered, and length of time it was 



taking to debate and vote on them, the 
House leadership chose to suspend con- 
sideration of the agriculture bill until 
after the Memorial Day recess. Upon 
return of the House after the break. 
Speaker Dennis Hastert (R-IL) convened 
a meeting with his fellow Republicans 
and urged a resolution of the appropria- 
tions logjam. He also outlined a plan 
that would trim federal spending in ar- 
eas such as agriculture and defense and 
reallocate those funds to other appro- 
priations packages, such as the Labor, 
Health and Human Services, and Educa- 
tion bill, that are traditionally difficult to 
pass. The House resumed consideration 
of the agriculture spending bill, passing 
an amendment by Appropriations 
Chairman Bill Young (R-FL) that would 
trim approximately $102.5 million. Rep. 
Coburn expressed his support for the 
plan and voted to approve the bill. 

Several House Democrats voiced 
displeasure with Chairman Young's 
amendment, and offered a motion that 
would recommit the bill back to the 
Appropriations Committee, so that 
some of the money that had been cut 
could be restored. That motion was de- 
feated. 

The Senate is scheduled to begin 
marking up its version of the Agricul- 
ture Appropriations bill as the Sugar 
Bulletin goes to press. An update on the 
progress of the Senate bill will be in- 
cluded in next month's issue. 

Miller and Schumer-Feinstein Bills 
Introduced 

Though the sugar program escaped 
attack in the House Agriculture Appro- 



11 



priations bill. Representative Dan Miller 
(R-FL) and Senator Charles Schumer (D- 
NY) have again introduced bills in their 
respective chambers seeking to phase 
out the sugar program by 2002. Rep. 
Miller's bill is co-sponsored by Repre- 
sentative George Miller (D-CA). Senator 
Schumer is joined by Senators Dianne 
Feinstein (D-CA), John Chafee (R-RI), 
and Judd Gregg (R-NH). 

This marks the fourth consecutive 
year Rep. Dan Miller has led the attack 
in the House against the sugar program, 
but it is the first time he has done so 
without Sen. Schumer. The two legisla- 
tors had collaborated for the three previ- 
ous years, when Sen. Schumer served in 
the House. 

Sen. Gregg has also co-sponsored 
previous efforts against the sugar pro- 
gram. In 1996 he twice offered legisla- 
tion against the sugar program, losing 
both efforts. 

Custom Service Proposes to Revoke 
"Stuffed Molasses" Classification 
Letter 

The U.S. Customs Service has pro- 
posed to revoke a tariff classification rul- 
ing letter concerning the classification of 
certain sugar syrups commonly known 
as "stuffed molasses." The proposed re- 
vocation would prevent the importation 
of "stuffed molasses" outside the U.S. 
tariff-rate quota for sugar (TRQ). 

American Sugar Alliance Chairman 
Jim Johnson praised the ruling, noting 
that the "stuffed molasses" product had 
been used as a way of circumventing the 
sugar import quota system. 

June WASDE Sees Little Change for 
1999/2000 

The USDA has released its World 
Agricultural Supply and Demand Esti- 
mates (WASDE), making few changes to 
last month's forecast for the coming 
year. The cancellation of the May import 



tranche has lowered projections for next 
year's beginning stocks, and reduced 
the season-ending stocks-to-use ratio for 
the current year to 14.3%. 

Projected domestic production for 
next year remains at 8.4 million short 
tons, raw value. Beet output should 
reach 4.53 million tons, while cane out- 
put should reach 3.87 million tons. Loui- 
siana production is projected to be 1.4 
million tons. 

Estimated production for the current 
year has been increased by 89,000 tons. 
A rise in beet output of 50,000 tons is 
responsible for most of the growth. Im- 
ports under the TRQ have been reduced 
due to the cancelled tranche, but esti- 
mates of non-TRQ imports have been 
raised by 25,000 tons, based on import- 
ers' purchases. Domestic consumption 
for the current year has also been in- 
creased by 50,000 tons, to a total of 
10.025 million tons. 



UP FRONT, continued from page 1 

attend any and all meetings or to call me 
on the phone with questions or con- 
cerns. The Board has asked me to at- 
tempt to communicate to the general 
membership the times and dates of fu- 
ture meetings so that those who wish to 
attend will be aware. As stated by me on 
many previous occasions, this is your 
organization. Please involve yourself. 

Also, in this addition is a short invi- 
tation from Warren Harang to dues pay- 
ing members to attend the Board meet- 
ing. Your local grower member(s) or mill 
member can advise you of the meeting 
dates. Or, you can contact the League 
office directly. I hope I'll be seeing you at 
future meetings or, call me anytime to 
discuss items of concern or thoughts on 
how your organization might improve. 
I'm always open to good suggestions 
and thoughts. I work for you! 



12 



FARM NO 



BY Dr. Charley Richard 

Field Days -- Crop Report - Molecular Biology 
RSD Sampling -- Contact Committee 



The summer schedule of Parish 
Field Days is now upon us and a 
list of these events is provided 
here. These informational meetings are 
sponsored, for the most part, by the 
Louisiana Cooperative Extension Ser- 
vice and are presented to provide you 
with the latest technologies that can help 
make your operation as efficient as pos- 
sible. Numerous scientists and exten- 
sion personnel spend a lot of time pre- 
paring information and demonstrations 
so that you can better understand the 
results of their research. This is done for 
your benefit and so it is up to you to 
make sure you understand the meaning 
of the research data. If the results are not 
clear, ask questions and get an answer 
that you can understand! After all, these 
meetings are for you to get information 
that you can then put to practical use. 

A couple of the parishes have an in- 
door meeting rather than field demon- 
strations. Two of the field days are con- 
ducted on experiment stations. While 
these may look like a routine parish field 
day, it is really an opportunity for grow- 
ers from across the state to see the re- 
search facilities and experiments that are 
being conducted on your behalf. It is 
important that in addition to attending 
the field day in your own parish, you try 
to attend the Terrebonne Field Day con- 
ducted at the USDA Ardoyne Farm on 
July 9 and the LSU Area Sugarcane Field 
Day at the St. Gabriel Experiment Sta- 
tion on July 21. Numerous scientists are 
spending lots of time and effort to pre- 
pare field days that will give you plenty 



of opportimity to see the research that is 
being conducted. Show them your inter- 
est in their work by attending one or 
both of these field days in addition to the 
field day in your own parish. 

The recognition of high yields in 
each parish is another aspect of the field 
days. While there has been much discus- 
sion about the merits of the yield con- 
test, it is important to recognize excel- 
lence. The "bottom line" is, of course, 
what all growers should be most con- 
cerned about. It takes a profit to stay in 
business and that should never be 
downplayed. But, recognizing outstand- 
ing achievements by growers in each 
parish is also important. It gives those 
who aren't in the high yield group a goal 
to work toward and shows what can be 
done when technology is utilized. Rec- 
ognizing achievement is a part of attain- 
ing efficiency that should never be done 
away with. 

1999 Sugarcane Field Day Schedule 
July 9, 8:00 am, Terrebonne Parish, 

USDA Sugarcane Research Unit, 

Houma 
July 15, 9:00 am, St. John Parish, Ag Ser- 
vice Center, Edgard 
July 15, 3:00 pm, Vermillion Parish, 

Charles Guidry Farm, Erath 
July 21, 8:00 am, LSU Area, St. Gabriel 

Research Station, St. Gabriel 
July 22, 8:30 am, Lafourche Parish, 

American Legion Hall, Raceland 
July 26, TBA, Avoyelles, Rapides, St. 

Landry Parishes, Bunkie 
July 27, 2:00 pm. Assumption Parish, St. 



13 



Anne Church Hall, Napoleonville 
July 28, 4:00 pm, St. Mary Parish, Ameri- 
can Legion Home, Franklin 
July 29, 5:00 pm, Iberia Parish, Ricky 

Judice Farm 
July 30, 2:00 pm, St. Martin/ Lafayette 

Parishes, Levert St. John Plantation, 

St. Martinville 
August 5, 2:30 pm, St. James Parish, 

Welcome Plantation, Welcome 
August 6, 9:00 am. Ascension Parish, 

Palo Alto Plantation, Donaldson ville 

Crop Report 

Rains have been falling with regular- 
ity this June which is the first normal 
weather pattern this industry has seen in 
over a year. Cane growth is exceptional 
in most parts of the belt and expecta- 
tions for a very large crop continue. 
Growers are reminded that there will be 
more cane to grind than the eighteen 
factories can handle in a harvest cam- 
paign most growers are accustomed to. 
Some factories are planning to start 
around September 20, the earliest start 
on record. Even with most factories be- 
ginning before October, all cane will not 
be ground until sometime in January. As 
mentioned in earlier articles, growers 
should be prepared to hasten maturity 
by using Polado. The acreage treated 
this year will be considerably more than 
in past years given the larger amounts of 
stubble cane that growers have kept. 
The early starting date will mean appli- 
cations will begin in mid-August if 
Polado is to have enough time to ripen 
the cane. 

Growers should also expect that they 
may very well be planting and harvest- 
ing at the same time, given the early start 
of the harvest. Growers who tradition- 
ally wait until Labor Day to start plant- 
ing would be well advised to start earlier 
if they hope to finish before the harvest 
season starts. 



With an anticipated completion date 
in January, well past the normal date of 
a killing freeze, growers are reminded to 
follow the cold tolerance guidelines in 
the variety recommendations. When it 
comes to post freeze deterioration, CP 
70-321 is still the best variety for cold 
tolerance, based on currently available 
data. The industry hasn't experienced a 
killing freeze early enough in the season 
to cause significant cane acreage to be 
abandoned since 1976. Better varieties 
with regard to cold tolerance may help; 
but an early killing freeze, especially 
multiple freezes when the canopy has 
dried, could be the one factor that re- 
duces the potential for this large crop. 
Following the proper schedule can help 
to minimize the impact of freezes and 
growers are urged to use the variety rec- 
ommendations booklet to the fullest ex- 
tent. 

Molecular Biology 

Questions are sometimes asked 
about the industry's utilization of new 
technologies, including molecular biol- 
ogy and the new processes of genetic 
engineering and gene manipulation. 
Industry members should rest assured 
that this work is progressing about as 
fast as can be expected, given the com- 
plicated genetic makeup of sugarcane. 
For many years, it was thought that sug- 
arcane was, genetically speaking, too 
complex to attempt the kinds of gene 
manipulation that other crops were 
working on. It was not until the late 
1980s that scientists, funded by the Bra- 
zilian and Hawaiian sugar industries, 
proved that chromosome mapping 
might be possible. It was at that time that 
the International Consortium on Sugar- 
cane Biotechnology (ICSB) was formed. 
The original members were firms repre- 
senting interest in Brazil, Australia, 
South Africa, Hawaii, Texas and Louisi- 



14 



ana sugarcane industries along with the 
USDA. Since then other members have 
been added including Florida, Colom- 
bia, Mauritius, Reunion (France), Philip- 
pines, Argentina, India and the Sugar 
Association of the Caribbean Inc. (SAC, 
representing six producing countries). 

Since 1989, sixteen projects have 
been undertaken, costing more than 
$3,700,000. By spreading the funding 
among the members of the Consortium, 
the cost to each industry has been kept 
to a minimum. Many of these projects 
have dealt with developing basic infor- 
mation about the genetic makeup of 
sugarcane and have led to the develop- 
ment of in-house molecular programs in 
many of the member countries. In these 
in-house programs, more practical infor- 
mation has now been developed for use 
by those industries. 

Here in Louisiana, the USDA/ARS 
facility in Houma now has a molecular 
scientist working in a program which 
will assist the Louisiana sugar industry 
in utilizing some of this technology. 
Other in-house programs exist in the 
sugarcane producing states. 

This industry, through the League, 
has worked over the last few years to 
secure the extra government funding 
necessary for the molecular program at 
Houma. Through member's dues, 
projects have been funded with the ICSB 
as well as more practical projects at 
Texas A«&M and elsewhere over the last 
decade. Researchers in Texas, primarily 
Drs. Jim Irvine, Maria Gallo-Meagher, 
and Erik Mirkov, have developed ge- 
netically engineered sugarcane plants 
that are resistant to a specific herbicide 
and also plants that are resistant to the 
mosaic virus. These were done as test 
cases to see if transformation was pos- 
sible; but now plants of CP 65-357 that 
have been transformed for mosaic resis- 
tance are being used in crosses to inves- 



tigate whether the genes are truly stable 
and are passed on to their progeny. 

Discussions with representatives of 
various pesticide companies, including 
Monsanto, have been held to investigate 
the possibilities of developing sugar- 
cane resistant to their herbicides. These 
negotiations are continuing, realizing 
the significance of a herbicide resistant 
sugarcane plant but also recognizing the 
cost of developing such a plant to the 
industry, both in money and property 
rights of the new variety. 

Other projects are being conducted 
for the benefit of the Louisiana industry 
utilizing exotic genes that could provide 
resistance to diseases, insects, dextran 
formation, and add useful by-products 
or alternate products to the sugarcane 
plant. All of this molecular work is ex- 
pensive and a small portion of your 
League's dues are being used to fund 
this high risk research initiative. The 
risks may be high, but so are the poten- 
tial benefits. 

Industry members should not be- 
lieve that molecular science will replace 
variety development efforts. However, 
scientists have felt all along that this new 
technology could assist traditional 
breeding programs and help develop 
varieties faster and more precisely than 
is done using conventional crossing and 
selection techniques. 

Other crops are now utilizing the 
fruits of molecular research and we be- 
lieve that the same will be true for sug- 
arcane in just a few years. It would be 
nice to already be using genetically engi- 
neered plants, but sugarcane is too com- 
plex to be on the same time-line as other 
crops. Nevertheless, the objective re- 
mains utilization of molecular biology in 
sugarcane research to hopefully provide 
exciting opportunities for future eco- 
nomic efficiency of the Louisiana sugar 
industry. 



15 



RSD Sampling 

The League, on behalf of the indus- 
try, provides partial funding for the op- 
eration of the sugarcane disease labora- 
tory at LSU that is operated under the 
direction of Dr. Jeff Hoy. For two years 
the lab has analyzed samples that grow- 
ers have sent in for diagnosis of the RSD 
bacterium. This information can be very 
useful in conducting the healthy seed 
program that ALL GROWERS should be 
utilizing if they hope to get maximum 
yields from the varieties presently being 
grown. Information about the test re- 
sults can be found in the article by Dr. 
Hoy elsewhere in this issue of the Bulle- 
tin. 

Growers are encouraged to use the 
laboratory which you are partly funding 
through your League dues. There is a 
small charge to cover the costs of con- 
ducting the disease assays and samples 
can be handled through your county 
agent or your crop consultant. You can 
also collect the samples yourself and 
bring them in for analysis. 

In order to be sure that disease is not 
taking away from your potential yields, 
a HEALTHY SEED PROGRAM is a 
must. It starts with seed free of pests and 
includes farm and machinery hygiene to 
keep them as clean as possible. There is 
a price for conducting such a program 
but the costs are easily outweighed by 
the potential yields from a healthy crop 
of sugarcane. Growers should also be 
reminded that as of yet, there is no vari- 
ety on the horizon that will replace LCP 
85-384 in yield and stubbling ability. 
Extreme care should be taken to prolong 
the life of this variety by using the 
healthiest seed you can afford! Follow 
the guidelines for a healthy seed pro- 
gram as outlined in previous issues of 
the Bulletin and as recommended by the 
Cooperative Extension Service. 



Contact Committee 

As discussed in the last issue of the 
Bulletin, the League's Agricultural Con- 
tact Committee will be held on July 14, 
1999 at the Howard Johnson Motor 
Lodge in Thibodaux beginning at 9:00 
am. The central theme of the meeting 
will deal with cane quality. Talks will be 
presented on the fallow program, plant- 
ing, cultural practices, harvesting prac- 
tices, cane burning, mulch /weed con- 
trol, and an update on the cane sampling 
formula implemented last year. Various 
scientists are now being invited to par- 
ticipate in the discussion. Included in 
the list of speakers will be representa- 
tives of Cameco and Austoft. They will 
participate in discussions on fallow pro- 
grams and cultural practices that can 
improve cane quality during harvesting. 
Cane quality has been an important is- 
sue, is an important issue and will be an 
important issue when industry effi- 
ciency is the objective. With the large 
amount of cane to grind this year, deliv- 
ering trash-free cane of high quality may 
make the difference between a success- 
ful year and crop losses from an early 
freeze. It is important that you attend 
this meeting and participate in the dis- 
cussions. 

The future of this industry depends 
upon its ability to deliver a high quality 
product. 



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16 



THE B A TO N R O U G 



BY Tom Spradley 
Spradley & Spradley 



Legislature Handles Numerous Sugar Related Issues 



Commissioner of Agriculture Bob 
Odom has held on to a $ 3 mil- 
lion appropriation for the "sugar 
train" in this year's Appropriations Bill. 
The idea, just approved by the Legisla- 
ture last year, has the support of Odom, 
the League, the Legislature, the Farm 
Bureau, and the Governor. The issue 
was controversial last year and gained 
initial approval in a bill that provided 
funding for several things, such as boll 
weevil eradication and aid to the blind. 
The bill provides $3 million to con- 
struct sugar-handling facilities along 
railroads. At this scale the project will be 
available to a limited number of growers 
and mills, but eventually, on a larger 
scale it can relieve some of the pressure 



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iaRting lilies «j3 to so 



Hearne Consulting, Inc. 

2450 Powers Ave, 
Opelousas, LA 70570 
To place your order call 

(318)942-8180 



the League feels to get cane off the roads. 

As this is written, the Appropriations 
Bill is the last stop in a legislative chain 
of events before a vote of final approval 
in the House and the Senate. 

The League has done very well in the 
legislature this year on other matters. 

Representative Buddy Shaw of 
Shreveport who is a member of the 
Transportation Committee introduced a 
series of bills regarding increases in fees 
for special permits. All of these have 
been killed. A bill by New Orleans Rep- 
resentative Author Morrell, which 
would have prevented trucks from pass- 
ing other vehicles on farm to market 
roads, was also killed. 

Other action (continued next page): 



Ourfluids 
make sugar. 



Ouachita 




Fertilizer 



New Iberia, La. (318)367-8233 



TTRI- 


■ST-ATS 


Delta Chemicals 


Thibodaux, La. 
(504) 447-4081 


Jeanerette, La. 
(318)276-5051 


New Roads, La. 
(225)638-8343 


Lemann's Farm Supply 
Donaldsonville, La. 
(225) 473-7927 
Satellite Plant 



17 



ASCL 
BILL POSITION 



TITLE 



FINAL 
RESULTS 



HB 75 oppose 



HB 78 oppose 



HB112 



oppose 



Establishes maximum speed limits dead 

for freight carrying vehicles. 

Provides with respect to special dead 

length limits on vehicles 
transporting forest products and 
prohibits such vehicles from 
transporting projecting loads. 

Provides for maximum speed limits dead 

and penalties for freight-carrying 

vehicles. 



HB 248 support Exempts certain commercial haulers 

from the requirement of covering 
loads. 



dead 



HB 370 support Creates an exemption from local dead 

sales and use taxes for repair and 
replacement parts for certain types 
of machinery and equipment. 



HB597 



HB 1994 



SB 38 



support 

support 
support 



Authorizes issuance of Class "E" dead 

drivers' licenses to certain persons 
without Social Security numbers. 

Enacts the LA Rural Lands dead 

Preservation Act. 

Increases the number of members on passed 

the LA Agricultural Finance 
Authority and provides relative to 
the powers of the Authority. 



SB 181 support Exempts from state sales tax and use dead 

tax purchases of all terrain vehicles 
used for agricultural purposes. 

SB 695 support Enacts the LA Rural Lands dead 

Preservation Act. 



SB 803 oppose Provides relative to special permits, 

in reference to DOTD. 



dead 



18 



ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE 



BY James F. Coerver. P.E. 
G.E.C. Inc. 



Court Rejects Tougher Air Standards 



The United States Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) recently 
promulgated unnecessary and 
much tougher National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone 
and particulate matter. Ozone is a nasty 
ingredient of urban smog, caused 
mostly by the effect of sunlight on auto- 
mobile engine exhaust. The NAAQS of 
greatest concern to the cane sugar indus- 
try is the tough new standard for ambi- 
ent air particulates (PM^^) that is incom- 
patible with normal agricultural activi- 
ties which cause dust or smoke. The fact 
that EPA had not, and has not been able 
to produce any credible scientific evi- 
dence that tougher standards will pro- 
duce tangible health or economic ben- 
efits, did not deter EPA, with the full 
backing of President Clinton, in promul- 
gating the unneeded tougher standards. 
Details of this unfortunate turn of events 
was described in the August 1997 issue 
of The Sugar Bulletin. 

The wheels of justice are sometimes 
painfully slow in turning, but turn they 
did in this case! In mid-May 1999, the 
U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of 
Columbia threw out EPA's new ozone 
and particulate matter rules. Surpris- 
ingly, the rules were junked on constitu- 
tional grounds as the ruling apparently 
did not address environmental necessity 
or lack thereof. The court held EPA un- 
lawfully usurped legislative powers by 
making laws instead of just enforcing 



them as provided by the Constitution. 
This ruling goes much further than 
merely dumping a senseless and eco- 
nomically debilitating rule, by saying 
that EPA and its environmentalist con- 
stituency do not have sacred and su- 
preme power over everything, a status 
they have claimed in recent years. Wash- 
ington, D.C. is now in turmoil, and there 
will surely be an appeal to the U.S. Su- 
preme Court. Congress could have, and 
should have set this matter straight a 
long time ago. 

Although the Appeals Court ruling 
means a delay or perhaps the demise of 
"PM^q" control rules, it does not solve 
the problems of smoke from sugar cane 
fields. The laws prohibiting smoke nui- 
sance, the laws allowing parishes and 
municipalities to control agricultural 
activities by zoning, restrictions, and 
civil statutes protecting individuals and 
their property from harm by others, all 
remain in force. Sugar cane farmers 
would be wise to use the opportunity 
afforded by the court's stay to work with 
neighbors to implement a smoke control 
program that allows cane field burning 
when and where no significant nuisance 
occurs, and to abstain from burning in 
the circumstances where nuisance po- 
tential is significant. If accomplished, 
there will be both legal and ethical bases 
to thwart those that hope to use a PM^^ 
standard as a tool to ban cane field burn- 
ing altogether. 



19 



I 



Protect your investment!!! 
(Plant cane) 










'No Roundup applied to fallow ground 




Roundup applied to fallow ground 



With ROUNDUP 
on Faliow Ground 




Dear growers. 

Now that LCP 85-384 has entered the Louisiana 
Sugarcane industry many changes taken place in your 
farming practices. One being we are keeping cane 
longer in the field. 

That's why more than ever before it is very impor- 
tant to do everything possible to protect your invest- 
ment (plant cane)! By spraying ROUNDUP on fallow 
ground it will allow your cane the cleanest start pos- 
sible. It is proven that Roundup applied on fallow 
ground will greatly reduce unwanted weeds such as 
Johnsongrass and Bermudagrass that may cause you to 
plow your cane out earlier than anticipated. Along the 
same lines, spraying ditch banks and the ends of rows 
with Roundup will also help aid in the reduction of the 
amount of weeds that spread across your fields. 

With less acres than normal to plant this year and a 
$10 /gal. reduction in the price of Roundup from 1998 
makes it even more economical to spray your fallow 
ground this year and go after some of those tough 
weeds that might cause you to plow out your cane early. 

Best of luck in the planting and harvesting of this 
1999 crop and thanks for all your support. 

Sincerely 
Ken Naquin 
Monsanto Co. 




20 



Biological Control of the Sugarcane Borer 
with Introduced Parasites in Louisiana 



BY W.H. White and T.E. Reagan 

USDA-ARS Southern Regional 

Research Center. Sugarcane 

Research Unit. Houma, LA and 

Department of Entomology. 

Louisiana State University. 

Agricultural Center. 

Baton Rouge. LA 

Introduction 

Biological control of insects means 
suppressing an insect pest with another 
insect or disease. Weed pests may also 
be controlled by biological means. The 
first reported success of biological con- 
trol in the U.S. involved the use of the 
Vedalia beetle predator to control the 
cottony-cushion scale on citrus in 1880. 
An example of a successful biological 
control program in sugarcane can be 
found here in the U.S. The parasite, 
Cotesia flavipes, released in the late 
1970s, successfully reduced the sugar- 
cane borer to below key pest status in the 
Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Bio- 
logical control is safe, permanent, and 
under most circumstances costs the 
grower nothing. In this article we will 
provide an abbreviated review of bio- 
logical control of the sugarcane borer in 
Louisiana sugarcane, report on recent 
League funded research, and discuss 
what we believe may be potential op- 
portunities for future biological control 
research in our industry. 



Historical Review 

In the sugarcane growing commu- 
nity, biological control plays an impor- 
tant role throughout the world sup- 
pressing many important insect pests. 
Entomologists associated with this in- 
dustry have all conducted biological 
control research in some form during 
their careers. 

Over the years research to establish 
new parasites of the sugarcane borer, to 
release large numbers of parasites al- 
ready established in our industry, or to 
enhance biological control with more 
sound pest management practices have 
received priority attention. 

A.L. Dugas, an early practitioner of 
biological control in the Louisiana in- 
dustry, was an advocate of releasing the 
parasitic wasp Trichogramma for con- 
trol of sugarcane borer. This minute 
wasp attacks the eggs of the sugarcane 
borer and instead of borer larvae emerg- 
ing, parasites emerge. Mr. Dugas and his 
associates released millions of the small 
parasites, but, unfortunately, this prac- 
tice proved ineffective and the effort was 
discontinued in the late 1950s. This para- 
site remains established in our cane 
fields and provides benefit to the indus- 
try by frequently parasitizing borer egg 
masses. Unfortunately, high levels of 
parasitism do not occur until late in the 
season when borer damage is no longer 
considered of economic importance. 

From 1915 to 1957 three parasitic flies 



were released repeatedly in Louisiana 
sugarcane fields. Only one, the Cuban 
fly, was established (i.e. the parasites 
sustain themselves from season to sea- 
son and do not require reintroduction). 
This fly gives birth to a live maggot that 
is laid at the opening of the borer tunnel. 
The maggot crawls down the tunnel, 
locates and attacks the borer larvae. 
During the 1970s, an intensive program 
was undertaken to mass release this in- 
sect in commercial fields. Although high 
levels of parasitism were achieved in 
some fields, substantial damage often 
occurred and insecticides were required 
to control these infestations. Possible 
explanations for lack of success with the 
Cuban fly included (1) mass releases 
were made over many small areas and 
the flies quickly dispersed to dilute 
parasite numbers and (2) the broad spec- 
trum insecticides being used to control 
the sugarcane borer at that time were 
also suppressing the parasites. 

Another parasite released and estab- 
lished in our industry is Alabagrus 
stigma. This medium-sized wasp at- 
tacks the borer larvae laying a single 
egg. The resulting parasite larva feeds 
on the borer larva killing it. This wasp 
has also become established in our in- 
dustry but its contribution to overall 
control of the borer is minimal. 

Review of League Supported 
Research 

In the last 10 years, attention has 
been turned to a group of wasp collec- 
tively referred to as Cotesia. These para- 
sites are important natural enemies of 
the stalk borers around the world. 
Cotesia flavipes (called Flavipes in our 
report) is an important parasite of the 
borer in Texas and Florida. Cotesia 
chilonis (called Chilonis in our report) 
had not been released in the U.S., but 
laboratory data suggested some promis- 



ing potential. Parasites of this group are 
considerably smaller than Alabagrus, 
but much larger than Trichogramma. 

The behavior of the Cotesia wasps is 
different from the other parasites re- 
leased in Louisiana sugarcane. The fe- 
male enters the borer tunnel, locates and 
stings the larvae. The female lays many 
eggs inside the larvae of the borer. A 
stung borer larva can produce more that 
40 Cotesia offspring. These parasites 
have not become established in Louisi- 
ana and are the focus of research to de- 
termine why they have not and what 
might be done to successfully establish 
them. 

Table 1 summarizes recent attempts 
to establish two species of Cotesia in our 
state. The American Sugarcane League's 
Dedicated Research Fund administered 
by the ASCL and the Louisiana Farm 
Bureau and supported by Louisiana 
sugarcane growers and processors, has 
provided approximately $50,000 for this 
project. These funds were primarily 
used to rear parasites and sugarcane 
borer hosts, but funds were also used to 
purchase supplies for releasing parasites 
into the field. 

Our first studies were based on the 
naive belief that these new parasites 
would easily adapt to Louisiana field 
conditions and become permanently 
established. This belief caused us to get 
ahead of ourselves and prematurely at- 
tempt studies releasing parasites at dif- 
ferent times of the year and at different 
population levels of the parasite. Para- 
sitism was erratic and field collection of 
larvae to assess spring establishment 
following release has not shown good 
results. Recently, we turned our atten- 
tion to identifying the species best 
adapted to Louisiana and what may be 
required to successfully establish a new 
parasite. Between 1993 to 1998 approxi- 
mately 200,000 parasites were reared 



22 



and released in 15 studies. Until last 
year, we only observed moderate levels 
of parasitism. In 1998 the levels of para- 
sitism averaged almost 40% in the re- 
lease areas. We are not certain why the 
level of parasitism was higher in 1998, 
but it may in some way be related to the 
unusually warm year. With the high 
level of parasitism in 1998, we are en- 
couraged that this spring we will find 
evidence that the parasites will have 
successfully overwintered. Field collec- 
tion of larvae will begin soon. 

Future Research 

Future opportunities in biological 
control for the Louisiana sugarcane in- 
dustry are: 1) importation of new spe- 
cies; 2) habitat management (or protec- 
tion) for native and released parasites; 
and 3) mass release of existing parasites. 
At this tinie, importation of new indi- 
viduals is not a high priority as we have 
much to do before moving beyond the 
Cotesia group. Other species of wasp 
and another fly of promising potential 
are available and may warrant importa- 
tion in the future. 

Habitat management is an area cur- 
rently emphasized. This includes pro- 
viding refuge areas for the establish- 
ment of new species. In 1998 we released 
our parasites in areas where cane was to 
be left standing over the winter and 
where we were able to reduce predation 
from fire ants. These refuges may be- 
come necessary throughout the industry 
in order assist in parasite establishment. 
Habitat management may also include a 
greater emphasis on using insecticides 
with selective toxicity (like Confirm^"^)^ 
that would have a minimum impact on 
the parasites. 

Mass release of parasites is a practice 



that also may justify further consider- 
ation. Cotesia has been a successful 
group for releasing by sugarcane indus- 
tries all over the world. How efficiently 
a parasite searches for its host and its 
reproductive potential are important 
biological considerations as entomolo- 
gist determine how best to exploit the 
potential benefits of a parasite. 

Flavipes has been released and es- 
tablished in Texas and Florida, but these 
two industries use the wasp differently. 
Colleagues at Texas A&M University 
suggest that Cotesia may not be an ap- 
propriate species for reducing high 
borer populations. The Texas data indi- 
cate that Cotesia (as a group) are effi- 
cient searchers of the borer, even at low 
borer populations, and are best adapted 
to reduce borer populations over an ex- 
tended period of time. In the Lower Rio 
Grande Valley of Texas it took Flavipes 
three to four years to reduce borer popu- 
lations below economic levels. Once the 
pest population was reduced, Flavipes 
was able to maintain it at low popula- 
tion levels throughout the industry and 
there has been no further need to make 
releases. Unfortunately, the Mexican rice 
borer invaded that industry in the 1980s. 
Flavipes is not an effective parasite of 
the Mexican rice borer and the Texas 
industry has searched extensively for 
parasites and other controls to help deal 
with this devastating stalk borer pest. 

In Florida, the United States Sugar 
Corporation mass rears and releases 
Flavipes into areas having a history of 
heavy borer pressure. By establishing 
high numbers of parasites early in the 
year, they hope to eliminate or at least 
reduce the need for insecticides. Because 
of what they see as a successful pro- 
gram, the company has expanded its 



^ The USD A neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of this product, and the use of the name by the 
USDA does not imply the approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable. 



23 



rearing effort to produce more parasites 
and release them more extensively. 

Whatever successes we may have in 
the future with biological control, it is 
important to keep in mind that in all 
likelihood no one control-tactic will be 
successful in preventing damaging in- 
festations of any insect pest. A multi-tac- 
tic approach that includes variety resis- 
tance, cultural practices, and the judi- 
cious use of insecticides will be the most 
effective and certainly the most perma- 
nent approach to season long control of 
a pest like the sugarcane borer. 



Acknowledgments 

We thank the American Sugarcane 
League of the USA, Inc. and the Louisi- 
ana Farm Bureau for supporting our ef- 
forts. We acknowledge the support of 
our colleges: Dr. J.W. Smith, Jr., Texas 
A&M University, College Station, TX, 
Dr. David G. Hall, US Sugar Corpora- 
tion, Clewiston, FL, and Dr. Omelio 
Sosa, Jr. USDA-ARS, Sugarcane Field 
Station, Canal Point, FL (retired). We 
also thank the numerous growers who 
graciously allowed us to conduct re- 
search on their farms. 



Table 1 

Summary of resent Cotesia releases in Louisiana sugarcane fields, 1993-98. 









Numbers 


Percent 


Year 


Parish 


Species 


released 


Parasitism^ 


1993 


St. John 


C. flavipes 


675 


15 


1994 


Assumption 


« 


2,100 







Lafourche 1 


(i 


2,280 







Lafourche 2 


« 


1,920 







Terrebonne 


« 


1,560 


4 




St. Mary 1 


u 


8,250 


7 




St. Mary 2 


u 


10,140 


12 




St. Mary 3 


a 


1,570 


12 


1996 


Terrebonne 


C. chilonis 


-2 





1997 


Terrebonne 


u 


32,000 


20 




Iberville 


a 


5,000^ 







Ascension 


u 


11,0003 





1998 


Terrebonne 


C. flavipes 


83,000 


27 




Iberville 


(t 


32,000 


55 




Ascension 


u 


11,000 


33 



' Parasitism is determined by collecting borer larvae from the field, placing larva on diet, and observ- 
ing if parasites emerge. 



^ Actual numbers are not known. 
3 Estimated numbers. 



24 



Your Trust Is Important To Us 

Confidence and trust in a financial institution 

is something that is earned. 

It starts with employees who are knowledgeable, qualified 

and dedicated to providing good service. 

At First South PCA your trust Is important to us. 




'^ 



Lester Simon 

New Iberia 
(318)364-0217 




;.^^".^> 



Harvey Gonsoulin 

Thibodaux 
(504) 446-9450 




First South PCA 

Agricultural Lender 



Give us a call 



25 



A WINNING COMBINATION FOR SUGARCANE 

I 
THIMET 20G and PROWL AT PLANTING 

I ' 




Use Thimet 20G L'NL on Plant Cane to 




CONTROL Wireworms and Increase Yields! 



Benefits of Using THIMET 20G UNL at Planting: 

• Closed Handling System - Safer for Grower and Environment (skin ab- 
sorption less to worry about than with liquid insecticide). 

• Increase Stalks per Acre - More Plants/ Acre! Key to increase second and 
third year production. 

• Cultural Practice that can Increase Stubble Longevity. 

• Cost/Acre is less than Furadan. 

• Returnable Containers Eliminate Disposal Problems. 

• Eliminates Mixing with Water and Stopped-up Spray Tips. 

• Less Soluble Under Heavy Rain Compared to Liquid Furadan. 

• Safe on Ants. 



Solubility of Soil Insecticides 

Insecticide Water Solubility (ppm) 

Phorate (Thimet) 50 

Carbofuran (Furadan) 700 

Furadan is a registered trademark ofFMC Corp. 



PRS&WL 



AT PLANTING 

3.3 EC herbicide 



Benefits of Using PROWL at Planting: 

• Controls Itchgrass, Seedling Johnsongrass, and Browntop Panicum. 

• Purchase your PROWL and THIMET 20G before August 31, 1999, to 
receive Best Price! 

• $4.00 gal. off PROWL till August 31, 1999! 



26 



WEED CONTROL AT PLANTING 

Get an Early Jump on Itchgrass and Other Tough 
Weeds with PROWL Herbicide 

Growers are planting sugarcane earlier than ever. This can allow weeds to 
germinate and establish if fields are left untreated at the time of planting. 
Since itchgrass is an annual grass, it can be eliminated from your sugar- 
cane fields if you can stop if from producing seed. For best results, treat 
your fields with PROWL at planting, in the spring, and again at layby. 

Use PROWL as the base for your grass weed control program to control 
itchgrass, seedling johnsongrass, brown top panicum, and annual grass. 



Planted Sugarcane Fields: 




Preemergence Chemical Options: 






- Rate/Acre 36 Inch Band - 


Herbicides Light 


Medium - Heavy 


Tank Mixes Soil 


Soils 


(Itchgrass, Seedling Johnsongrass, Browntop Panicum, Annual Grasses, Morningglory, 


Wintergrass, and Winter Broadleaves.) 




1. 


PROWL 2 qts. 


2 qts. 




+Sinbar 2/3 lb. 


3/4 lb. 


2. 


PROWL 2 qts. 


2 qts. 




+Lexone/Sencor 3/4 lb. 


3/4 lb. 


3. 


Prowl 2 qts. 


2 qts. 




+Atrazine 2 qts. 


2 qts. 


(Browntop Panicum, Seedling Johnsongrass, Annual Grasses, 


Morningglory, Wintergrass, 


and Winter Broadleaves.) 




1. 


PROWL 1.5 qts. 


1 .5 qts. 




+Sinbar 2/3 lb. 


3/4 lb. 


2. 


PROWL 1.5 qts. 


1 .5 qts. 




+Lexone/Sinbar 3/4 lb. 


3/4 lb. 


3. 


PROWL 1.5 qts. 


1 .5 qts. 




+Atrazine 2 qts. 


2 qts. 



^ 



Senear is a registered trademark of Bayer Corp. 

Sinbar and Lexone are registered trademarks ofDu Pont 

Prowl should be the 

tank mix partner 

for grass in your \^^ Marc A. Grabert 

sugarcane weed Sales Representative 

control program. qj^^^^, ^225) 927-9331 

* Always read and follow label directions Pager: (225) 352-5709 



Ql7 




HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE 
SEEDLING JOHNSONGRASS 

TO TURN INTO 
RHIZOME JOHNSONGRASS? 

3 WEEKS! 




PROWL 2 QT./ACRE BANDED 

LOOKS GOOD 

BUT, A BROADCAST APPLICATION WOULD LOOK BETTER! 

BROADCAST APPLICATIONS OF PROWL CONTROL: 

• SEEDLING JOHNSONGRASS - 1 .5-2 QT./ACRE 

• ITCHGRASS - 3-4 QT/ACRE 

• BROWNTOP PANICUM - 1 .5-2 QT/ACRE 

• ANNUAL GRASS - 1 .5-2 QT./ACRE 



28 



Ratoon Stunting Disease Testing: 
1998 Results and Plans for 1999 



BY J. W. Hoy, L. B. Grelen 

AND J. Q. PaCCAMONTI 

Department of Plant Pathology 

AND Crop Physiology 

LSU Agricultural Center 

Testing for ratoon stunting disease 
(RSD) was conducted as part of 
the Sugarcane Disease Detection 
Lab for a second year during 1998. RSD 
was monitored on commercial farms, in 
the Sugarcane Variety Selection and Re- 
lease programs, in the local quarantine 
to provide source material for tissue 
culture of seedcane, and at all levels of 
Kleentek^ seedcane production (Table 
1). RSD testing was conducted for grow- 
ers in 15 parishes. The number of farms 
participating was 53, and the total num- 
ber of fields tested was 173. These totals 
are 66% and 78% higher than the respec- 
tive totals for testing during 1997. 
County agents collected 66% of the 
grower field samples, and consultants 
collected the other 34%. 

The results of RSD testing of grower 
sugarcane fields were different in 1998 
than in the first year of testing. The num- 
ber of farms on which at least one field 
tested had some level of RSD infection 
decreased from 81% in 1997 to 34% in 
1998, and the total incidence of fields 
with some level of RSD infection de- 
creased from 55% to 17%. During 1997, 
the average infection level per field 
showed a typical increase for each crop 
cycle year, but during 1998, average field 
infection levels were low for plant cane, 
first and second ratoon (Table 2). An in- 



crease in infection level was only de- 
tected in older ratoon crops. RSD infec- 
tion levels were low across all crop cycle 
years combined for fields planted with 
cane obtained from heat-treatment or 
Kleentek, but the average infection level 
was highest for fields planted with cane 
not recently obtained from a healthy 
seedcane program (Table 3). Test results 
provided to growers for individual 
fields come with an infection severity 
rating that indicates the possible effect of 
the detected infection level on yield. 
Ninety-seven percent of the Kleentek 
progeny fields tested had either no RSD 
detected or slight infection (Table 4). The 
percentage of fields of heat-treated prog- 
eny and cane not recently obtained from 
a healthy seedcane program in the same 
categories were 84% and 85%, respec- 
tively (Table 4). However, 15% of the 
fields of cane not obtained from a 
healthy seedcane program were in the 
severe and very severe infection catego- 
ries. 

Factors that may have resulted in 
lower RSD infection levels during 1998 
were an increase in the proportion of 
fields tested that were LCP 85-384, 
which increased from 34% to 59% of the 
total, and an increase in the proportion 
of fields that were Kleentek progeny, 
which increased from 54% to 72% of the 
total. The results suggest that progress is 
being made in overall control of RSD in 
the industry through increased planting 
of a variety with greater resistance to 
spread of RSD (LCP 85-384) and healthy 
seedcane programs. In only the second 
year of the RSD testing service, it may be 
that progressive growers compose a siz- 



29 



able portion of the total number partici- 
pating. However, the results indicate 
that it is possible to achieve effective 
control of RSD. Growers that do not 
have an active healthy seedcane pro- 
gram need to be encouraged to test their 
fields for RSD. Efforts will continue to 
increase participation in RSD testing to 
insure that accurate estimates of indus- 
try RSD infection levels will be obtained. 
The Sugarcane Disease Detection 
Lab was also established to insure that 
healthy material is used to initiate the 
production of seedcane through tissue 
culture and to then provide an indepen- 
dent assessment of the RSD infection 
status of Kleentek seedcane. The 
Kleentek seedcane production system 
was monitored for disease at four stages. 
All initial plant material obtained from 
the LSU and USDA-ARS breeding pro- 
grams to start Foundation stock plants 
for tissue culture was tested for RSD, 
leaf scald, and yellow leaf virus; heat- 
treated; maintained in a local quarantine 
greenhouse at LSU for six months; re- 
tested for RSD, leaf scald, and yellow 
leaf; and given a second heat-treatment. 
All established Foundation stock plants 
maintained in a Kleentek greenhouse 
that serve as the source for tissue culture 
were tested for RSD, leaf scald and yel- 
low leaf. Fifty-two fields were tested for 
RSD on the Kleentek primary increase 
farms, and 23 fields were tested for RSD 
on the Kleentek secondary increase 
farms (Table 1). No RSD was detected at 
any stage of Kleentek seedcane produc- 
tion. An additional source of commercial 
seedcane produced through tissue cul- 
ture is available. However, very little 
RSD testing of Cleanseed"^ seedcane by 
the Sugarcane Disease Detection Lab has 
been conducted. During 1998, growers 
submitted samples from three fields of 
Cleanseed seedcane on farms, and no 
RSD was detected in any of those fields. 



Plans for 1999 

Two different RSD detection meth- 
ods, the dot-blot and tissue-blot en- 
zyme-immunoassays, were adapted for 
use in the Sugarcane Disease Detection 
Lab during 1998. The tissue-blot method 
is the most sensitive RSD detection 
method available. During Fall 1999, the 
current method, evaporative-binding 
enzyme-immunoassay (EB-EIA), and 
the tissue-blot method will both be used 
for RSD testing. The EB-EIA requires 
that xylem (water-vessel) sap be col- 
lected from stalks in the field, whereas 
two-node sections from the base of 
stalks will be brought to the lab for pro- 
cessing with the tissue-blot. This means 
field sampling will be easier with the 
tissue-blot, but collected stalks must be 
quickly delivered to the lab. Advanced 
scheduling will be necessary to insure 
that the lab staff does not receive more 
samples at one time than can be pro- 
cessed. The advantage with EB-EIA is 
that samples from multiple fields can be 
frozen for delivery to the lab at a later 
time. Both methods will now be offered 
to provide a choice to growers. County 
Agents, and consultants. 

In extensive testing conducted at the 
LSU Agricultural Center and at the 
USDA-ARS-SRRC Sugarcane Research 
Unit at Houma by Dr. Mike Grisham, the 
RSD detection accuracy during the har- 
vest season was 91% for the currently 
used method (EB-EIA) and 96% for the 
method to be added to the testing ser- 
vice this year (tissue-blot). These levels 
of detection accuracy have allowed us to 
finally offer a testing service to the in- 
dustry. However, the tests are not fool- 
proof, and errors can and probably do 
occur at a low frequency. If a grower has 
questions about results, a second detec- 
tion method will be used to confirm the 
first results, or the field in question will 
be re-sampled. This lab operation is 



30 



dedicated to serving the sugarcane in- 
dustry, so any problem that occurs will 
be resolved to the best of our ability. 

The purpose of the RSD testing ser- 
vice for growers is to provide them with 
the ability to monitor our most impor- 
tant disease and make sure their healthy 
seedcane programs are working as in- 
tended. Testing for growers will begin 
during mid-September. The recommen- 
dation will still be to collect 20 stalks 
across the end of a field. The service will 
continue to be operated on a fee basis. A 
fee of $1 per stalk payable by check will 
be charged to cover the operating ex- 
penses of the lab. Sample collection can 
be accomplished with the assistance of 
either your County Agent or consultant. 
They also can provide advice on what 
fields to sample and help to interpret the 
test results. Questions directly ad- 
dressed to the lab concerning sampling 
and interpretation of results are also 
welcome. 

The 1998 testing results suggest 
progress is being made in reducing the 
impact of RSD on the Louisiana sugar- 
cane industry. This means that growers 
should continue to obtain and grow 
healthy seedcane. If you are winning a 



war, continue what you are doing-do 
not stop. The industry has always 
wanted to be able to test seedcane 
sources during August, but the detec- 
tion methods are not sensitive enough to 
be reliable at that time. In addition, it is 
difficult to guarantee a quick return of 
test results to allow immediate planting 
decisions to be made. However, if a 
grower is using Kleentek for their 
healthy seedcane program, then the test- 
ing currently being done of Kleentek 
seedcane sources is accomplishing the 
goal of seedcane testing. The RSD test- 
ing service can then be used by growers 
in a "quality control" approach to test 
stubble fields of cane intended for the 
mill to make sure RSD is not being intro- 
duced and perpetuated on the farm. 

Historically, RSD has caused serious, 
often unrecognized, losses to the Louisi- 
ana sugarcane industry. To continue to 
remain competitive in a world market, 
this cannot be allowed to continue. It is 
apparent that an effective healthy 
seedcane program will control RSD. Dis- 
ease monitoring is a key component of 
an effective program. All growers are 
urged to take advantage of the RSD test- 
ing service during 1999. 



Table 1 

1998 RSD testing summary 







No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


Source 


Location 


fields 


varieties 


stalks 


La. Growers 


Statewide 


173 


9 


3068 


LSUAC 


St. Gabriel & Iberia 


- 


7 


112 


Variety Increase Program 


Primary & secondary 


4 


3 


80 


Kleentek 


Foundation stock 


- 


11 


87 


Kleentek 


Increase farms 


52 


8 


1199 


Kleentek 


Secondary farms 


23 


6 


532 


Local Quarantine 


LSUAC 


- 


22 


62 


Research & 










Procedure Testing 


USDA-ARS Ardoyne 


- 


- 


1130 


Totals 




252 


— 


6270 



31 



Table 2 

RSD testing summary by crop cycle year for 1997-98 



Crop cycle year 



No. 
1997 


of fields 
1998 


Average infection (%) 
1997 1998 


34 


82 


7 


2 


25 


49 


12 


3 


20 


22 


21 


1 


15 


12 


13 


18 



Plant cane 
1st stubble 
2nd stubble 
Older 



Table 3 

1998 RSD testing summary by healthy seedcane program 



Treatment 



No. of fields 



Average infection (%) 



Heat-treated 
Kleentek" 
Cleanseed" 
Unknown 



19 

113 

3 

21 



Table 4 

1998 RSD testing by healthy seedcane program and detected disease severity. 



Healthy 


Percentage of fields in different disease severity categories 


Total 


seedcane 


None 


Slight 


Moderate 


Severe 


Very 


no. of 


program 


detected 


infection 


infection 


infection 


severe 


fields 


Heat-treated 68 


16 


16 








19 


Kleentek" 


87 


10 


2 


1 





113 


Unknown 


80 


5 





5 


10 


21 



32 



The Changing Face 
of Sugarcane IPM 



BY Dr. Dale K. Pollet, Specialist 

LSU Agricultural Center 

Louisiana Cooperative Extension 

Service 

These days one has to really watch 
what is going on in the sugarcane 
industry, at least from the pest 
management side. We are continually 
expanding into new areas and even into 
neighboring states. New or modified 
programs and best management prac- 
tices (BMP's), new harvesters, and even 
new pesticides that are more environ- 
mentally and applicator friendly are all 
a part of this changing face. Addition- 
ally, there are new varieties of pesticides 
that will help the sugar producers be- 
cause they are more susceptible to the 
control of the sugarcane borer. Also, the 
potential for the introduction of the 
Mexican rice borer is involved in this 
changing face. 

BMP's have been rewritten and 
modified. This has caused growers some 
concern that these are rules to enforce 
and follow strictly. Wrong! As of now, 
they are simply suggestions for the 
growers to consider when they make 
changes in their field management pro- 
grams. Many of the ideas listed in the 
BMP's are improved modifications of 
some of the programs each of you are 
currently using. These suggestions will 
help you to improve your programs, 
and help to reduce the potential for 
problems with the environment, pro- 
duction, soil management and human 
safety. 

Some of the growers have begun a 
program of recycling sugarcane by- 



products. Composting has the potential 
to improve soil structure through or- 
ganic input adding some nutritional 
value and improving water-holding ca- 
pacity or drainage. Improvement of the 
soil promotes the growth of various 
microorganisms which can assist in con- 
trolling some weeds, diseases, insects, 
and facilitates the development of better 
root systems which will lead to better 
plant growth and development. Recy- 
cling also helps to remove and to use 
these by-products rather than to have 
them pile up and occupy space that 
could be used more efficiently by the 
refineries. 

Scouting is an effective tool in the 
overall pest management program, and 
the program uses thresholds as a mea- 
sure of need for treatment. Always 
evaluate before you make any insecti- 
cide application. A mistake may cost 
you more than once and in different 
ways. The use of consultants and grow- 
ers to check fields has reduced indis- 
criminate spraying and the potential for 
development of resistance or tolerance. 
This has been further enhanced by the 
rotation of pesticide sprays and the ad- 
justment of the water pH to give better 
knockdown, residual and control. Scout- 
ing allows for the utilization of natural 
and introduced predators and parasites 
to effectively aid our management pro- 
gram, and to further reduce the need to 
spray. Although we have only one pri- 
mary pest in sugarcane, the sugarcane 
borer, there are several minor pests to be 
monitored: wireworms, yellow sugar- 
cane aphrds, sugarcane beetles, and 
lesser corn stalk borers. There is concern 
that the Mexican rice borer will become 



33 



a pest, due to the westward expansion of 
sugarcane production, and the planting 
of sugarcane across the river in Texas. 
Close checking, trapping, and identifica- 
tion of suspect borers will help to moni- 
tor this potential pest. 

Questions about the litter left in the 
fields needs further exploration. Will 
this create a problem with borers, im- 
prove fire ants numbers, retard plant 
growth, improve plant growth, or create 
other secondary pest problems? Or 
could the decaying biomass possibly 
assist by adding organic matter, nutri- 
tion and freeze protection? What is the 
value of plant cover or other crops on 
the fallow land? Can this help to: reduce 
soil loss, build soil structure, increase the 
soil's water-holding capacity or improve 
drainage, reduce soil insects or diseases, 
add to the soil's nutrition reducing fertil- 
izer needs, improve soil structure, and 
possibly create another source of income 
we have been overlooking? Like the 




Ask your Land 
Bank Association 

about... financing 
to buy land or 
improve your farm. 



Most Louisiana farmers today are 
looking at ways to increase their 
productivity... buy or improve 
land... build new facilities. 

Whatever specific needs you have, 
your Land Bank Association can 

provide long-term credit to help. 

If you've got plans that need 
financing, see the people at the Land 
Bank Association to discuss our 
various loan options. 

Federal Land Bank Association 
of South Louisiana 



Opelousas 
(318) 942-1461 

Port Allen 
(225) 344-2691 



1^ 



BMP's, the answers to these questions 
must be made on a farm-by-farm basis. 
No one thing can be the "silver bullet" to 
all, but combinations of two or more 
concepts or ideas could make a very big 
difference in the bottom line. 

What we are talking about is SUS- 
TAINABLE AGRICULTURE, the con- 
cept of using all the tools in our toolbox 
to produce the most economical crop 
possible. We must make these deci- 
sions/observations not only on a daily 
basis, but for the long-term. Each of our 
decisions must have an additive effect 
on our production so we will produce 
the best crop possible with low or mini- 
mal input. It is a total MANAGEMENT 
program that no matter how much the 
face changes, the goal is always the 
same. So if your management program 
is not what you think it should be, or the 
bottom line is too low, and maybe it is 
time to consider other management 
techniques to sustain your operation. 



Cane Tractor Parts 



We ship and locate 
parts nationwide. 



Toll Free: -^^ 
1-800-259-3453 /^ 








Farm Tractors 
and Equipment. 
New, Used and 
Rebuilt Parts. 



New, Used and Rebuilt Hi crop 

and Row Crop Tractor Parts 

and Hard-To-Find Parts. 

Best prices on bush hogs, 

box blades, post hole diggers 

and many other 3 point hitch implements. 



(318) 276-3453 • 276-6230 • Fax: 276-9232 
12617 E. Hwy. 90 - Jeanerette, LA 



34 



CLASSIFIEDS 



OR. SALE 



• 1997 Cameco Combine, 1200 
hrs., new tracks & undercar- 
riage. All repairs made, ready to 
cut. Call Northside PItg. at (318) 
828-2188. 

• Family Farm equipment: 1997 2- 
row Broussard Harvester, 

cab/air, extended front end, 
extended piling gate, JD power. 
1993 2-row Broussard Har- 
vester, cab/air, extended front 
end, extended piling gate, JD 
power. Both ready and repaired. 
6 sets Direct Haul Chain Net 
Wagons, 13.6 x 24 grader tires. 
Call (318) 365-5036 night or 
day or (318) 373-7791 and ask 
for Thomas. 

• 1992 S-30 Cane Cutter, excel- 
lent condition - $30,000. Call 
(318)365-3453. 

• 2 Hearne Automatic Cane 
Planters. Call Kent Soileau at 
(318) 838-2459 (day) or (318) 
838-2265 (night). 



• 1972 Thompson Cane Cutter 

with large JD engine and front 
wheel assist - $5,000; 3-row 
Bottom Plow with 3 pt. hitch 
and gauge wheels - $400; 6' 
Case End Row Flat Chopper 
(parts only) - $100; 1990 Case/ 
Int'l 5120 Maxum, 3490 hrs. - 
$22,500. Call Randy Gonsoulin 
at (318) 365-0014. 

• JD 4455 MFWD, 4,842 hours; 
JD 7400 Hi-Crop MFWD w/low 
profile tank & rack, 4,900 
hours; Int'l 1086 Hi-Crop w/ 
tank& rack; 1394 Case 
MFWD; 1993 Cameco CHT 
2500 Chopper Harvester; 
Broussard Single Row 
Harvester; 1981 Thompson 
Single Row Harvester; (1) 
Quality Hi-Dump Wagon; (1) 
Cameco Hi-Dump Wagon; (2) 
Tandem Axle Transloader 
Wagons; Midland 21' Disk w/ 
hydraulic fold wings. Call (225) 
937-0846 (day) or (225) 627- 
9577 (evenings - 6pm-9pm), 
ask for David Jarreau. 



• 1986 2-row Broussard Cane 
Cutter w/cab & air - $59,000. 3 
Whole Stalk Row Trailers - 

$3,500 each. Call Paul 
Gremillion, Bunkie, LA at (318) 
346-6406 

• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2- 
row Harvester. Call Roland 
Bourgeois, Vacherie at (225) 
265-4452 (leave a message). 



• 1983 Cameco 2-row Har- 
vester, JD engine, new hydrau- 
lics, field ready - $45,000; 
Broussad 1-row Loader - 

$20,000. Call (318) 346-2756 
(noon or evening) or (318) 346- 
2166 (evenings). 



CLASSIFIEDS, continue on page 36 



35 



A S S 1 F I E D S 



FOR. SALE 



continued from page 35 

• 1985 2-row Broussard Cutter, 

cab & air - $60,000. WILL 
TRADE FOR SINGLE-ROW 
CUTTER. Trailer for transport- 
ing cane combine - $6,000. 
Call (318) 346-7385. 

• 1993 Cameco S30 4-wheel 
drive cane cutter, cab & air, 
excellent condition - $45,000; 
J & L 4-wheel Drive Field 

Loader, cab & air -$10,000; 
Drott 40 Excavator, rubber 
tires, 4-wheel drive, cane grab 
& bucket - $20,000. Call 
Jimmy Jarreau at (225) 637- 
4873. 

• 8 - New 20x42 R-2 Firestone 
tires - $800 each 

2-1995 Peerless Chip Trailer 

42' -$15,500 each 
2-1988 Peerless Chip Trailer 

42' - $8,500 each 
Call (318) 879-7932 (W) leave 
message. 

• 1997 2-row LaCane Harvester 

(last 2-row built), 375 hp, 4- 
wheel drive. Call Gonsoulin 
Farms at (318) 364-5885. 

• (2) 7-ton Hydraulic Hi-dump 
Cane Carts - $12,000 each; 
(4) 10-ton Hydraulic Hi-dump 
Cane Carts - $16,000 each; all 
(318)876-3477. 



• Broussard Cane Loader with 
chain pilar and backhoe; 3 
Tandum Cane Wagons with 
60 ton Army Hitches, extra 
wheels and hubs; 18-Wheeler 
quick hitch on rear end with 
tongue used to pull trailers. 
CallRussellJudiceat(318) 
394-4727. 

• JD 2750 Mudder; recondi- 
tioned engine and hydraulic 
system -$10,000. Call (504) 
233-0002 (pager) or (225) 673- 
4583 (home). 

• 1983 Single-row Broussard 
Harvester, double ends & 
scroll, CAT 3208 engine, New 
18-4-38 tires, with pulling 
wheel, shredder topper - 
$20,000; JD 4840 with new 
trans & engine overhauled in 
'97 -$14,000; 856 Hi-Clear- 
ance Int'l - $2,500; 3-row 
Bottom Type Plow Int'l, heavy 
duty and gauge wheels - 
$3,500; 4-row JD style with 
gauge wheels and cyclers - 
$3,500; JD 4240, Hi-clearance 
1981; 1 front mount spray rig 
with 200-gal. tank -$100; JD 
Disk Plow, heavy duty, 17' - 
$2,000; Rolling Cultivator, 
Lilliston, 4-row - $250; Rolling 
Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row - 
$75; Int'l 3-row Chopper - 

$1 ,000; 3 one-row shavers - 
best offer. Call Damiam Pierre 
at (318) 229-6932. 



36 



General Farm Manager Needed 

Work Description: 

Day to day sugarcane production management of large expanding operation. 

Work Requirements: 

1. Willingness to relocate. 

2. Willingness to do hands on work and supervision. 

3. Minimum of five years farm management experience. 

4. Experienced with machinery and fabrication. 

Company Offerings: 

1. Salary - Depends on experience. 

2. A company vehicle. 

3. Paid vacation. 

4. Uniforms. 

5. Profit sharing. 



Send resume to: 



Personnel Department 
2513 E. Admiral Doyle 
New Iberia, LA 70560 



^^ 



BROUSSARD 

CANE EQUIPMENT 



Cane 

Contractors 

Inc. 






Chopper Type 
Cane Harvesters 



Wholestalk 
Cane Harvesters 



High Dump Wagons Cane Loaders 



Contract Harvesting 

with Chopper 

Harvesters 



Sales ♦ Service ♦ Parts 

Vernon Manufacturing, Inc. 



P.O. Box 2650 • Parks, LA 70582 • Phone (318) 845-5080 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 



StRlALS DEPT 

LOUISIANA STATE UNiv 

LIBRARY -^^ 

BATON ROUGE LA 70803 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
PERMIT NO. 43 



Volume 77, No. 11 



August 1999 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



HIS ISSUE 



Up Front With the League 3 

by Charlie Melancon 

ASSCT Shows Support for Young Sugarcane Technologists 5 

Washington Update 7 

by Don Wallace 

Farm Notes 12 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Baton Rouge Line 15 

by Tom Spradley, with Spradley and Spradley 

Environmental Perspective 17 

by James F. Coerver, P.E., with G.E.C., Inc. 

Classifieds 19 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit 

organization. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year. 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 

The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those 

of the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of 

the advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



4' 



* 



The Sugar Bulletin 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon /Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson /Senior Agronomist ^ ■ 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist 

John Constant /Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens/Secretary 

Paul G. Borron Ill/Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
499 South Capitol Street, S.W. 
Suite 600 

Washington, D.C. 20003 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Office 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy, Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Jackie Theriot, St. Martinville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles }. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 
David Allain, Jeanerette, La. 
J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 
Branan B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 
Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 
Grady Bubenzer, Bunkie, La. 
Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 
Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 
John I'. Gay, I'laquemine, La. 
Ronald Gonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 
Dean Gravois, Vacheric, La. 
George "Scrap" Hymel, (iramercy. La. 
Jackie Judice, New Iberia, La. 
Robert "Bobby" Judice, I'ranklin, La. 
Buckley Kessler, White Castle, La. 
Wilson LeBlanc, Jeanerette, La. 
A. J. "Brother" I A-lkiurgeois, Baldwin, La. 
Lawrence "Boo" Ix>vert III, St. Martinville, 
Chris Mattingly, I'aincourtville, La. 
Jerome "Jerry" McKee, Thibodaux, La. 



La. 



Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 
Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Pa tout, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Roscdale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labaciieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Lranklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Prank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Tommy Thibodeaux, New Iberia, La. 
Carlton Townsend, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel V. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald L. Wood, St. James, La. 



hill 



DOES IT REflLLY nffTTER? 



/ I' 




'9 



Some farmers may not think it matters where they buy their Hi-Dump Wagons. 

YES, it really does make a difference for those who plan to stay in business here in 
Louisiana. When you choose to purchase Hi-Dump wagons from QUALITY INDUSTRIES, you 
are choosing to KEEP EQUIPMENT PRICES DOWN. Quality Industries is a competitive company 
that has been involved in the sugarcane industry for over 50 years. 

Our recent focus on billet cane transportation needs resulted in the production of equipment 
exceeding the industry's standards, while keeping prices reasonable. 

As we continue to strive towards excellence, we hope that the increased PERFORMANCE, 
EFFICIENCY AND DURABILITY in our products will continue to help both the mill and 
individual farmers better their bottom line profits. 

We want to sincerely thank all of you who have been supporting Quality and those who 
continue to place their trust and confidence in us. It is greatly appreciated. 



iiill'liffflf 


»^_ 


~1 




y^r^ 








KiJ 


iM 


m 









'For Proven Performance & Durability' 
FOLLOW THE LEADER! 



Tony CoUinson 



^ma/<^M^ INDUSTRIES, INC. 
(504) 447-4021 • (800) 447-8403 • (504) 447-4028 - Fax 




Ask your Land Bank 
Association about... 
financing to buy land or 
improve your farm. 



Most Louisiana farmers today are looking at ways to increase their 
productivity... buy or improve land... build new facilities. 

Whatever specific needs you have, your Land Bank Association 
can provide long-term credit to help. 

If you've got plans that need financing, see the people at the Land 
Bank Association to discuss our various loan options. 



LAND BANK 
G^jjociafioft 



Federal Land Bank Association 
of South Louisiana 
Opelousas Port Allen 

(318) 942-1461 (225) 344-2691 



EQUAL HOUSING 

LENDER 



ia^^^. 






BROUSSARD 

CANE EQUIPMENT 



Cane 

Contractors 

Inc. 



Chopper Type 
Cane Harvesters 



Wholestalk 
Cane Harvesters 



High Dump Wagons Cane Loaders 



Contract Harvesting 

with Chopper 

Harvesters 



Sales ♦ Service ♦ Parts 

Vernon Manufacturing, Inc. 



P.O. Box 2650 • Parks, LA 70582 • Phone (318) 845-5080 



P FROM 



LEAGUE 



BY Charlie Melancon 



Working Together for Success 



Charles Dickens wrote in A Tale of 
Two Cities, ''it was the best of 
times, it was the worst of times/' 
How aptly that applies to the situation 
this industry faces with the advent of the 
variety "384." It is obvious that this va- 
riety is just what the doctor would have 
ordered for an industry that longed for 
increased efficiency in terms of more 
pounds of sugar per acre. It quickly 
raised the production averages for Loui- 
siana growers. Why, when I started with 
the League some six and a half years 
ago, we were producing 25 tons of cane 
with 4,961 pounds of sugar per acre, av- 
erage. My first year, 1993, the state set a 
record for production of sugar. That 
record has been beaten in one way or 
another every year since then. Then this 
past year, the state's industry, in a low 
sugar-yielding year, again set a new 
record. This year, 1999, with good 
weather conditions continuing, could 
bring a crop for grinding at what ap- 
pears to be no less than 14 million tons. 
This is certainly the best of times? Wel-1- 
1-1? Some mills lost money last year, and 
with a record crop. How so you say? 

In the late 1940s, as the state was 
going from clean, hand cut cane to me- 
chanically harvested cane, many mills in 
the state began having this same prob- 
lem. Profitability was lacking. The mills 
were choking with "trash." Pleas were 
made to the growers of that time to bring 
good, clean cane to the mills. Six mills 
shut down in that period. Sugar is not 
held in the top and leaves of the plant, 
nor is sugar found in the dirt brought in 
with the cane. The same applies now. It 
is estimated that possibly an extra 10% 
trash was brought in statewide last har- 



vest season. At 14 million tons to be pro- 
cessed, that means that approximately 
1.4 million tons of "matter" would be 
sent through processing facilities. In 
relative terms that means that a mill 
(theoretical) processing 14,000 tons daily 
for 100 days would produce no sugar, 
which equated to producing no money. 
My point is this. Growers cannot sur- 
vive without processing facilities, nor 
can processing facilities survive without 
growers. It is a symbiotic relationship. I 
am aware that some growers have this 
love-hate relationship with their mill, 
but the truth still remains that you can't 
have one without the other. And right 
now, the growers of this state need every 
ton of milling capacity it can muster to 
grind this crop. I have said it on many 
occasions, this is not a billet cane-whole 
stalk cane issue. It also isn't a grower- 
mill issue. It is an entire industry issue, 
and it is about EVERYONE in the busi- 
ness having the opportunity to be prof- 
itable. I was hired for the purpose of 
keeping the Louisiana industry in busi- 
ness. That, I believe, is technically my 
abbreviated job description. I will con- 
tinue to do the best that I can do on your 
behalf; however, each and every mem- 
ber of the sugar industry has a responsi- 
bility to do their utmost best. Growers, 
please do your best to bring clean qual- 
ity cane for processing. It's in your best 
interest! Think about it. 

Cane Burning BMPs 

I have asked Charley Richard to at- 
tempt to draft new BMPs for burning 
(standing) cane. It is my hope that we 
might get this out to growers prior to 
this fall's harvest which is scheduled to 



begin at some mills (as I understand) on 
or about September 22nd. This will be 
another new record. The earliest start for 
grinding. Charley will be working with 
LSU, the Louisiana Department of Agri- 
culture, DEQ and others to get this task 
accomplished as quickly as possible. 
Which brings me to the subject of 
''COMMUNICATING WITH THE PUB- 
LIC." If you haven't begun to phone or 
meet with those people living around 
your fields, you still have time. To my 
knowledge, the growers in this state, 
because of favorable weather condi- 
tions, went to lay-by early, and some 
indicated they didn't know just what to 
do with themselves. Well, may I suggest 
that beginning to establish a rapport 
with those home and business owners 
early on may relieve you of a lot of head- 
ache and heartache during harvest. Your 
apologies won't do as much good as 
early, positive communication. Please 



seize the opportunity. NOW! 

Industry Study 

The League has sent Request For 
Proposal (RFP) to three national /inter- 
national firms. Hopefully, the study 
committee will be able to select and have 
the consultant begin the project by the 
end of July. It is the committee's desire to 
have this study as fully complete as pos- 
sible by the end of this year, if not earlier. 
I will keep you posted on its progress. 



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Thibodaux 



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Thibodaux 



ASSCT Shows Support for 
Young Sugarcane Technologists 



The Louisiana division of the 
American Society of Sugarcane 
Technologists (ASSCT) has 
launched a new program to help junior 
and high school scholars discover the 
many benefits of sucrose to the world of 
science and technology In an effort to 
heighten awareness of sugar's impor- 
tance, the ASSCT will each year sponsor 
an award in both the junior and senior 
division at the state Science and Engi- 
neering Fair. At this year's event, held 
on April 15-17 on LSU campus all sugar 
(sucrose) related projects were judged 
by a panel of experts. Cash awards were 
eligible to junior and senior division 
projects with sugar related themes. The 
projects judged to be the best were: 
Senior division winner Mary Anne 



Wegenhoft won a $250 cash award with 
her project entitled "Comparative 
Composting of Sugar Cane Bagasse Us- 
ing Filter Press Mud and Commercial 
Fertilizer as a Nitrogen Source.'' Her 
teacher/ advisor was Mrs. Linda 
Messina was also presented with a $100 
cash award to be used for educational 
supplies at St. Joseph's Academy, Baton 
Rouge, La. 

Junior division winner Jeanne Caire 
won a $150 cash award with her project 
entitled "What Effect Does Bagasse 
Have on Moisture Retention for Soil in 
Arid Climates." Her teacher/ advisor 
Mrs. Cally Chauvin was also presented 
with a $100 cash award to be used for 
educational supplies at J.B. Martin 
Middle School, Paradis, La. 








Mr. Manolo Garcia, President of the Louisiana Division of the American Society of Sugarcane 
Technologists, presents a $250 cash award to Senior Division winner Mary Anne Wegenhoft. Also 
pictured is Mary Anne's teacher/advisor, Mrs. Linda Messina, who received a $100 cash award to 
be used for educational supplies. 



THE DIFFERENCE 
IS NOW 

CRYSTAL ^jMC^ 

CLEAN 




Cane Harvesting x\ Equipment 



LEMANN*S 

Farm Supply, Inc. 

Dofiaidsofivillc Thibodaux 

(225) 473-7927 (504) 447-3776 



Ask about 
Case Creat 
rmancina 



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WASH 



UPDATE 



BY Don Wallace 



Senate Waits to Consider Agriculture Spending Bill 



Efforts in the Senate to debate the 
FY 2000 agriculture appropria- 
tions bill have been sidetracked 
while Republicans and Democrats fight 
over a Democratic health insurance 
measure. The controversy concerning 
the Democratic sponsored "Patients' Bill 
of Rights'' has delayed Senate consider- 
ation of other appropriation bills, as 
well, prompting many observers to 
question whether legislators will be able 
to complete work on all thirteen spend- 
ing bills without having to resort to an 
omnibus spending package before the 
fall adjournment. 

Senate leaders originally hoped to 
finish work on the agriculture measure 
before the Fourth of July recess, with a 
House-Senate conference to follow. The 
House passed its version of the spend- 
ing bill in early June. However, shortly 
after discussion of agriculture spending 
began on the Senate floor. Democrats of- 
fered their health insurance bill as an 
amendment, reigniting a dispute with 
Republicans that had lingered since ear- 
lier in the spring. Republican efforts to 
push aside the amendment without a 
vote on it were unsuccessful, forcing the 
Senate to recess without further substan- 
tive work on either agriculture spending 
or the health insurance amendment. A 
compromise between party leaders al- 
lowed a separate debate regarding 
health insurance to begin upon the law- 
makers' return, after July 4th. 



As the Sugar Bulletin goes to press, 
the Senate has not yet returned to its 
consideration of the agriculture spend- 
ing bill. Another update will be included 
in next month's edition. 

WASDE Forecasts Increased 
Production 

The U.S. Department of Agriculture 
has released the World Agricultural 
Supply and Demand Estimates 
(WASDE) for July, and has raised its pro- 
jections of both domestic output and 
consumption. The ending stocks-to-use 
ratio is 14.5%. 

Estimated production for the current 
year is now 8.226 million short tons, raw 
value, up 100,000 tons from last month's 
report. All of the increase is attributed to 
higher beet output, which should reach 
4.375 million tons. Cane production for 
this year is estimated to be 3.851 million 
tons. Estimates of consumption are in- 
creased by 50,000 tons to 10.075 million 
tons, to reflect larger than expected 
movement in May 

Projections of beet output for next 
year are higher, also, due to increased 
beet area forecasts. Total domestic pro- 
duction is expected to be 8.460 million 
tons, up 60,000 tons from last month's 
projections. Beet output is expected to be 
4.590 million tons, while cane output 
should be 3.870 million tons. Expected 
production in Louisiana is unchanged at 
1.4 million tons. 



The growth in production will be 
matched by increased consumption. 
Projections of domestic deliveries for 
next year are now 10.053 million tons, 
up 100,000 tons from last month's re- 
port. Forecasts of quota-exempt imports, 
including shipments for re-export and 
polyhydric alcohol, and of stuffed mo- 
lasses and high-duty sugar, are un- 
changed at 725,000 tons. 

WTO Confirms Damage to U.S. by 
European Ban on Beef Imports 

An arbitration panel of the World 
Trade Organization (WTO) has deter- 
mined that a European Union (EU) ban 
on imports of U.S. beef and beef prod- 
ucts has resulted in $116.8 million of 
damage to U.S. exporters. The finding 
will allow the U.S. to impose duties 
worth an equal amount on EU goods 
imported into the U.S. Shortly after the 
arbitration determination was released, 
the office of U.S. Trade Representative 
Charlene Barshef sky announced that the 
U.S. will impose 100% tariffs on a list of 
EU products with an annual trade value 
of $116.8 million. The Hst of affected 
products and other details concerning 
the tariff imposition will be announced 
later. 

The arbitration finding is the latest in 
a protracted dispute over a ban against 
imports into the EU of beef and beef 
products from animals treated with 
growth hormones. After years of nego- 
tiation failed to resolve its objections 
with the ban, the U.S. challenged the ban 
before a WTO dispute panel. That panel 
agreed with the U.S. that the ban was in 
violation of WTO rules. A WTO appel- 
late ruling confirmed the earlier dispute 
panel decision, and imposed a May 13, 
1999 deadline for EU compliance with 
WTO rules. The EU failed to meet the 
deadline. As a result, the U.S. could le- 
gally retaliate by imposing duties on EU 



goods equal to the amount of damage 
incurred by the EU violation. However, 
the two sides disagreed over the amount 
of damages. The U.S. claimed the ban 
had cost $202 million worth of damage, 
while the EU argued it cost only $53 
million. The arbitration panel was con- 
vened to resolve the disagreement. 

Ambassador Barshefsky noted that 
the U.S. had been forced to impose retal- 
iatory duties in response to a similar 
dispute with the EU regarding banana 
imports. 

In an unrelated trade matter. Presi- 
dent Clinton recently agreed with the 
domestic sheep industry in its Section 
201 case against imports of lamb meat 
from Australia and New Zealand, ac- 
cording to a release from Ambassador 
Barshefsky's office. Under U.S. trade 
law, a domestic industry may receive 
temporary relief from a surge in compet- 
ing imports if the International Trade 
Commission determines the imports 
have increased to an extent that they are 
a substantial cause of serious injury to 
the industry. Once such a determination 
has been made, the president may take 
action he thinks will help the industry 
make what is termed a "positive adjust- 
ment to import competition.'' A positive 
adjustment occurs when the industry is 
able to compete successfully with the 
imports or the industry experiences an 
orderly transfer of resources to other 
productive pursuits, and dislocated 
workers in the industry also make an 
orderly transition to other productive 
pursuits. 



Effective August 1, Don Wallace Asso- 
ciates, Inc. will move its offices from its 
present location to a site near Capitol Hill. 
The new offices will be at 499 South Capitol 
Street, S.W., Suite 600, Washington, D.C., 
20003. 



8 



PIKiTmu should be your base grass 
chemical for your herbicide program. 

PR^fiBWL is rated excellent for 

3.3 EC IwtMcMe 

seedling Johnsongrass, itchgrass, 
browntop panicum and annual grasses. 

Weed Control Rating Scale: 
Poor <49% Fair 50-60% Good 70-89% Excellent 90-100% 

PROWL Atrazine Sencore / Lexone Sinbar 

E Seedling Johnsongrass P G-E G-E 

G-E Itchgrass P P P 

G-E Browntop Panicum P F-G P 

E Annual Grass E E E 



Remember to apply your chemicals before grass emergence. 

Some growers are applying their herbicides behind the 
covering tool with one pass across the field. 



Sales Representatives 



(7 



Jerry Jack Ford Marc. A Grabert Alison Williams 

Alexandria, La. Baton Rouge, La. Maurice, La. 

(318) 445-8654 (225) 927-9331 (318) 984-8847 



Senear is a registered trademark of Bayer Corp. 

Sinbar and Lexone are registered trademarks ofDuPont. 



WEED CONTROL AT PLANTING 

Get an Early Jump on Itchgrass and Other Tough 
Weeds with PROWL Herbicide 

Growers are planting sugarcane earlier than ever. This can allow weeds to 
germinate and establish if fields are left untreated at the time of planting. 
Since itchgrass is an annual grass, it can be eliminated from your sugar- 
cane fields if you can stop if from producing seed. For best results, treat 
your fields with PROWL at planting, in the spring, and again at layby. 

Use PROWL as the base for your grass weed control program to control 
itchgrass, seedling johnsongrass, browntop panicum, and annual grass. 



Planted Sugarcane Fields: 




Preemergence Chemical Options: 






- Rate/Acre 36 Inch Band - 


Herbicides Light 


Medium - Heavy 


Tank Mixes Soil 


Soils 


(Itchgrass, Seedling Johnsongrass, Browntop Panicum, Annual Grasses, Morningglory, 


Wintergrass, and Winter Broadleaves.) 




1. 


PROWL 2 qts. 


2 qts. 




+Sinbar 2/3 lb. 


3/4 lb. 


2. 


PROWL 2 qts. 


2 qts. 




+Lexone/Sencor 3/4 lb. 


3/4 lb. 


3. 


Prowl 2 qts. 


2 qts. 




4-Atrazine 2 qts. 


2 qts. 


(Browntop Panicum, Seedling Johnsongrass, Annual Grasses, 


Morningglory, Wintergrass, 


and Winter Broadleaves.) 




1. 


PROWL 1.5 qts. 


1 .5 qts. 




+Sinbar 2/3 lb. 


3/4 lb. 


2. 


PROWL 1.5 qts. 


1 .5 qts. 




+Lexone/Sinbar 3/4 lb. 


3/4 lb. 


3. 


PROWL 1.5 qts. 


1 .5 qts. 




+Atrazine 2 qts. 


2 qts. 



Senear is a registered trademark of Bayer Corp. 

Sinbar and Lexone are registered trademarks ofDu Pont 

Prowl should be the 
tank mix partner 
for grass in your 
sugarcane weed 
control program. 




cr 



* AluHu/s read and follow label directions 



HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE 
SEEDLING JOHNSONGRASS 

TO TURN INTO 
RHIZOME JOHNSONGRASS? 

3 WEEKS! 




v Nfcfed- *:, 









^•^^p 




PROWL 2 QT./ACRE BANDED 

LOOKS GOOD 

BUT, A BROADCAST APPLICATION WOULD LOOK BETTER! 

BROADCAST APPLICATIONS OF PROWL CONTROL: 

• SEEDLING JOHNSONGRASS - 1 .5-2 QT./ACRE 

• ITCHGRASS - 3-4 QT/ACRE 

• BROWNTOP PANICUM - 1 .5-2 QT/ACRE 

• ANNUAL GRASS - 1 .5-2 QT/ACRE 



11 



L 



FARM NOTES 



BY Dr. Charley Richard 



1999 Crop Cane - Talkin' Trash - Borers - Smuggled Cane 



The crop has continued to grow 
well this summer with adequate 
rainfall in just about all areas of 
the cane belt. This is a very difficult crop 
to estimate for most growers and 
agronomists who travel the cane belt. 
That is simply because none of us are ac- 
customed to looking at a crop this mas- 
sive. The tonnage is out of the normal 
range that we generally see and most 
agronomists feel that many growers are 
probably underestimating their crop, 
simply because they are not used to 
evaluating that kind of tonnage. Besides 
the fact that there are about 450,000 acres 
estimated to be growing for sugar and 
seed, the tonnage will, at this point, 
probably exceed all previous state 
records. Last year's crop of 33.8 gross 
tons of cane per acre could be exceeded 
by some 10%, if growers' estimates are 
correct, and even more if they have un- 
derestimated their crop. However, as 
most industry members will agree, the 
gross yield of the last few years included 
more cane trash than this industry 
should be grinding for maximum effi- 
ciency. That is the subject of the next sec- 
tion and is vitally important if growers 
are to have any chance to make a profit 
this year! 

Last year, the industry produced 
over 13 million tons of gross cane and 
more than 1.26 million tons of sugar, raw 
value. These numbers should be sur- 
passed given any kind of normal harvest 
season. However, as all growers and 
processors know, it isn't made until it is 



"in the bag" and there are still a lot of 
opportunities for things to go wrong. 
Thus far, the crop has progressed well 
and the outlook is optimistic for a new 
state record, perhaps in excess of 1.4 mil- 
lion tons of sugar. 

Talkin' Trash 

The phrase "talkin' trash" probably 
means more to those who know a little 
about being on the basketball court; but, 
to those in the Louisiana sugar industry 
it should mean a lot more! Sometimes it 
is good to read what others have said on 
the subject. The following excerpts are 
from an earlier Sugar Bulletin article and 
were written about the Louisiana Indus- 
try. 

"...crop was the largest in the history 
of Louisiana in the point of tons of cane 
ground. It was also notable in that the 
yield of sugar in pounds per ton of cane 
handled was the lowest in our recent 
history.... It would appear from this that 
a study is in order to determine, if pos- 
sible, what has happened, why it has 
happened and what can be done about 
it... 

"It was realized by every person who 
gave any serious consideration to the 
matter that mechanization of our har- 
vest and the many bad practices that 
developed through its abuse, such as 
excessive trash and stale cane, were con- 
tributory causes to poor yields and high 
costs. The generally prosperous condi- 
tion of the mills created an impression 
that maybe such material could be pro- 



12 



cessed in spite of it.... 

"The problems which face the indus- 
try are not insurmountable. They can be 
solved without the investment of large 
sums of money. Their solution will re- 
quire the expenditure of energy, both 
mental and physical. The solution in- 
volves several major phases. First, fresh 
cane must be received at the mills and 
must be ground fresh. Second, cane 
must be delivered as free of trash as 
possible and properly topped. Third, 
harvest and grinding operations must 
be coordinated by mill management to 
prevent deterioration of cane after cut- 
ting.... 

"Cane will not be properly topped 
and cleaned so long as the grower finds 
it more profitable to do otherwise. Cane 
deliveries during wet weather fre- 
quently contain excessive amounts of 
soil. Some of this is the result of poor 
supervision of harvester operation... 
There is apparent in many factories a 
lack of information on the day to day 
and hour to hour harvesting operations 
of the factory's many shippers.... 

"All of these things can and must be 
done if the industry is to survive. The 
growers, from the smallest to the largest, 
must face this fact and decide whether to 
go forward or go broke. To continue 
along the present course is to abandon 
hope of survival. If the grower cannot 
produce cane at a profit under the condi- 
tions set forth, then it is time to find 
some other way to utilize the energy 
now wasted. Cane cannot be success- 
fully and economically cleaned at the 
mills, as the Hawaiian growers have 
decided after expending millions of dol- 
lars in an effort to solve this problem. It 
must be cleaned in the field.... harvesters 
are available which can, under Louisi- 
ana conditions, do a very satisfactory job 
of cutting and cleaning cane provided 
that they are properly operated. 



"In conclusion, the industry has, 
through force of circumstances, eased 
into a situation which now threatens to 
ruin its milling segment. This situation 
has continued during ... years because 
money was made in spite of the troubles. 
With present sugar and molasses prices, 
this is no longer possible. Most of our 
troubles can be solved by re-educating 
the industry to the necessity of process- 
ing clean, fresh cane." 

While this author wishes he had 
written these words of wisdom as they 
apply to the current situation this indus- 
try finds itself in, the words actually 
come from an article written by Arthur 
G. Keller, Professor with the Department 
of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana 
State University. It was published in 
May 1949, exactly fifty years ago to the 
year. At that time the industry was in a 
transition from a hand harvested /me- 
chanically loaded system to one that was 
entirely mechanical. Recoveries were 
dropping, trash content in delivered 
cane was increasing and financial mat- 
ters were worsening. It was not just a 
factory problem nor was it just a grower 
problem. It was an INDUSTRY CON- 
CERN. The scary part is that all of these 
issues are true today! 

There are some industry members 
who criticize the League because we 
sound too much like a factory represen- 
tative. Others say we take up too much 
for the growers. The fact is that the 
League represents both segments and, 
as staff members, we realize that both 
must survive and prosper if this indus- 
try is to declare itself efficient. Our posi- 
tion and our role is to make sure that 
both segments have the information 
they need. 

Certain facts should be considered. 
First, growers need the yield levels of 
LCP 85-384 to prosper and cannot afford 
to retreat to the yields of older varieties 



13 



in the future. To efficiently harvest sub- 
stantial acreage of this variety, this in- 
dustry will need combine harvesters. 
Some growers have had an easier time in 
the transition from soldier harvesters to 
combine harvesters since all it takes is 
money to purchase new equipment. 
Therefore, the transition from 0% com- 
bine harvested cane to more than 60% 
has taken only five years. The factory 
transition from whole stalk cane to billet 
cane has been more difficult. More than 
money, research and trials have been 
required to find the best methods to 
handle billets. Because of this, difficul- 
ties have arisen. Both segments, growers 
and processors, must understand the 
position that each other now finds itself 
in. 

The article by Dr. Keller should serve 
as a reminder that the challenges posed 
by mechanization are not insurmount- 
able. They can be overcome as they were 
fifty years ago. By working together this 
industry can adopt methods which pro- 
vide the proper incentives for cane de- 
liveries which can provide the most 
profitable situation for both growers and 
factories. While there are legal issues to 
be considered, it is imperative that each 
mill work with its shippers and adopt 
this kind of a program. Dr. Keller's ar- 
ticle should be looked at as a glass that is 
half full, not one that is half empty. We 
can overcome the challenges that cur- 
rently face this industry and take advan- 
tage of the yields offered by LCP 85-384. 

This year, in addition to the losses in 
sugar that are part of the trash problem, 
there is an additional situation that is 
especially troublesome. As has been re- 
ported in previous issues of the Bulletin, 
the industry has really "rolled the dice" 
on this crop. There will be more cane 
than can be ground in a normal length 
harvest season. We are gambling that the 
industry will not experience an early 



freeze. In 1976, the industry experienced 
a killing freeze in late November which 
caused cane to be abandoned in the 
field. If the industry were to experience 
a freeze of that magnitude at that same 
date, it may be that by mid-December, 
when cane could be too badly deterio- 
rated to produce sugar, there may still be 
30% of the crop in the field. Each percent 
reduction in trash in growers' deliveries 
to the factories will reduce the overall 
length of the harvest season. The goal 
should be a crop delivered as free of as 
much trash as possible which just might 
allow the industry to harvest the entire 
crop without any losses. 

Borers 

Because of the susceptibility of LCP 
85-384, the large amount of acreage of 
this variety, and the wet weather condu- 
cive to borer development, there has 
been considerable acreage treated al- 
ready this year. Of course, this was not 
unexpected since the susceptibility of 
this variety has been recognized since its 
release. However, growers are reminded 
at planting time to be careful where it is 
planted. Fields adjacent to schools, hos- 
pitals, subdivisions, etc. need to be 
planted to other, more resistant varieties 
whenever possible. With as much of 
each grower's acreage planted to LCP 
85-384, this becomes more difficult but 
should be accomplished whenever pos- 
sible. Also, growers should not do any- 
thing which might harm any of the natu- 
ral predators of the borer to help in con- 
trolling this insect. 

Smuggled Cane 

From time to time, the industry is 
reminded of the perils of growing vari- 
eties which have not been properly 
tested under Louisiana conditions. 

FARM NOTES, continue on page 20 



14 



THE BATON ROUGE 



BY Tom Spradley 
Spradley & Spradley 



Planting Political Seeds 



Two basic things about elections 
threaten sugar's position with 
the lawmakers. Every four years 
we elect new Senate and House mem- 
bers. If, for instance, an incumbent Sena- 
tor has been helpful to sugar growers in- 
terests during his term (or terms), any- 
one wishing to oppose him will take op- 
posite positions on controversial issues, 
such as burning or covered loads. 

It is not likely that an opponent who 
is going after an incumbent in a solid 
sugar area, such as Morgan City where 
sugar is an essential economic factor in 
everyone's lives, will make a lot of noise 
about these things and wind up being 
committed against our interests. But in 
districts like Lake Charles, where sugar 
is a new idea or in areas where sugar is 
of marginal economic impact, a legisla- 
tive challenger may decide that he can 
pick up some meaningful support if he 
attacks us. 

So every four years we face the pros- 
pect of losing a proven sugar advocate to 
someone who owes our detractors. This 
is a common concern for cotton, bean, 
and rice areas as well. Agri interests in 
Louisiana, just like all other states, are 
seeing their legislative clout erode 
slowly as urban and rural interests clash. 

Making this situation even worse is 



that reapportionment of all political dis- 
tricts must occur every ten years. As we 
approach the new decade all indications 
point to a continuation of the trend of 
population shift from rural areas to ur- 
ban areas. This does not bode well for 
sugar growers or mills. 

The best way to combat this erosion 
of agricultural clout is for farmers to be- 
come active in elections of our friends. 
This doesn't necessarily mean cutting a 
big check. Senators and Representatives 
appreciate campaign workers showing 
up to put up signs, hand out bumper 
stickers or help with rallies or meetings. 
Money is essential, however you are 
encouraged not to overlook your legisla- 
tive friends. 

This year your legislative team faced 
more adversarial legislative bills than 
any year in recent history. Nearly every 
issue that threatens us showed up in the 
state capital this year. 

You can never be sure of what that 
means but it would be a mistake not to 
expect an equal amount of heat in this 
summer's campaigns. 

Call your Senator and Representa- 
tive and see if you can help. Farmers 
know about planting a seed, about in- 
vestment in the future. It is time to plant 
some political seeds. 



15 



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16 



ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE 



BY James F. Coerver. P.E. 
G.E.C. Inc. 



Bagasse Boiler HAPs Emission Tests 



As reported in several recent is- 
sues of The Sugar Bulletin, the 
American Sugar Cane League 
(ASCL) financed the testing for hazard- 
ous air pollutants (HAPs) in the emis- 
sions from bagasse boilers at three Loui- 
siana sugar mills during processing of 
the 1998 cane crop. These tests were 
made at the request of a committee of 
technologists known as the Boiler Work 
Group (BWG), who were assisting the 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
(EPA) with its announced intention to 
rewrite, by Y2K, existing Federal Regu- 
lations for controlling emissions from in- 
dustrial, commercial and institutional 
combustion of fuels and nonhazardous 
solid wastes. Why EPA is revising rules 
that are already doing a good job of con- 
trolling air pollution is not easy to ex- 
plain. 

While Congress was working on the 
Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, envi- 
ronmentalists, with EPA's full support, 
alleged to Congress that all existing in- 
dustrial boilers emit enormous amounts 
of HAPs and are almost entirely unregu- 
lated. The allegation was made in spite 
of the fact that there was no scientific 
proof, and the cost of proving or dis- 
proving the allegation would be ex- 
tremely costly. 

While it is true that all fuel combus- 
tion boilers emit some HAPs, so do au- 



tomobiles, lawnmowers, outboard mo- 
tors and backyard barbecue pits. The 
allegation was simply a deception in- 
tended to paint industrial boilers such as 
bagasse boilers with the same brush 
used on boilers burning coal, hazardous 
waste, and municipal garbage contain- 
ing household and commercial pesti- 
cides. 

Environmentalists insisted to Con- 
gress that industrial boilers such as ba- 
gasse boilers be regulated as HAPs 
emission sources under either Section 
129 Rules as a solid waste incinerator or 
under Section 117 National Emission 
Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants 
(NESHAPS) Rules. Congress, though 
skeptical, did not want to appear insen- 
sitive to environmental concerns and 
simply directed that EPA investigate 
current rules pertaining to industrial 
boilers and, if necessary, revise them so 
as to assure compliance with NESHAPS. 
Under the Clean Air Act, NESHAPS 
Rules are supposed to be applicable to 
sources emitting 10 or more tons per 
year of any specifically listed hazardous 
air pollutant, or 25 or more tons per year 
of all HAPs combined. Subsequently, 
EPA established technical advisory com- 
mittees, including the BWG, to help with 
the enormous, difficult, and controver- 
sial task of rewriting these rules. 

The cane sugar industry was in for 



17 



trouble even before the advisory com- 
mittees convened. EPA packed all of the 
panels with "true believer" environmen- 
talists who had no interest in economics 
or technical data that conflicted with 
their pre-conceived notions. Even before 
committee work began, EPA indicated 
agreement with an environmentalists 
contention that bagasse was a "waste" 
and therefore bagasse boilers must be 
regulated as incinerators, meaning that 
bagasse boilers would have to meet the 
same standards as municipal garbage 
incinerators. Classifying bagasse boilers 
as incinerators would put sugar mills 
out of business. Fortunately, Federal law, 
previous Federal orders mandating that 
bagasse be used as boiler fuel, and an 
obvious threat of litigation caused a 
change of mind. More recently, it has 
been EPA's position that bagasse boilers 
must be regulated with other "biomass 
fueled" boilers under NESHAPS Rules. 

Although ASCL provided informa- 
tion to the BWG on bagasse boiler emis- 
sions indicating that total HAPs emis- 
sion from the largest sugar mills in Loui- 
siana could not possibly emit 10 tons per 
year of total HAPs, the data was rejected 
by EPA because the emission testing 
methods used did not identify the spe- 
cific HAPs emitted nor the amount, 
however small, of the specific HAPs 
present in bagasse boiler emissions. This 
caused the BWG to request that at least 
three Louisiana bagasse boilers be tested 
for HAPs during the 1998 grinding sea- 
son, using a pre-approved (and very 
expensive) stack testing protocol. The 
total bill for such testing work will have 
six figures in front of the decimal place. 

The good news is that all of the labo- 
ratory work on the 1998 bagasse boiler 
emission testing program is now com- 
plete, and the reports have been deliv- 
ered by the testing contractor. These re- 
ports indicate clearly that bagasse boil- 



ers at Louisiana sugar mills do not emit 
significant amounts of HAPs. Further- 
more, the test data indicates that during 
1998, all of the bagasse boilers in the 
State of Louisiana collectively emitted 
less than 10 tons per year of any one 
hazardous air pollutant, and less than 25 
tons per year total of all HAPs com- 
bined. 

The bad news is that EPA has al- 
ready disbanded the advisory commit- 
tees, probably because much of the com- 
mittee work was stymied by the intran- 
sigence of environmentalists installed 
by EPA. Our job is now to get the test 
information to EPA before draft rules 
are promulgated. However, even if EPA 
does not properly use the information, 
ASCL will be in an excellent position to 
challenge any proposed boiler rules that 
would impose unreasonable 
"NESHAPS" requirements on bagasse 
boilers that cannot possibly emit signifi- 
cant amounts of "HAPs." 



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New Roads, La. 
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Jeanerette, La. 
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Lemann's Farm Supply 
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18 



CLASSIFIEDS 


- F O R. S A L E 


• 1997 Cameco Combine, 1200 hrs., 


• 3 Cane Trailers, Cameco 2-row 


new tracks & undercarriage. All 


Harvester. Call Roland Bourgeois, 


repairs made, ready to cut. Call 


Vacherie at (225) 265-4452 (leave a 


NorthsidePltg. at (318) 828-2188. 


message). 


• 1972 Thompson Cane Cutter with 


• 1997 2-row LaCane Harvester (last 


large JD engine and front wheel 


2-row built), 375 hp, 4-wheel drive. 


assist - $5,000; 3-row Bottom Plow 


Call Gonsoulin Farms at (318) 364- 


with 3 pt. hitch and gauge wheels - 


5885. 


$400; 6' Case End Row Flat 




Chopper (parts only) - $1 00; 1 990 
Case/lntl. 5120 Maxum, 3490 hrs. - 
$22,500. Call Randy Gonsoulin at 


• 1983 Single-row Broussard 
Harvester, double ends & scroll, 
CAT 3208 engine, New 18-4-38 tires, 


(318) 365-0014. 


with pulling wheel, shredder topper - 




$20,000; JD 4840 with new trans & 


• JD 4455 MFWD, 4,842 hours; JD 


engine overhauled in '97 - $14,000; 


7400 Hi-Crop MFWD w/low profile 


856 Hi-Clearance Intl. - $2,500; 3- 


tank & rack, 4,900 hours; Intl. 1086 . 


\ row Bottom Type Plow Intl., heavy 


Hi-Crop w/tank & rack; 1 394 Case 


duty and gauge wheels - $3,500; 4- 


MFWD; 1993 Cameco CHT 2500 


row JD style with gauge wheels and 


Chopper Harvester; Broussard 


cyclers - $3,500; JD 4240, Hi- 


Single Row Harvester; 1981 


clearance 1981; 1 front mount 


Thompson Single Row Harvester; 


spray rig with 200-gal. tank - $100; 


(1) Quality Hi-Dump Wagon; (1) 


JD Disk Plow, heavy duty, 17' - 


Cameco Hi-Dump Wagon; (2) 


$2,000; Rolling Cultivator, Lilliston, 


Tandem Axle Transloader Wagons; 


4-row - $250; Rolling Cultivator, 


Midland 21 ' Disk w/hydraulic fold 


Lilliston, 3-row - $75; Intl. 3-row 


wings. Call (225) 937-0846 (day) or 


Chopper - $1 ,000; 3 one-row 


(225) 627-9577 (evenings - 6pm- 


shavers - best offer. Call Damiam 


9pm), ask for David Jarreau. 


Pierre at (318) 229-6932. 


• 1993 Cameco S30 4-wheel drive cane 


• Broussard Cane Loader with chain 


cutter, cab & air, excellent condition - 


pilar and backhoe; 3 Tandum Cane 


$45,000; J&L 4-wheel Drive Field 


Wagons with 60 ton Army Hitches, 


Loader, cab & air - $10,000; Drott 40 


extra wheels and hubs; 18-Wheeler 


Excavator, rubber tires, 4-wheel 


quick hitch on rear end with tongue 


drive, cane grab & bucket - $20,000. 


used to pull trailers. Call Russell 


Call Jimmy Jarreau at (225) 637- 
4873. 


Judice at (318) 394-4727. 




• 1985 2-row Broussard Cutter, cab & 


• JD 2750 Mudder; reconditioned 


air - $60,000. WILL TRADE FOR 


engine and hydraulic system - 


SINGLE-ROW CUTTER. Trailer for 


$10,000. Call (504) 233-0002 (pager) 


transporting cane combine - $6,000. 


or (225) 673-4583 (home). 


Call (318) 346-7385. 


• 8 - New 20x42 R-2 Firestone tires - 


• (2) 7-ton Hydraulic Hi-dump Cane 


$800 each 


Carts - $1 2,000 each; (4) 1 0-ton 


2-1995 Peerless Chip Trailer 42' - 


Hydraulic Hi-dump Cane Carts - 


$15,500 each 


$16,000 each; all (318) 876-3477. 


2 - 1 988 Peerless Chip Trailer 42' - 




$8,500 each 


• 2 sets of Direct Haul Carts, 24" tires 


Call (318) 879-7932 (W) leave mes- 


- $7,500 per set. Call Larry Braquet, 


sage. 


Loreauville at (318) 229-6073. 




CLASSIFIED, continue on page 20 



19 



CLASSIFIEDS 



continued from page 19 



1991 Barko Model 168, 6 cylinder 
Cummins engine, Rotobec Grapple, a/ 
c cab -$25,000; Intl. 6788, 1984 
Model 2+2 Tractor - $5,000; (8) Bayou 
Service Transloader Wagons - 
$2,500 each. Call Aucoin Farms, Inc. 
at (225) 687-9508, Donald at (225) 
687-2111, or Donald, Jr. at (225) 687- 
8100. 



FOR. S A 



• 1983 Cameco 2-row Harvester, JD 

engine, new hydraulics, field ready - 
$45,000; Broussard 1-row Loader - 

$20,000. Call (31 8) 346-2756 (noon or 
evenings) or (318) 346-2166 (eve- 
nings). 

• 100 Broussard S-83094 1-row Cane 
Cutter and an SP1 800-2 Cameco 

Loader, serial # 1887-20 - $40,000 for 
both. Call (318) 776-5776 (after 5 p.m. 
- ask for Bud). 



FARM NOTES, continued from page 14 

Unreleased varieties from our own vari- 
ety program as well as ''pretty varieties'' 
from other states or countries can carry 
and build up diseases and or insects 
which could later be devastating to this 
industry. This precaution is not given to 
keep anyone from growing something 
better and making you plant only variet- 



ies released through the cooperative 
endeavor of LSU, USDA and the 
League. It is offered for your own pro- 
tection and is not a matter to be taken 
lightly. If you know of someone who is 
growing varieties not officially released 
to the industry, they are putting you 
and your neighbors in jeopardy. Make 
sure they realize the seriousness of their 
actions. 



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20 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369, White Castle, LA 70788 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard, Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

P O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

441 E. Magnolia St., Eunice, LA 70535 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
P O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified Public Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

P O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

P O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
P O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

P O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
P O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibemia National Bank 

RO. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
P O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

(Specializing in Workman's Cornp 
and other Commercial Insurance) 
1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

P O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



Material Resources, Inc. 

PO. Box 1183, Port Allen, LA 70767 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

P O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, PO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Regions Bank 

PO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Rohm & Haas 

503 S. Michot Dr., Lafayette, LA 70508 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

P O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

P O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

P O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

P O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Youngsville, LA 70592 



The Sugar Bulletin 
206 E. Bayou Road 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 



SERIALS OEPT 

BATON ROUGE LA 70803 



NONPROFIT 
ORGANIZATION 

BULK RATE 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Thibodaux, La. 
PERMIT NO. 43 



Volume 77, No. 12 



September 1999 




Official Bulletin of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. 



>51^W^-' 





JEROME S 

"JERRY" 

McKEE 



KING 

SUCROSE 

LVII 



The Sugar IBullet 



The Official Organ of the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc. 

Charles J. Melancon/Editor, President and General Manager 

Charles A. Richard, Ph.D. /Vice President and Director of Research 

Windell R. Jackson /Senior Agronomist 

Herman Waguespack Jr. /Agronomist 

John Constant/Business Manager 

Nannette B. Nickens /Secretary 

Paul G. Borron Ill/Legal Counsel 



Washington Representative 

Don Wallace Associates Inc. 
499 South Capitol Street, S.W. 
Suite 600 

Washington, D.C. 20003 
Phone: (202) 331-4331 



Editorial and Executive Ojfice 
206 E. Bayou Rd. 
Thibodaux, LA 70301 
Phone: (504) 448-3707 
FAX: (504) 448-3722 



Washington Consultant 

The Macon Edwards Co. 

600 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Suite 320 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Phone: (202) 969-8110 



Baton Rouge Representative 
Spradley and Spradley 
7612 Picardy Suite L 
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 
Phone: (504) 766-1359 



Officers and Members of the Board of Directors of the American Sugar Cane League 



Warren Harang III, Donaldsonville, La. 

Chairman of the Board 
Jackie Theriot, St. Martinville, La. 

Vice Chairman 
Charles J. Melancon, Thibodaux, La. 

President and General Manager 
Charles A. Richard, Ph.D., Thibodaux, La. 

Vice President and Director of Research 



Don Wallace, Washington, D.C. 

Vice President of Government Relations 
Irving Legendre Jr., Thibodaux, La. 

Secretary 
Craig Caillier, Franklin, La. 

Treasurer 



Henry Adolph, Napoleonville, La. 

David AUain, Jeanerette, La. 

J. G. Beaud Jr., New Roads, La. 

Branar\ B. "Bert" Beyt, Jeanerette, La. 

Ronald Blanchard, Napoleonville, La. 

Grady Bubenzer, Bunkie, La. 

Michael Daigle, Belle Rose, La. 

Daniels "Dan" Duplantis, Raceland, La. 

John F. Gay, Plaquemine, La. 

Ronald Gonsoulin, New Iberia, La. 

Dean Gravois, Vacherie, La. 

George "Scrap" Hymel, Gramercy, La. 

Jackie Judice, New Iberia, La. 

Robert "Bobby" Judice, I-ranklin, La. 

Buckley Kessler, White Castle, La. 

Wilson LeBlanc, Jeanerette, La. 

A. J. "Brother" LeBourgeois, Baldwin, La. 

Lawrence "Boo" Invert III, St. Martinville, La. 

Chris Mattingly, Paincourtville, La. 

Jerome "Jerry" McKec, Thibodaux, La. 



Daniel Naquin, Thibodaux, La. 
Anthony Parris, New Iberia, La. 
Rivers Patout, Jeanerette, La. 
Kenneth Peltier, Thibodaux, La. 
Matthew "Butch" Plauche, Brusly, La. 
Glynn Rivet, Rosedale, La. 
R. L. "Bobby" Roane, Jeanerette, La. 
Howard Robichaux, Labadieville, La. 
Raphael Rodriguez, Franklin, La. 
Mel Schudmak, White Castle, La. 
Frank Sotile, Donaldsonville, La. 
David Stewart, Lakeland, La. 
Donald Segura, New Iberia, La. 
Charles Thibaut, Donaldsonville, La. 
Tommy Thibodeaux, New Iberia, La. 
Carlton Townsend, Bunkie, La. 
William Vallot, Abbeville, La. 
Daniel P. Viator, Youngsville, La. 
Kirk Walker, Welsh, La. 
Gerald E. Wood, St. James, La. 



ABOUT THE COVER. 



JEROME S. "JERRY" McKEE 

KING SUCROSE LVII 



'Jj 



5/J 



The Louisiana Sugar Cane Festival 
and Fair Association has announced that 
Jerome S. ''Jerry'' McKee of Thibodaux 
will reign as King Sucrose over the an- 
nual festival. This year's festival will be 
held in New Iberia, Sept. 23 - 26, 1999. 

McKee, a native of Spokane, Wash- 
ington, has lived in Thibodaux, LA since 
1975. He graduated from the University 
of Idaho with a Bachelor of Science de- 
gree in Architecture in 1967 and U.S. 
Navy Flight School in 1968. 

He served in the U.S. Navy as an of- 
ficer and carrier based attack pilot until 
1974. McKee moved to Thibodaux in 
January, 1975 to begin his farming career 
at Laurel Valley Plantation, where he 
continues to farm today . 

McKee is a member of the Board of 
Directors of the American Sugar Cane 



League, and was the 37th Chairman of 
the Board serving from March, 1995 to 
February, 1997. During his tenure on the 
Board, he has served on numerous com- 
mittees including Chairman of the Na- 
tional Legislative Committee. He has 
served as a Director on the Boards of 
Lafourche Sugars, Inc., Lafourche Parish 
Farm Bureau, Thibodaux Rotary Club, 
and the Thibodaux Chamber of Com- 
merce. 

He is married to the former Mina 
Coleman of Lake Providence, Louisiana. 
They have two children, Genevieve and 
Bill. Jerry enjoys his camp at Grand Isle, 
salt water fishing, is an avid skier and is 
involved in local historic preservation. 

The American Sugar Cane League 
congratulates Jerry on being selected 
King Sucrose LVIII. 



IS ISSUE 



up Front With the League 3 

by Charlie Melancon 

Washington Update 7 

by DonWallace 

Farm Notes 11 

by Dr. Charley Richard 

Smoke Management Guidelines for Sugarcane Harvesting 17 

Classifieds 19 



The Sugar Bulletin is published monthly by the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A. Inc., a nonprofit 

organization. Subscriptions are domestic $15 a year and foreign $50 a year 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Sugar Bulletin, 206 E. Bayou Road, Thibodaux, LA 70301 

The views and opinions expressed by columnists in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those 

of the American Sugar Cane League. Views and opinions expressed in advertisements in this publication are those of 

the advertiser and not necessarily those of the American Sugar Cane League. 



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up FRONT WITH THE LEAGUE 



BY Charlie Melancon 



Record Crop Expected to Eclipse Florida Industry 



I have been getting numerous calls 
from different newspapers and 
news services who are trying to get 
a handle on this year's sugar crop. NASS 
(National Agricultural Statistics Service) 
indicates that Louisiana will have at 
least 450,000 acres in sugarcane in 1999. 
This, for the first time in the state's his- 
tory, is believed to eclipse the total acre- 
age of the Florida industry. Additionally, 
the August WASDE places the crop at 
1,560,000 STRV. Now, we place our faith 
and hopes in the hands of mother nature 
and the good Lord. It is my sincere hope 
that everyone's planting went well and 
that your harvest season is a safe and 
prosperous one. Good Luck! 

Comment Letter to USDA 

The League submitted a comment 
letter, as requested by the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, as it regards the ad- 
ministration of the TRQ (Tariff Rate 
Quota). Additionally, we asked the mills 
to send in confirming letters of support 
as were other sectors of the domestic 
sugar industry. With Tier II sugar arriv- 
ing in the United States from Mexico 
during the upcoming year, coupled with 
the increased production in domestic 
sugar, the USDA is striving to maintain 
a viable and effective sugar program. It 
is going to be difficult in light of the fact 
that the Department doesn't have much 
flexibility with the "trigger," but I'm 



sure they'll work through this difficult 
time. 

National Farm Bureau Meeting 

During the sugar symposium held in 
California in early August, I had the 
opportunity to meet with Dean Kleckner 
who is President of the American Farm 
Bureau. This meeting was arranged by 
Jackie Theriot, and attended by League 
representatives, who are also members 
of the Louisiana Farm Bureau: Jackie, 
Vice-Chairman of the Board; Warren 
Harang, Chairman of the Board; Charles 
Thibaut, National Legislative Commit- 
tee Chairman; and Brian Breaux, Com- 
modity Specialist with the Louisiana 
Farm Bureau. Mr. Kleckner, being a Mid- 
westerner, has been very open and vocal 
about opening additional markets for 
foreign trade, while at the same time 
ignoring sanitary, phytosanitary, envi- 
ronmental and labor issues that should 
be a major concern of all American agri- 
culture in these upcoming trade rounds. 
The domestic sugar industry has taken a 
position of being supportive of free, but 
fair trade, and it is our hope that the rest 
of American agriculture that is in the 
export business will soon come to the 
understanding that just opening new 
markets, such as Cuba, does not neces- 
sarily gain new sales for their commodi- 
ties. It takes money to buy products in 
these foreign markets and the sugar 



industry's concern is that someone will 
be willing to barter some other country's 
sugar for import to the United States for 
allowing some grains into foreign coun- 
tries where no present market exist. 

The domestic sugar industry has 
made it quite clear to Mr. Kleckner and 
the U.S. Trade Representative's office 
that we are able to compete against for- 
eign sugar beet /sugar cane farmers and 
processors. We can document our com- 
petitiveness, but the playing field for 
trade must be level in order for us to be 
profitable and competitive. We will con- 
tinue to drive home that message as we 
move toward the Seattle round of the 
GATT this December. It is our hope that 
our government would allow us to be in 
close proximity to our negotiators dur- 
ing this next round so that we can com- 
municate to them most things that help 
or harm us. The obvious fear is that we 
will be treated as we were during the 




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NAFTA by not even being advised as to 
where trade negotiations are to be con- 
ducted. At the same time, during the 
NAFTA negotiations, representatives of 
the Mexican sugar industry were always 
within ear shot of their countries trade 
negotiators. 

SOMETIMES YOU JUST WONDER 
WHO IS THE ENEMY! 

While speaking of NAFTA and Trade 
Agreements, it has been confirmed that 
the person that handled the sugar nego- 
tiations in the NAFTA and who was re- 
sponsible for sugar in the original 
NAFTA Agreement has been terminated 
by the Commercial User who hired him 
after the negotiations were completed. I 
guess I should look at that as a good sign 
in that those people that may be looking 
at their positions as a stepping stone to a 
better job may realize that they too can 
be used and thrown away. That may 
sound harsh, but it is a reality. 




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to buy land or 
Improve your farm. 



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looking at ways to increase their 
productivity... buy or improve 
land... build new facilities. 

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your Land Bank Association can 

provide long-term credit to help. 

If you've got plans that need 
financing, see the people at the Land 
Bank Association to discuss our 
various loan options. 

Federal Land Bank Association 
of South Louisiana 



Opelousas 
(318) 942-1461 

Port Allen 
(225) 344-2691 



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WASHINGTON UPDATE 



BY Don Wallace 

Senate Suspends Marketing Assessment: 
Rejects McCain Amendment 



The Senate finished a hectic sum- 
mer before recessing for the an- 
nual August break by passing a 
$7,649 bilHon emergency disaster reUef 
package to assist farmers suffering from 
poor weather and low commodity 
prices. Included in the relief package 
was a provision suspending the special 
marketing assessment on sugar for FY 
2001-2002, for each of these years that 
follows a year in which there is a federal 
budget surplus. A budget surplus is ex- 
pected for each of the fiscal years re- 
maining in the life of the current farm 
bill. The total relief package was ap- 
proved as an amendment to the FY 2000 
agriculture appropriations bill, which 
passed by voice vote. Also during de- 
bate on the bill, the Senate soundly de- 
feated an amendment by Senator John 
McCain (R-AZ) to eliminate the sugar 
program for FY 2000. 

The vote on the McCain amendment 
came amid a tedious fight between Re- 
publicans and Democrats over the shape 
and size of a disaster relief bill. Ulti- 
mately, the Senate approved a package 
authored by Senator Thad Cochran (R- 
MS), Chairman of the Senate Agriculture 
Appropriations Subcommittee. In addi- 
tion to suspending the sugar marketing 
assessment, that package would: double 
the agriculture market transition 
(AMTA) payments to farmers by pro- 
viding $5.54 billion in additional money; 
offer $475 million in direct payments to 
soybean and minor oilseed producers; 
provide $325 million to the Secretary of 
Agriculture to assist livestock and dairy 



farmers; reinstate the cotton step-2 ex- 
port program; retain 1999 crop insur- 
ance premium discounts of $400 million 
for 2000 year crops; and, increase the 
current loan deficiency payment limit 
from $75,000 to $150,000. 

For FY 2000 appropriations, the Sen- 
ate accepted the companion House 
spending bill, passed earlier in the sum- 
mer, adding to it the Senate package as 
an amendment. 

The McCain amendment, which 
would prohibit the USDA from admin- 
istering the sugar program for FY 2000, 
met stiff opposition on the Senate floor 
when it was offered. Senators John 
Breaux (D-LA) and Mary Landrieu (D- 
LA) spoke out strongly against the at- 
tack, and urged the Senate to support 
sugar farmers, particularly at a time 
when farmers across the country needed 
help. Senator Larry Craig (R-ID), Senate 
Sweetener Caucus Co-Chairman with 
Sen. Breaux, led the fight against the 
McCain amendment for legislators from 
sugarbeet producing states. 

Originally, the McCain amendment 
included a provision that would con- 
tinue enforcement of the sugar market- 
ing assessment, despite its prohibition of 
the rest of the sugar program. Later, 
however, as the debate continued. Sen. 
McCain removed that provision, and 
asked for a vote on language that would 
effectively eliminate the entire program 
for the coming fiscal year. The 66-33 vote 
in favor of the sugar program was com- 
parable in margin to votes on the pro- 
gram taken in 1996, during consider- 



ation of the farm bill and FY 1997 Agri- 
culture Appropriations bill. Attempts 
during separate debates on those bills to 
kill or weaken the sugar program were 
defeated by 61-35 and 63-35 margins, 
respectively. 

House and Senate appropriators 
must now meet in conference to resolve 
differences between the two FY 2000 
agriculture appropriations bills. The sta- 
tus of their work will be included in next 
month's "Washington Update." 

Glickman Seeks Comment on FY 
2000 TRQ 

USDA Secretary Dan Glickman in- 
vited public comments on the adminis- 
tration of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQ) for 
sugar for FY 2000, and offered two pos- 
sible administrative options for dealing 
with low TRQ imports that could result 
in recourse loans. Comments received 
from the public will be used to help de- 
termine the size of the TRQ and the 
mechanism by which it is managed. 

Under the current system, in place 
for the last three fiscal years, the USDA 
establishes the TRQ by forecasting the 
supply and demand estimates for a year 
and calculating how much imported 
sugar would be needed to maintain a 
desired domestic stocks-to-use ratio 
level. The TRQ is set at the beginning of 
the fiscal year, and all but a certain 
amount is made immediately available 
for allocation, with the remaining 
amount held in reserve for allocation in 
equal tranches at three dates later in the 
year. If the stocks-to-use ratio at any of 
these junctures is equal to or less than 
15.5'X), a third of the amount in reserve is 
allocated at that time. If the stocks-to-use 
ratio for that month is above 15.5%, the 
tranche scheduled for allocation is can- 
celled, and the TRQ is effectively re- 
duced by the amount of the cancelled 
tranche. This process is repeated for 
each of the other two scheduled dates. 



So far, this system has resulted in a TRQ 
above the 1.5 million ton minimum level 
of TRQ imports required for the USDA 
to offer non-recourse loans. 

However, forecasts of domestic sup- 
ply and demand for the coming year 
depict a scenario in which the current 
methodology results in a TRQ below the 
1.5 million ton minimum import level. 
As alternatives to the current system, the 
USDA is considering two options that 
would maintain non-recourse loan 
availability. 

Under the first option, the stocks-to- 
use ratio trigger is increased in half- 
point increments from 15.5% to a level 
high enough to result in a TRQ greater 
than 1.5 million tons. Once the TRQ has 
been established, the USDA would 
make available for initial allocation that 
amount necessary to satisfy interna- 
tional trade commitments. The rest 
would be held in reserve for allocation 
in two equal tranches in March and May, 
according to the new stocks-to-use ratio 
trigger. 

Under the second option, the USDA 
would establish a TRQ 450,000 tons 
higher than the current desired stocks- 
to-use level would require, making 
available for initial allocation only that 
amount needed to achieve the desired 
stocks-to-use target, though not les^ 
than the minimum amount needed to 
satisfy international trade commit- 
ments. USDA will count only the raw 
sugar TRQ imports allocated to export- 
ers in the World Agricultural Supply 
and Demand Estimates (WASDE), 
rather than the announced TRQ. The 
remaining 450,000 tons will be held in 
reserve for allocation in three equal 
tranches in January, March, and May. At 
each of those times, the USDA will add 
the relevant tranche to that month's 
WASDE forecast. If the resulting stocks- 
to-use ratio is equal to or less than 15.5%, 
the USDA will make that 150,000 ton 



tranche available for allocation. If the 
stocks-to-use ratio is above 15.5%, that 
tranche will be cancelled. 

A decision by USDA regarding these 
options, and the establishment of the 
IRQ for FY 2000, is expected in mid-Sep- 
tember. The results of that decision will 
be included in next month's '"Washing- 
ton Update.'' 

August WASDE Forecasts Higher 
Production 

The USDA has released its WASDE 
report for August, raising its expecta- 
tions for domestic production by 295,000 
short tons over last month's estimates. 
Total domestic output is now expected 
to reach 8.755 million tons for the com- 
ing year. 

Projected cane output should be up 
260,000 tons, to a total of 4.130 milHon 
tons, with Louisiana production respon- 
sible for 160,000 tons of the increase. 
Total Louisiana production is projected 
to reach 1.560 million tons. Output in 
Florida also should increase 100,000 tons 
to a total of 2.125 million tons. 

Beet production is estimated to reach 
4.625 million tons, up 30,000 tons from 
last month's forecast. Expected non-TRQ 
imports have been lowered from last 
month's estimate of 260,000 tons to 
125,000 tons, due to a smaller difference 
between domestic and Mexican prices. 
Projections of total domestic use are now 
at 10.250 million tons, unchanged from 
last month's report. 

House Agriculture Committee 
Approves Crop Insurance Bill 

The House Agriculture Committee 
has completed work on a bill to reform 
the federal crop insurance program, af- 
ter months of intense hearings and re- 
view of the current system. The bill 
seeks to increase farmer participation by 
expanding the level of coverage offered, 
improve the effectiveness of program 



administration by directing the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture to increase monitor- 
ing and auditing of the program, and 
encourage innovation by reorganizing 
the Federal Crop Insurance Corp. 

Led by Chairman Larry Combest (R- 
TX) and Ranking Member Charles 
Ster\holm (D-TX), the Agriculture Com- 
mittee crafted a bill that would provide 
nearly $6 bilUon, for FY 2001-2004, for 
the improved coverage assistance and 
administration costs. 

Updates on the progress of this leg- 
islation will be included in future re- 
ports of the "Washington Update." 

EPA Limits Use of Azinphos Methyl 

The Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA) recently announced new 
limits on the use of azinphos methyl and 
methyl parathion, two of the oldest, 
most widely used chemical compounds. 
Allowable residues for azinphos methyl 
on a wide variety of produce has been 
significantly lowered, while specific use 
of methyl parathion on a wide range of 
crops has been eliminated altogether. 

ASA Symposium a Big Success 

The American Sugar Alliance (ASA) 
recently hosted the 16th Annual Sweet- 
ener Symposium in Napa Valley, Cali- 
fornia. Senator Breaux delivered a rous- 
ing address to the Symposium, capping 
three days of panel discussions and 
speeches concerning many important 
issues facing the sugar industry. Among 
the topics covered were the changing 
dynamics of the domestic market, as 
well as the future of the sweetener trade 
in the Western Hemisphere. 

It will be my great pleasure to serve 
as chairman of the ASA for the next 
twelve months. We have many serious 
issues to tackle in the next year, and 
must continue efforts with our beet and 
cane brethren to speak with a strong and 
unified voice. 



Raisin' Cane 




• 18-month LA sugar mill calendar. 

• 1 aerial photo taken of each mill 
during the 1998-99 grinding season. 

• Brief history of each mill. 

• Collectors' item - Limited edition. 

Cost is $12 U.S. + $3.50 U.S. shipping. 

Please send check or 

money orders payable to: 

Louisiana Safety Consultants 

311 Willow Wood Dr. 

New Iberia, LA 70563 

1-318-369-6600 



EQUIPMENT FOR SALE 

1985 Kobelco 907C Excavator 
with new undercarriage, sprockets 

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condition. Price cut from $40,000 to 

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1978 Mack Truck. 100% Rubber 

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NURSERY, INC. 

NEW IBERL\, LA 

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10 



FARM NOTES 



BY Dr.. Charley Rjchard 



Crop Report - Burning BMPs 
Diseases in LCP 85-384 



As of this writing on August 17, 
the crop continues to look excel- 
lent in most fields and above 
average in just about all areas. Even in 
fields that over the years are tradition- 
ally poor yielding, stands and crop 
height look good at this point. While the 
National Agricultural Statistics Service 
(NASS) has predicted over 450,000 total 
acres, FSA records indicate that there are 
over 463,000 acres planted to sugarcane. 
With the expected 1999 tonnage and 
hopefully more normal maturity than 
last year's crop, the industry could pro- 
duce more than last year's production of 
1,263,000 tons of sugar and perhaps 
even exceed the 1997 crop of 1,275,000 
tons of sugar. Of course, there are still 
hurricanes and freezes to contend with 
and as they say, the crop is not made 
until it is in the bag. However, the crop 
certainly has the potential to reach a new 
record for the Louisiana sugar industry. 
More than 50% of the 1999 crop acre- 
age is planted to LCP 85-384. Also, con- 
tributing to the high yields are the good 
stands of cane in older stubble fields. 
More stubble is being kept this year in all 
varieties. Even stubble fields of CP 70- 
321 look good this year, which is prob- 
ably due to the mild winters experi- 
enced the last few years. This is not 
normal and growers should not fall into 
the trap of thinking that this many 



stubble acres are the norm. It was only a 
few years ago after a more normal win- 
ter, growers would stand on the head- 
land and look 20 feet down the row be- 
fore seeing a shoot and wondering 
whether they should keep the field or 
not. Those kind of years will return. This 
should not be considered a pessimistic 
view, but rather a realistic one. 

With the large amount of older 
stubble this year, there is the smallest 
fallow acreage in many planting sea- 
sons. This will require a smaller than 
normal seed acreage which means more 
of the total acreage for harvest for sugar. 
Much of what is being planted is LCP 
85-384 which has such a large popula- 
tion that fewer acres of seed cane are 
required. This will also contribute to a 
larger acreage for harvest for sugar than 
is normally the case. 

Planting is progressing well for most 
growers. Some are nearly completed 
while smaller growers have not yet 
started. Rains have interrupted most 
growers at least once already in their 
attempt to plant their crop. Rain may 
have slowed down the planting opera- 
tion, but it has at least sealed in the rows 
on the earlier planted material. Since the 
crop has stood up fairly well, most of the 
acreage planted to date has been whole 
stalk, while a few growers have again 
gambled on billet planting. 



I I 



Growers are always reminded that 
the planting operation is not completed 
until a satisfactory job of applying pre- 
emerge herbicides is finished. Only by 
protecting the planted crop from weeds 
will growers get the most potential from 
their planted acreage. The Cooperative 
Extension Service has the publications to 
provide you with the best recommenda- 
tions for weed control programs for 
your own particular set of problems. 
Follow these recommendations in order 
to get the highest yields and the most 
economic return from your planting in- 
vestment. 

Some exceptionally high yielding 
fields lodged as early as June with many 
others falling in July as summer thun- 
derstorms brought rain and wind. How- 
ever, much of this cane righted itself 
quickly. Cane that is falling now in Au- 
gust is taking longer to right itself and is 
generally leaving a bigger crook in the 
stalk than cane which lodged earlier. 
Some fields have now fallen several 
times and stalks have a few curves in 
them already. This is certainly the earli- 
est date at which lodging has been expe- 
rienced in the industry. 

With the anticipation of a large sug- 
arcane crop, most factories have decided 
upon a starting date that will be the ear- 
liest in their history. The earliest factories 
to start will be on September 15, with 
most all factories anticipating a start 
prior to October 1. As an industry, this is 
the earliest on record. With the tall crop 
that is now seen, the industry will still 
need to rely on Polado and satisfactory 
weather conditions for ripening if nor- 
mal starting levels of sugar per ton are to 
be seen. Polado is being applied to some 
fields as this article is being prepared. 

Burning BMPs 

Each year, a set of Best Management 
Practices for cane burning is published 



in the Sugar Bulletin and is made avail- 
able to all growers through their factory. 
This year we have again prepared these 
recommendations. They provide infor- 
mation to you that will not necessarily 
eliminate smoke drift and ash fallout, 
but should help farmers to better com- 
municate with the non-farming public 
about the practice of cane burning, both 
on the heap and in unharvested fields. 
Growers and processors should take 
these BMPs seriously and follow them 
as closely as possible. 

Diseases In LCP 85-384 

As growers put more and more pres- 
sure on LCP 85-384, everyone will get 
nervous about some disease causing 
yield or stubble problems with it. It is 
already known that it is susceptible to 
diseases like Yellow Leaf Syndrome, al- 
though the industry has not experienced 
yield problems from it. In the last few 
weeks, reports have been received re- 
garding suspicious looking areas in 
some fields. Several of these reports 
have been thought to be lightning dam- 
age, but others are more mysterious in 
nature. Pathologists have been taking 
samples from these areas which for the 
most part appear to be roughly circular 
in area, about 15' across. Cane stalks 
appear to have dead hearts without any 
severe evidence of borer injury. Tops 
tend to be dried out and the leaves are 
yellow and sometimes dying. Some 
leaves may also appear frazzled. Grow- 
ers should rest assured that scientists are 
looking closely into these problems as 
the importance of maintaining a long life 
for LCP 85-384 is realized. These prob- 
lems are in no way occupying any sig- 
nificant area nor are they seen on very 
many farms. However, scientists want to 
protect this variety as best they can and 
get ahead of potential disease problems 
before they become serious. 



12 



DOES IT REALLY MATTER? 




Some farmers may not think it matters where they huy their Hi-Dump Wagons. 

YES, it really does make a difference for those who plan to stay in husiness here in 
Louisiana. When you choose to purchase Hi-Dump wagons from QUALITY INDUSTRIHS, you 
are choosing to KEEP EQUIPMENT PRICES DOWN. Quality Industries is a competitive company 
that has been involved in the sugarcane industry for over 50 years. 

Our recent focus on billet cane transportation needs resulted in the production of e(|uipment 
exceeding the industry's standards, while keeping prices reasonable. 

As we continue to strive towards excellence, we hope that the increased PERFORMANCE, 
EFFICIENCY AND DURABILITY in our products will continue to help both the mill and 
individual farmers better their bottom line profits. 

We want to sincerely thank all of you who have been supporting Quality and those who 
continue to place their trust and confidence in us. It is greatly appreciated. 






''For Proven Performance & Durability 
FOLLOW THE LEADER! 



Tony CoIIinson 



£fMGAMH INDUSTRIES, INC. 
(504) 447-4021 • (800) 447-8403 • (504) 447-4028 - Fax 



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16 



Smoke Management Guidelines 
for Sugarcane Harvesting 



Practices that affect open field 
burning of sugarcane, whether in 
heaps of cane cut by soldier har- 
vesters or standing fields to be cut by 
chopper harvesters, have been widely 
discussed over the past few years. There 
are a number of long term research top- 
ics which attempt to address possible 
remedies to the cane burning issue. In 
the meantime, growers should have a re- 
sponsible attitude toward environmen- 
tal and public issues while attempting to 
be as efficient as possible in sugar pro- 
duction. There are several objectives 
which growers should always strive to 
achieve. Among them are delivering the 
freshest, cleanest cane supply to the fac- 
tories as possible, minimizing the effect 
of smoke caused by open field burning 
in the atmosphere, preventing smoke 
from being blown across public high- 
ways and airports, preventing smoke 
from affecting public areas (especially 
public health areas such as hospitals, 
nursing homes, etc.), preventing smoke 
from affecting schools during days and 
times when students/teachers are 
present, preventing smoke from affect- 
ing subdivisions and other housing es- 
tablishments, and, last but not least, 
minimizing any ash fallout that may re- 
sult from field burning. 

Growers should concentrate on 
smoke management through the use of 
recommended prescribed burning prac- 
tices. Prescribed burning can be defined 
as the controlled application of fire to 
sugarcane fields under such weather 
conditions that allows the fire to be con- 
fined to a predetermined area and, at the 
same time, produce the desired result of 
trash reduction in the delivered cane 



supply. Smoke management can be de- 
fined as conducting a prescribed fire 
under weather conditions and with 
burning techniques that keep the 
smoke's impact on the environment and 
the public within acceptable limits. 

In order to accomplish these goals, 
some recommendations which could be 
considered as best management prac- 
tices are listed below. These practices 
should be considered as voluntary 
guidelines that will allow the industry to 
better manage smoke from open field 
burning of sugarcane. 

1. Identifying sensitive areas and 
other impacted areas adjacent to or 
within sugarcane farms. Awareness of 
where people, buildings, utility struc- 
tures, and highways are located that 
could be negatively affected by open 
field burning is the first step toward ef- 
fective smoke management. People who 
have health problems that live in areas 
potentially affected by open field burn- 
ing should be identified before the har- 
vest season even begins. This requires 
effective communication between grow- 
ers and the public that surround the 
farm. When burning cane heaps har- 
vested by soldier machines, the fire nor- 
mally does not contain much particulate 
matter (ash). However, in the hotter fires 
on standing cane for harvest with com- 
bine harvesters, rising ash, that later falls 
out, can be a problem. Determination of 
downwind sensitive areas that could be 
affected by burning standing fields is 
important to help reduce the impact that 
suspended particles may have when 
they fall out of the atmosphere. 

2. Awareness of daily weather pre- 
dictions, particularly wind velocity 



17 



and direction. Growers should take all 
available steps to become aware of ap- 
proaching frontal systems and changing 
wind direction in order to effectively 
manage smoke resulting from open field 
burning. In addition to television, radio 
and weather station forecasting, satellite 
weather systems are individually avail- 
able. Many mills now have satellite sys- 
tems which offer up to date information 
on approaching weather systems. 

3. Burning only during acceptable 
times and weather conditions. Wind 
direction, wind velocity and air tem- 
perature inversion layers drastically af- 
fect smoke management. Since cane 
fields are almost never burned during 
the early morning hours as a result of 
dew and wet leaves, morning weather is 
not of great concern. However, many 
growers like to burn cane late in the af- 
ternoon and temperature inversions of- 
ten occur on many days of the harvest 
season. Normally, air temperature de- 
creases with height. However, when a 
temperature inversion occurs, upper air 
temperatures are higher which prevent 
smoke from rising. The smoke then 
drifts laterally. This can impact high- 
ways, residences and public areas. 
Growers should certainly avoid burning 
in the late afternoon in these sensitive 
areas. The ideal time to burn cane 
should be between 10:00 am and 4:00 
pm. Wind direction and velocity, along 
with predicted changes, should be noted 
before fields are even harvested. 

4. Record-keeping. A daily log of 
field burning, including acreage burnt, 
wind direction and other weather condi- 
tions should be kept. This may be unnec- 
essary in areas that do not affect the 
public. However, in sensitive areas, this 
type of daily logging could be of great 
assistance to you in the event a com- 
plaint is filed. 

5. Knowledge of power lines, sub- 



stations, and gas lines. Open field 
burning, especially burning of uncut 
fields prior to chopper harvesting, 
should be carefully undertaken when 
power/ gas lines or substations are 
present in the field. Fire can destroy 
wood (creosote treated) utility poles and 
cause disruption of electrical service 
when smoke /soot envelops utility lines. 
To minimize the problem, areas around 
wooden poles should be kept as free of 
weeds as possible and cane should not 
be grown immediately adjacent to the 
poles. The area around the poles and 
under power lines should be cut green 
when practical or else the field back 
burned from the side of the field con- 
taining the utility lines. As with any sen- 
sitive area, a water tank should be in the 
immediate area and the person respon- 
sible for the burn should remain until 
the burn is completed. Special consider- 
ation should be given to transmission 
lines which carry significantly more 
electricity than distribution lines. 

When substations are adjacent to 
cane fields, soot from burning cane as 
well as green trash blown from combine 
extractor fans can cause serious prob- 
lems. Communication with the utility 
company personnel and back burning 
around the facility should be practiced. 
When combine harvesting, extractor fan 
hoods should be turned in the opposite 
direction to avoid cane trash (burnt or 
green) from being blown into the sta- 
tion. Substations should also be treated 
as a sensitive burn area. 

A plan of action should be available 
when burning around any utility struc- 
ture or facility in the event of a crisis 
situation. 

6. Classification of "no-burn" 
fields. Certain small areas, due to their 
extreme sensitivity, should be consid- 
ered fields that will never be able to tol- 

SMOKE, continue on page 20 



18 



CLASSIFIEDS 



FOR SALE 



• 100 Broussard S-83094 1-row Cane 
Cutter and an SP1 800-2 Cameco 
Loader, serial # 1887-20 - $40,000 for 
both. Call (318) 776-5776 (after 5 
p.m. - ask for Bud). 

• 1972 Thompson Cane Cutter with 
large JD engine and front wheel 
assist - $5,000; 6' Case End Row 
Flat Chopper (parts only) - $100; 
1990 Case/lnt'l 5120 Maxum, 3490 
hrs. - $22,500. Call Randy Gonsoulin 
at (318) 365-0014. 

• JD 4455 MFWD, 4,842 hours; JD 
7400 Hi-Crop MFWD w/low profile 
tank & rack, 4,900 hours; Int'l 1086 
Hi-Crop w/tank & rack; 1394 Case 
MFWD; 1993 Cameco CHT 2500 
Chopper Harvester; 1981 Thompson 
Single Row Harvester; (1) Cameco 
Hi-Dump Wagon; (2) Tandem Axle 
Transloader Wagons; Midland 21' 
Disk w/hydraulic fold wings; (3) 
Motorola SP50 Portable Radio's w/ 
chargers; 1986 Peterbuilt, 425 Cat, 
15speed, 64" sleeper, aluminum 
wheels, air ride, wet kit. Call (225) 
937-0846 (day) or (225) 627-9577 
(evenings - 6pm-9pm), ask for David 
Jarreau. 

• 3 Tandem Basket Wagons - $4,500 

each. Call (504) 369-7788. 

• 1985 2-row Broussard Cutter, cab & 

air -$60,000. WILL TRADE FOR 
SINGLE-ROW CUTTER. Trailer for 
transporting cane combine - $6,000. 
Call (318) 346-7385. 

•20 -New 16.9x28 R1W tires; 
20 -New 16.9x30 R1W tires; 

$495 each. Call (318) 879-7932 (W) 
leave message. 



• 1993 Cameco S30 4-wheel drive 
cane cutter, cab & air, excellent 
condition - $45,000; J & L 4-wheel 
Drive Field Loader, cab & air - 
$10,000; Drott 40 Excavator, rubber 
tires, 4-wheel drive, cane grab & 
bucket - $20,000. Call Jimmy Jarreau 
at (225) 637-4873. 

• 1983 Single-row Broussard 
Harvester, double ends & scroll, CAT 
3208 engine. New 18-4-38 tires, with 
pulling wheel, shredder topper - 
$20,000; JD 4840 with new trans & 
engine overhauled in &lsquo;97 - 
$14,000; 856 Hi-Clearance Int'l - 
$2,500; 3-row Bottom Type Plow 
Int'l, heavy duty and gauge wheels - 
$3,500; 4-row JD style with gauge 
wheels and cyclers - $3,500; JD 
4240, Hi-clearance 1981; 1 front 
mount spray rig with 200-gal. tank - 
$100; JD Disk Plow, heavy duty, 17' 

- $2,000; Rolling Cultivator, 
Lilliston, 4-row - $250; Rolling 
Cultivator, Lilliston, 3-row - $75; Int'l 
3-row Chopper - $1,000; 3 one-row 
shavers - best offer. Call Damiam 
Pierre at (318) 229-6932. 

• Broussard Cane Loader with chain 
pilar and backhoe; 3 Tandum Cane 
Wagons with 60 ton Army Hitches, 
extra wheels and hubs; 18-Wheeler 
quick hitch on rear end with tongue 
used to pull trailers. Call Russell 
Judice at (318) 394-4727. 

• 1991 Barko Model 160-A, 6 cylinder 
Cummins engine, Rotobec Grapple, 
a/c cab - $25,000; (8) Bayou 
Service Transloader Wagons - 

$2,500 each. Call Aucoin Farms, Inc. 
at (225) 687-9508, Donald at (225) 
687-2111, or Donald, Jr. at (225) 687- 
8100. 



19 



CLASSIFIEDS 



• 2 sets of Direct Haul Carts, 24" tires 

- $7,500 per set. Call Larry Braquet, 
Loreauville at (318) 229-6073. 

• 1997 2-row LaCane Harvester (last 
2-row built), 375 hp, 4-wheel drive. 
Call Gonsoulin Farms at (318) 364- 
5885. 



OR SALE 



• 3 Cane Trailers; Cameco 2-row 
Harvester. Call Roland Bourgeois, 
Vacherie at (225) 265-4452 (leave a 
message). 

• 1997 Cameco Combine, 1200 hrs., 
new tracks & undercarriage. All repairs 
made, ready to cut. Call Northside PItg. 
at (318) 828-2188. 



SMOKE, continued from page 18 

erate open field burning. Those growers 
using combine harvesters can cut them 
green. Growers using soldier harvesters 
will have to make arrangements with 
the factory to accept these fields un- 
burned. 

7. Training and equipment. Grow- 
ers should make every attempt to pro- 
vide education and training to their 
employees who may be undertaking the 
day-to-day burning operations. A thor- 
ough explanation of the goals and rec- 
ommendations will certainly help these 
employees understand the importance 
of smoke management. Additionally, it 
should be emphasized that cane fires 
should not go unattended and that per- 
sonnel responsible for the fire should be 
constantly aware of the burn status. 
Proper equipment should be provided 
to those responsible parties, including a 
water tank to help control and confine 
the burn. 

In order to maximize these best man- 
agement practices, an effective commu- 
nication network between the factory, 
growers, and public must be main- 
tained. The League will do its best to 
provide information with regard to cane 
burning issues. Growers and processors 
should work with the public in a non- 
confrontational manner and adopt an 
attitude that will encourage communi- 



cation with those that potentially may be 
affected by the cane smoke. 

This industry's ability to burn sugar- 
cane is still an important economic fac- 
tor in its survival. Until technology is 
proven that will allow for economically 
efficient harvesting without burning, it 
is important that growers and proces- 
sors do the best job possible with regard 
to smoke management. Louisiana is not 
the only industry facing this challenge. 
Every industry recognizes that reducing 
or eliminating open field burning is one 
of the most important research topics 
facing the future of the world's sugar 
industry. 

With Louisiana's changing harvest 
system, there is still concern for the 
proper method of handling the trash 
remaining with combine harvesters. 
Research has been undertaken to study 
whether this trash mat can be effective iii 
controlling weeds, providing nutrients 
and organic matter, and conserving 
moisture and top soil. This research also 
hopes to find the most effective tech- 
niques for handling the trash layer to 
achieve maximum utilization. In the 
meantime, many growers, concerned 
about stand losses under the trash mat, 
have indicated they intend to burn this 
trash later in the year. The same manage- 
ment practices should be followed for 
this secondary burn as in burning stand- 
ing fields. 



20 



Commercial Members 

OF THE 

.MERicAN Sugar Cane Leaguie of the 



S.A. Inc. 



American Cyanamid 

P. O. Box 40431, Baton Rouge, LA 70835 

Bank of Commerce 

P. O. Box 369, White Castle, LA 70788 

Bayou Fabricators 

65225 Quality Road, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Bayer Corporation 

300 Legacy Dr., Pineville, LA 71360 

Broussard, Bush & Hurst, Inc. 

11764 Haymarket Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 

CAMECO Industries, Inc. 

P O. Box 968, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Cane Equipment Cooperative, Inc. 

25265 Hwy 1 South, Plaquemine, LA 70764 

Case IH 

441 E. Magnolia St., Eunice, LA 70535 

CoBank 

Jackson Region, 1800E County Line Road 
P O. Box 16099, Jackson, MS 39236 

Dravo Lime Company 

Pelican State Division 

12797 Scenic Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

Duplantier, Hrapmann, Hogan, & Maher 

Certified Public Accountants 

1340 Poydras St., Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 

70112 

Estes Refractory 

P O. Box 94, Jeanerette, LA 70544 

Federal Land Bank Association 

P O. Box 432, Opelousas, LA 70571 
P O. Box 1208, Port Allen, LA 70767 

First South PCA 

P O. Box 667, Thibodaux, LA 70302 
P O. Box 10908, New Iberia, LA 70562 

Gulf Engineers & Consultants, Inc. 

9357 Interline Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70809 

Hibernia National Bank 

PO. Box 3597, Baton Rouge, LA 70821 
P O. Box 819, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Louisiana Commerce & Trade Assn. 

(Specializing in Workman's Comp 
and other Commercial Insurance) 
1010 Florida Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70802 

Louisiana National Security Bank 

P O. Box 108, 420 Mississippi St. 

Donaldsonville, LA 70346 

12328 Hwy 44, Gonzales, LA 70737 



Material Resources, Inc. 

PO. Box 1183, Port Allen, LA 70767 

Monsanto 

17522 Sugar Mill Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70817 

M&L Industries 

1210 St. Charles St., Houma, LA 70360 
3811 Hwy 90 East, Broussard, LA 70518 
5810 Airline Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70805 

M.J. Naquin, Inc. 

205 Arms St., Thibodaux, LA 70301 

Nadler, Inc. 

P O. Box 359, Plaquemine, LA 70765 

Ouachita Fertilizer 

3714 Old Spanish Trail E., New Iberia, LA 70560 

Quality Industries 

118 W. Main, PO. Box 406, Thibodaux, LA 70302 

Regions Bank 

PO. Box 11240, New Iberia, LA 70562-1240 

Rohm & Haas 

503 S. Michot Dr., Lafayette, LA 70508 

St. Mary Bank & Trust Co. 

P O. Box 587, Franklin, LA 70538 

Self Insurance Administrators 

P O. Box 81189, Lafayette, LA 70598-1189 
A Member Company ofHuval Insurance Group 

Southern Agribusiness Association 

5560 Frontage Road, 1-55 South, Suite B, 
Jackson, MS 39212 

Southland Truck Center, Inc. 

421 W. Railroad, Church Point, LA 70525 

Spectra-Physics Laserplane 

703 Fragala, Rayville, LA 71269 

Standard Supply & Hardware Co., Inc. 

P O. Box 60620, New Orleans, LA 70160 

3-D Chemical, Inc. 

P O. Box 607, St. Martinville, LA 70582 

Westway Trading Corp. 

365 Canal St., Suite 2200, New Orleans, LA 70130 

Whitney National Bank 

228 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70130 

Zeneca Ag Products 

131 Ashford Lane, Youngsville, LA 70592 



5/17/2012 

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